Yamal (satellite constellation)

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For other uses, see Yamal (disambiguation).

Yamal (Russian: Яма́л) is a communication and broadcasting system developed and operated by Gazprom Space Systems. Born out of the connectivity needs of the natural gas extraction giant Gazprom, the system was spun off in its own company, and opened the network to third parties and even went into the public broadcasting industry. It is, along with RSCC's Ekspress constellation, the only national satellite operators in Russia.[1]

History[edit]

During 1997, even before the launch of their first satellites (Yamal 101 and Yamal 102), Gazkom was planning the second generation. At that time they planned a 24 satellites of the second generation. This extremely aggressive plan was scaled back by 2001 with a plan to launch four 200 series satellites. The first two, Yamal 201 and Yamal 202 would be launched by 2001 and the second pair, Yamal 203 and Yamal 204 by 2004. Yamal 201 and Yamal 203 would be identical and be positioned at the 90°E slot and Yamal 202 and Yamal 204 would also be twins and be positioned at the 49°E slot.[2][3][4]

Yamal 101 and Yamal 102 were launched together on September 6, 1999 at 16:36 UTC from Baikonur Site 81/23 by a Proton-K/Blok-DM-2M directly to GEO.[5][6] But a failure in the electrical system at solar panel deployment meant that Yamal 101 was lost right after the successful launch.[4][7] Thus, Gazkom registered Yamal 102 as Yamal 101. This has caused significant confusion but the records are clear that the satellite that failed was, in fact, the original Yamal 101.[4][8]

Yamal 201 and Yamal 202 were launched on November 24, 2003 at 16:2 UTC from Baikonur Site 81/23 by a Proton-K/Blok-DM-2M directly to GEO.[9] The launch and satellite deployment was successful and both were commissioned into service.[10]

By 2007 the program delays made Gazkom move to the Yamal 301 and Yamal 302 project, cancelling both Yamal 203 and Yamal 204. Those were more advanced versions of the spacecraft they would have to replace.[4][11] But by early 2008 Energia and Gazkom enter into a disagreement over the cost and schedule of Yamal-301 and Yamal-302, which was even submitted to arbitrage. In the end the contract with Energia is cancelled and a new Yamal-300K is hastily ordered from ISS Reshetnev for a 2009 launch date.[12]

In February 2009, Gazprom Space Systems announced a contract with Thales Alenia Space for two satellites: Yamal-401 and Yamal-402.[13] This was the first time a foreign supplier would build a satellite for internal Russian market. After much lobby from local industry, the contract for the bus and integration of Yamal-401 is cancelled and awarded to ISS Reshetnev, but Thales is allowed to keep the payload supply.[14][15]

On August 9, 2010 it was decommissioned and sent to a graveyard orbit. The satellite lasted 4079 days (11 years 2 months), a bit short of the design life of 12.5 years.[5][16]

Yamal 300K was launched along Luch 5B November 2, 2012 at 21:04 UTC from Baikonur Site 81/23 by a Proton-M/Briz-M directly to GEO.[17] The launch and satellite deployment was successful and Yamal 300K was commissioned into service.[18][19]

On December 8, 2012 13:13:43 UTC a Proton-M/Briz-M launches Yamal-402 to a geostationary transfer orbit.[20] The same day, Khrunichev Center and International Launch Services reported an anomaly during the launch in which the Briz-M stage failed 4 minutes before scheduled shut down on its fourth burn.[21][22] On December 10, specialists from Thales Alenia Space carried out maneuvers to bring the satellite into its designated orbit after a premature separation from Briz-M.[23] On 15 December 15, Yamal-402 was taken to its planned geostationary orbit at the altitude of 36,000 km following a series of four adjustment operations.[24] The satellite lost 4 years of fuel to compensate for lower than expected orbit injection.[25]

