Yamaha TMAX

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Yamaha TMAX
1st Generation Yamaha XP500 TMAX
ManufacturerYamaha Motor Company
Also calledXP500
Engine499 cm3 (30.5 cu in) Liquid-cooled 4-stroke DOHC parallel-twin
Bore / stroke66 mm × 73 mm (2.6 in × 2.9 in)
Compression ratio10.0:1 for model years 2001-2003,
11.0:1 for model years 2004-2011
Top speed100 mph (160 km/h)[1]
Power29.4 kW (39.4 hp) at 7,000 rpm,[2]
32.6 kW (43.7 hp) at 7,500 04-07[3]
32.0 kW (42.9 hp) at 7,500 08-11[4]
Torque45.8 N⋅m (33.8 lbf⋅ft) at 5,500 rpm,
47.6 N⋅m (35.1 lbf⋅ft) at 6,250 04-07
45 N⋅m (33 lbf⋅ft) at 6,500 08-11
Ignition typeTCI
TransmissionV-Belt Automatic CVT
Frame typeTubular steel 2001-2007,
Die cast aluminum 2008-2011[5]
SuspensionFront: Telescopic fork,
120 mm (4.7 in) travel
Rear: Swingarm with monoshock,
120 mm (4.7 in) travel 2001-2007,
116 mm (4.6 in) travel 2008-2011
BrakesF: Single 282 mm (11.1 in) disc,
dual 267 mm (10.5 in) discs 04-11
R: Single 267 mm (10.5 in) disc
TiresF: 120/70-14 2001-2003,
 120/70R14 2004-2007,
 120/70R15 2008-2011
R: 150/70-14 2001-2003,
 160/60R15 2004-2011
Rake, trail28° 95 mm (3.7 in) 2001-2007,
25° 92 mm (3.6 in) 2008-2011
Wheelbase1,575 mm (62.0 in) 2001-2007,
1,580 mm (62 in) 2008-2011
DimensionsL: 2,235 mm (88.0 in) 2001-2007,
 2,195 mm (86.4 in) 2008-2011
W: 775 mm (30.5 in)
H: 1,410 mm (56 in) 2001-2007,
 1,445 mm (56.9 in) 2008-2011
Seat height795 mm (31.3 in) 2001-2007,
800 mm (31 in) 2008-2011
Weight217 kg (478 lb) 2001-2003,
225–230 kg (496–507 lb) 04-07,
221–225 kg (487–496 lb) 08-11 (wet)
Fuel capacity14 l (3.1 imp gal; 3.7 US gal) 01-07,
15 l (3.3 imp gal; 4.0 US gal) 08-11
Turning radius2.8 m (9 ft 2 in)
Footnotes / references
Yamaha TMAX 530cc
Yamaha TMAX 2011 Tokyo Motor Show.jpg
4th Generation Yamaha XP500 TMAX
ManufacturerYamaha Motor Company
Also calledXP500, XP530
Engine530 cm3 (32 cu in) Liquid-cooled 4-stroke DOHC parallel-twin
Bore / stroke68 mm × 73 mm (2.7 in × 2.9 in)
Compression ratio10.9:1
Power34.2 kW (45.9 hp) at 6,750 rpm,[10]
33.8 kW (45.3 hp) at 6,750 2017-[11]
Torque52.3 N⋅m (38.6 lbf⋅ft) at 5,250 rpm,
53.0 N⋅m (39.1 lbf⋅ft) at 5,250 2017-
Ignition typeTCI
TransmissionV-Belt Automatic CVT
Frame typeExtruded and die cast aluminum
SuspensionFront: Telescopic fork,
120 mm (4.7 in) travel
Rear: Swingarm with monoshock,
116 mm (4.6 in) travel 2012-2016,
117 mm (4.6 in) travel 2017—
BrakesF: Dual 267 mm (10.5 in) discs
R: Single 282 mm (11.1 in) disc
TiresF: 120/70R15 , R: 160/60R15
Rake, trail25° 92 mm (3.6 in) 2012-2016,
26° 98 mm (3.9 in) 2017—
Wheelbase1,580 mm (62 in)
DimensionsL: 2,200 mm (87 in)
W: 775 mm (30.5 in) 2012-2016,
 765 mm (30.1 in) 2017—
H: 1,420–1,475 mm (55.9–58.1 in),
1,420–1,555 mm (55.9–61.2 in) DX
Seat height800 mm (31 in)
Weight217–221 kg (478–487 lb) 2012-14,
219–229 kg (483–505 lb) 2015-16,
213–216 kg (470–476 lb) 2017- (wet)
Fuel capacity15 l (3.3 imp gal; 4.0 US gal)
Turning radius2.8 m (9 ft 2 in)
Footnotes / references

The Yamaha TMAX (or T-Max) series of maxi-scooters has been manufactured by Yamaha Motor Company for the European market since its debut at July 2000 press events in Naples, Italy and Iwata, Japan,[15] combining motorcycle performance with the convenience and flexibility for commuting of a scooter.