In 2013 Gazprom Board decides a new plan. It requires two new spacecrafts: Yamal-501 and Yamal-601.[26] It also calls for a new seven spacecraft observation constellation of optical and radar low-earth orbit satellites called SMOTR.[27] And also requires for Gazprom Space Systems to develop its own satellite design and manufacturing capabilities.[26]

In 2014 Gazprom announces a contract with Thales Alenia Space for a new spacecraft, Yamal-601.[28]

On June 5, 2014 Yamal 201 failed and the clients had to be moved to other satellites of the network. The satellite lasted 3846 days (10 years 6.5 months), short of the design life of 12.5 years.[16][29][30]

On December 15, 2014, at 00:16:00 UTC a Proton-M/Briz-M launches Yamal-401 directly to geostationary orbit. The launch is successful and the spacecraft is accepted into service.[31]

In 2015 history would repeat itself and the contract of Yamal-601 with Thales is cancelled is assigned to ISS Reshetnev, but Thales is allowed to keep the payload supply, again.[32]

Yamal Satellite Series[edit]

While initially Gazkom used RSC Energia as exclusive supplier and planned for a 24 bird constellation, after the

Satellite Bus Payload Order Launch Launch Vehicle Intended Orbit Launch Result Launch Weight Status Remarks
Yamal 101 RSC Energia
USP
Space Systems/Loral N/A 1999-09-06 Proton-K/Blok-DM-2M GEO Success 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) Failed at separation Dual launch with Yamal 102. Failed at separation.[2][3][6][7][8]
Yamal 102 RSC Energia
USP
Space Systems/Loral N/A 1999-09-06 Proton-K/Blok-DM-2M GEO Success 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) Retired on August 9, 2010 Dual launch with Yamal 101.[2][3][6][7]
Yamal 201 RSC Energia
USP
Alcatel Space 2001 2003-11-24 Proton-K/Blok-DM-2M GEO Success 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) Failed on June 5, 2014 Dual launch with Yamal 202. Failed on orbit[4][7][10][11][29][30][33][34]
Yamal 202 RSC Energia
USP
Alcatel Space 2001 2003-11-24 Proton-K/Blok-DM-2M GEO Success 1,320 kg (2,910 lb) Operational Dual launch with Yamal 201[4][7][11][33][35][36][37]
Yamal-300K Ekspress-1000HTA 2009 2012-11-02 Proton-M/Briz-M GEO Success 1,870 kg (4,120 lb) Operational Launched along Luch 5B.[18]
Yamal-402 Spacebus-4000C3 Thales Alenia Space 2009 2012-12-08 Proton-M/Briz-M GEO Partial failure 5,250 kg (11,570 lb) Operational Satellite lost 4 years of fuel to compensate for lower than expected orbit injection.[22][25]
Yamal-401 Ekspress-2000 Thales Alenia Space 2010 2014-12-15 Proton-M/Briz-M GEO Success 2,976 kg (6,561 lb) Operational [13]
Yamal-501 N/A N/A Planned N/A N/A Planned N/A Planned [26]
Yamal-601 Ekspress-2000 2015 Planned: 2018 Proton-M/Briz-M GEO Planned: 2018 N/A Planned: 2018 [32]
Yamal 203 RSC Energia
USP
Alcatel Space 2001 Cancelled Proton-K/Blok-DM-2M GEO Cancelled 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) Cancelled [4][7][10][11][38]
Yamal 204 RSC Energia
USP
Alcatel Space 2001 Cancelled Proton-K/Blok-DM-2M GEO Cancelled 1,320 kg (2,910 lb) Cancelled [4][7][11][35][38]
Yamal 301 RSC Energia
USP
NEC Toshiba Space/Tesat Spacecom 2003 Cancelled Proton-M/Blok DM-03 GEO Cancelled 1,330 kg (2,930 lb) Cancelled [7][12][38][39]
Yamal 302 RSC Energia
USP
NEC Toshiba Space/Tesat Spacecom 2003 Cancelled Proton-M/Blok DM-03 GEO Cancelled 1,330 kg (2,930 lb) Cancelled [7][12][38][40]
Yamal-401 Spacebus-4000C3 Thales Alenia Space 2009 Cancelled Proton-M/Briz-M GTO Cancelled 4,900 kg (10,800 lb) Cancelled [13]
Yamal-601 Spacebus-4000C4 Thales Alenia Space 2014 Cancelled Proton-M/Briz-M GTO Cancelled 5,700 kg (12,600 lb) Cancelled [28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About Company". Gazprom. Retrieved 2016-07-22. 
  2. ^ a b c Pillet, Nicolas. "Yamal/Historie/Nécessité de renouvellement" [Yamal/History/The necessity of renewal]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  3. ^ a b c Pillet, Nicolas. "Yamal/Historie/La plate-forme universelle" [Yamal/History/The universal platform]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Pillet, Nicolas. "Yamal/Historie/Premier tir, premier revers" [Yamal/History/The first setbacks]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  5. ^ a b Pillet, Nicolas. "Proton-K 6 septembre 1999" [September 6, 1999 Proton-K]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  6. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 101, 102". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zak, Anatoly (April 21, 2016). "Yamal communication satellites". RussiaSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  8. ^ a b "Yamal 101". Satbeams. Retrieved 20 July 2016. 