When it was introduced, the 500cc TMAX engine was the largest (and most powerful) ever used in a production scooter.[16] Yamaha enlarged the engine to 530cc for 2012 and subsequent models. The most recent TMAX redesign, with the model designation XP530, is for the 2017 model year. This model includes D-Mode which lets the rider select a sportier engine running mode for more thrilling performance.[17] Yamaha used the designation XP500 for all previous model years; more than 233,000 TMAX scooters have been sold in Europe.[18]

Notwithstanding the fact that the TMAX was Yamaha's second maxi-scooter, the first being the YP 250 Majesty introduced in 1996,[15] motorcycle journalist Kevin Ash said that the "T-Max is the machine that invented the maxi-scooter class in 2001."[19] The development team received a 2001 Good Design Award (Japan) gold prize for the original TMAX,[20][21] and Yamaha's design studio won a Red Dot award for product design on the 2012 TMAX.[22]

The maxi-scooter used by Mohamed Merah in the Toulouse and Montauban shootings was a Yamaha TMAX and it, in turn, became instrumental in the police search for the gunman.[23]


Following the 1996 success of Yamaha's first maxi-scooter, the YP 250 Majesty, in Europe (and especially in Italy) Yamaha began work on a "New European Commuter"[15] a larger-displacement scooter-type concept. Their objective was to create a maxi-scooter suitable for high-speed motorways, such as the German Autobahn system or the Autostrade of Italy, and better suited to European physiques than the Majesty (designed for the Japanese market).[15]

Marketing strategy for the TMAX targeted three groups of riders: existing scooter riders; owners of middleweight motorcycles; and new or returning riders who would want scooter simplicity combined with automotive luxury. Yamaha estimated there were millions of holders of full motorcycle licenses in Europe no longer riding any kind of two-wheeler.[16][24]

TMAX rolled-out as a hybrid, combining motorcycle and scooter traits. In order to cope with the power of a larger engine, the TMAX swingarm was the kind found on motorcycle, rather than incorporating the swingarm and engine into a single unit, as on conventional scooters. Yamaha bolted the engine to the frame, but much farther forward, arriving at the weight distribution of a typical motorcycle. Although it was a step-through design, TMAX was built around a motorcycle-type tubular steel frame instead of a U-section pressed steel monocoque frame, as was the case on most scooters.[25][26]

TMAX designers chose a novel engine configuration: a water-cooled four-stroke horizontal straight-twin (both cylinders pointing forward) with four valves per cylinder operated by dual overhead cams. Engine vibrations were offset not by a balance shaft but by reciprocating balancer (i.e., a third 'dummy' piston driven from a central crankpin). By comparison, transmission design was the norm for scooters: a twist-and-go automatic transmission.[1]

Model history[edit]

The 2000 launch of the first generation TMAX in Europe was followed by a second generation 2004 model with performance and handling improvements. The third generation TMAX, a major revision, was introduced in Europe for the 2008 model year.[27] This was the first version to be sold in North America, starting with the 2009 model year.[28][29]


The initial TMAX was produced for three model years, 2001 to 2003, with no significant changes.


Engine upgrades for the 2004 model year included replacing the twin carburetors with fuel injection, and raising the compression ratio, to boost horsepower and torque. In front, the original 38 mm diameter fork tubes were enlarged to 41 mm, and dual discs replaced the original single disc brake; ABS was available. A parking brake mechanism was added to the rear disk. Radial tires were fitted to both ends, and rear wheel size grew to 15 inch instead of 14 inch. A tachometer was added to the instrument panel. Minor styling changes included new paint colors, including a BLACK MAX special edition for 2006.[30][31][25]

3rd Generation XP500 TMAX, the 2010 WHITE MAX special edition


The 2008 model had new bodywork and a lightweight cast aluminum frame instead of the original tubular steel frame. The 2nd generation 41 mm diameter fork tubes were further enlarged to 43 mm, and front wheel size grew to 15 inch instead of 14 inch. Fuel tank capacity increased from 14 to 15 liters (3.1 to 3.3 imperial gallons; 3.7 to 4.0 U.S. gallons).[32][33][34]

To mark the tenth anniversary of the TMAX roll-out, Yamaha produced a WHITE MAX special edition for 2010.[35][36]

4th Generation TMAX rear wheel, showing hydraulic brake caliper and parking brake mechanism on disc


The fourth generation TMAX had a redesigned body and powertrain. Cylinders were bored-out by 2 mm, increasing displacement to 530cc.[19] Other engine modifications included a newly designed pent-roof combustion chamber and a reworking of the fuel injection. The continuously variable transmission and final drive system were redesigned; the previous chain drive enclosed in an oil-bath (attached to one side of the swingarm) was replaced by a belt drive with a separate die-cast aluminum swingarm.[37][38][39]


Front suspension was revamped on the fifth generation TMAX with an upside down (inverted) telescopic fork with radial-mounted brake calipers.[40][41] Bodywork received modest styling updates.[42] Yamaha also produced an IRON MAX special edition.[43]

2017 to 2019—[edit]

Chassis and bodywork updated. TMAX offered in 3 versions: standard, SX and DX. All versions have an electronically controlled throttle and a traction control system. SX and DX versions have switchable power modes; the DX version also has cruise control and an electrically adjustable windscreen as well as keyless ignition (the electronic key must be near to the bike). In early 2020 the 530 was discontinued and the 560 launched in its place.[44][45]