  9. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Proton-K 24 novembre 2003" [November 24, 2003 Proton-K]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  10. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 201, 203". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Pillet, Nicolas. "Yamal/Historie/La deuxième génération" [Yamal/History/The second generation]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  12. ^ a b c Pillet, Nicolas. "Les Yamal-300" [The Yamal-300]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  13. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 202, 204". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  14. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 202, 204". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  15. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Yamal-400 : le succès français" [Yamal-400 the French success]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  16. ^ a b "Universal Space Platform". RSC Energia. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  17. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Proton-M 2 novembre 2012" [November 2, 2012 Proton-M]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  18. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 300K". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  19. ^ Zak, Anatoly (April 21, 2016). "Yamal 300K". RussiaSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  20. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Proton-M 8 décembre 2012" [December 8, 2012 Proton-M]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  21. ^ "ILS Declares Proton Launch Anomaly". ILS. 8 December 2012. 
  22. ^ a b Bergin, Chris (8 December 2012). "ILS Proton-M launches with Yamal-402 satellite". NASA Spaceflight. 
  23. ^ "Thales Makes Second Attempt to Adjust Yamal Orbit". RIA Novosti. 10 December 2012. 
  24. ^ "Troubled Russian Satellite Reaches Designated Orbit". RIA Novosti. 15 December 2012. 
  25. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 402". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  26. ^ a b c "New Projects". Gazprom. Retrieved 2016-07-22. 
  27. ^ "SMOTR". Gazprom. Retrieved 2016-07-22. 
  28. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 601". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  29. ^ a b "Russian satellite failure leads to channels move". DigitalTVEurope.NET. June 9, 2014. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  30. ^ a b Todd, David (June 10, 2014). "Yamal 201 may have failed in orbit as customers are moved to other satellites". Seradata Space Intelligence. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  31. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Proton-M 15 décembre 2014" [December 15, 2014 Proton-M]. Kosmonavtika (in French). Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  32. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 601". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  33. ^ a b Zak, Anatoly (March 9, 2016). "Proton missions in 2003". RussiaSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  34. ^ "Yamal 201". Satbeams. Retrieved 20 July 2016. 
  35. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 202, 204". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  36. ^ "Yamal-202 technical performance". Gazprom Space Systems. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  37. ^ "Yamal 201". Satbeams. Retrieved 20 July 2016. 
  38. ^ a b c d Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2015-10-16). "RKK Energiya: USP (Victoria)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  39. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 301". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  40. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-17). "Yamal 302". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 

External links[edit]