  1. ^ a b Ash, Kevin (12 December 2000). "Happy hybrid". The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 August 2017. Central to the Tmax's 'unique' claim is its engine, a 500cc, twin-cylinder four-stroke producing 40bhp, which, the theory goes, expands the Tmax's repertoire way beyond that of traditional scooters.
  2. ^ a b "TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS T-MAX ABS - 2001". Design Café. Yamaha Motor Europe. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  3. ^ a b "TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS T-MAX ABS - 2004". Design Café. Yamaha Motor Europe. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  4. ^ a b "TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS T-MAX ABS - 2008". Design Café. Yamaha Motor Europe. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  5. ^ a b "2008 TMAX: lighter and sleeker with new chassis". Design Café. Yamaha Motor Europe. 28 September 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  6. ^ XP500 OWNER'S MANUAL 5GJ-28199-EV (PDF). Japan: Yamaha Motor Co. May 2001. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  7. ^ XP500/XP500A OWNER'S MANUAL 5VU-28199-E1 (PDF). Japan: Yamaha Motor Co. July 2004. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  8. ^ XP500/XP500A OWNER'S MANUAL 4B5-28199-E2 (PDF). Japan: Yamaha Motor Co. June 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  9. ^ "YAMAHA PRESS INFORMATION". Global News Center. Yamaha Motor Co. 24 October 2001. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  10. ^ a b "TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS T-MAX / ABS - 2012". Design Café. Yamaha Motor Europe. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  11. ^ a b "TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS T-MAX / ABS - 2017". Design Café. Yamaha Motor Europe. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  12. ^ XP500/XP500A OWNER'S MANUAL 59C-28199-E1 (PDF). Japan: Yamaha Motor Co. June 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  13. ^ XP500/XP500A OWNER'S MANUAL 2PW-28199-E1 (PDF). Japan: Yamaha Motor Co. August 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  14. ^ XP530E-A/XP530-A/XP530D-A OWNER'S MANUAL BV1-28199-E0 (PDF). Japan: Yamaha Motor Co. October 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d "It's A Whole New World!" (PDF). Yamaha News. Iwata: Yamaha Motor Co., Public Relations Division. 4: 1–3. 1 August 2000. Retrieved 8 August 2017. The world's most advanced maxi scooter, the 500cc TMAX makes its debut.
  16. ^ a b Glenn Le Santo (12 July 2000). "When Worlds Collide". Motorcycle.com. Toronto: VerticalScope Inc. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  17. ^ "Yamaha TMAX 530 SX". www.bikebiz.com.au. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  18. ^ "TMAX: Master of scooter". Yamaha Design Cafe. Yamaha Motor Europe N.V. 17 March 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  19. ^ a b Ash, Kevin (22 July 2012). "Yamaha T-Max review". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  20. ^ "Good Design Gold Prize / Product Category / Personal Use Group". G Mark. Japan Institute of Design Promotion. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  21. ^ "Scooter [YAMAHA TMAX(XP500) 5GJ4]". G Mark. Japan Institute of Design Promotion. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  22. ^ "TMAX : Design Products & Projects, Motorbikes". Red Dot 21. Red Dot GmbH. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  23. ^ Irish, John (22 March 2012). "French 'gunman' trapped by email, bike". Reuters. Retrieved 6 August 2017. …it was only after that attack that the man realized the significance of Merah re-spraying his 500cc Yamaha T-Max from black to white.
  24. ^ Marmar, Shubhabrata (21 May 2003). "Yamaha XP 500". Business Standard Motoring. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  25. ^ a b Callaghan, Pete (19 December 2006). "Maxi Scooter Group Test". Twowheels Scooter Magazine. Alexandria, New South Wales: FPC Power Media. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  26. ^ "The scooter with an identity crisis". Motor Cycle News. December 2000. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  27. ^ "Yamaha TMAX". Motor Scooter Guide. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  28. ^ McDermon, Daniel (13 June 2008). "Maybe the Mongols Should Go to Oakland". New York Times. Retrieved 9 August 2017. Confirming an earlier rumor, Yamaha will bring its 499-cc T-Max scooter to the United States, giving scooterists another big-engine option (in addition to Honda's Silver Wing maxi scooter).
  29. ^ Carpenter, Susan (5 December 2008). "Scooters may steal show". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 August 2017. Products that were created for foreign markets are making their way to the U.S. Those include the Kawasaki ER-6n motorcycle and Yamaha TMAX scooter, both of which were introduced in Europe in the last three years.
  30. ^ Wheeler, John (2 August 2006). "A pleasant way to scoot about Tech Spec". The Irish Times. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  31. ^ "Reborn with fuel injection and radialtires front and rear". Global News Center. Yamaha Motor Co. 9 September 2003. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  32. ^ Nikolic, Trent (18 March 2008). "Yamaha XP500 TMAX Review". Twowheels Scooter Magazine. Alexandria, New South Wales: FPC Power Media. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  33. ^ Stein, John L. (January 2009). "2009 Yamaha Tmax Scooter Road Test". Rider Magazine. Camarillo, California: EPG Media, LLC. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  34. ^ Gabe Ets-Hokin (4 December 2009). "2009 Yamaha TMAX Scooter Review". Motorcycle-USA.com. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  35. ^ Newbigging, Chris (8 October 2009). "10th Anniversary Yamaha TMAX WHITE MAX". Motor Cycle News. Retrieved 9 August 2017. Technically the scooter is the same 500cc parallel twin as the 2008/2009 model, but comes in white with anodised aluminium detailing and the wheels are titanium-colour with polished rims.
  36. ^ Ash, Kevin (21 April 2010). "Yamaha TMax review". The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 August 2017. It's 10 years since Yamaha created a new and improbable niche with the innovative TMax.
  37. ^ "World's hottest new motorcycles unveiled in Milan". USA Today. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2017. Scooters are huge in Europe and Yamaha's TMAX is a big, 530cc machine that can compete with many sport bikes on twisty backroads.
  38. ^ Baker, Ped (29 December 2011). "Yamaha T-Max packs punch but not practicality". Motor Cycle News. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  39. ^ Abrahams, Dave (2 April 2013). "Yamaha TMax is a very smooth mover". Independent Online. Cape Town: Independent News and Media. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  40. ^ Williams, Don (15 April 2015). "2015 Yamaha TMax Review - A Motorcyclist's Scooter". Ultimate Motorcycling. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  41. ^ Carpenter, Susan. "TMAX scooter can more than keep up". Orange County Register. Retrieved 9 August 2017. With its larger engine, brakes and upside-down telescopic fork emulating the technologies of sport-oriented motorcycles, the TMAX also borrows from cars. The headlights are LEDs. There is a power outlet to plug in a phone or other mobile device embedded in the fairing.
  42. ^ Edge, Dirck (9 September 2015). "2015 Yamaha TMAX: MD Ride Review". MotorcycleDaily.com. Temecula, California: Enhance Partners, LLC.
  43. ^ Hodgson, Kris (21 November 2016). "2016 Yamaha TMax 530 'Iron Max' Review". BikeReview.com.au. JP Media Pty Ltd. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  44. ^ Milbank, John (25 April 2017). "Launch ride: 2017 Yamaha TMAX DX". MoreBikes. Mortons of Horncastle. Retrieved 9 August 2017. The new TMAX was launched in Cape Town alongside the MT-10 SP and Tourer Editions. To some of the UK journalists, the scooter was a side-note, but for the French there on the same day, the 530cc small-wheeled machine was what they'd really come for.
  45. ^ Child, Adam (25 February 2017). "Yamaha's new TMAX ridden". Motor Cycle News. Retrieved 9 August 2017. Yamaha's big scooter has always been the sportiest of the bunch, and a favourite on the continent by some margin, but now the TMAX has matured.