Yami language

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Yami
ciciring no Tao
Native toTaiwan
EthnicityYami
Native speakers
3,800 (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3tao
Glottologyami1254[2]
Linguasphere31-CAA-a
Yami is located in Taiwan
Yami
Yami
Orchid Island in Taiwan
Yami is located in Southeast Asia
Yami
Yami
Yami (Southeast Asia)
Coordinates: 22°03′N 121°32′E / 22.050°N 121.533°E / 22.050; 121.533Coordinates: 22°03′N 121°32′E / 22.050°N 121.533°E / 22.050; 121.533

Yami (Chinese: 雅美), also known as Tao (Chinese: ), is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Yami people of Orchid Island, 46 kilometers southeast of Taiwan. It is a member of the Ivatan dialect continuum.

Yami is known as ciriciring no Tao 'human speech' by its native speakers.[1]

Classification[edit]

Yami and the other Batanic languages

Yami is the only native language of Taiwanese aborigines that is not a member of the Formosan grouping of Austronesian; it is one of the Batanic languages found in the northern Philippines.

Phonology[edit]

Yami has 20 consonants and 4 vowels:[3]

Vowels[edit]

/a, ə, i, o/

Iraralay Yami, spoken on the north coast, distinguishes between geminative consonants (e.g., opa 'thigh' vs. oppa 'hen' form one such minimal pair).[4]

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative v ʂ h
Affricate voiceless t͡ʃ
voiced d͡ʒ
Approximant l ɻ j w
Trill r

Grammar[edit]

Pronouns[edit]

The following set of pronouns are the pronouns found in the Yami language.[5]

  Nominative free Nominative bound Genitive free Genitive bound Locative
1st person singular yaken ko niaken ko jiaken
2nd person singular imo ka nimo mo jimo
3rd person singular iya ya nia na jia
1st person plural inclusive yaten ta, tamo, takamo niaten ta jiaten
1st person plural exclusive yamen namen niamen namen jiamen
2nd person plural inio kamo, kanio ninio nio jinio
3rd person plural sira sia nira da jira

Verbs[edit]

The following list of Yami verbal inflections is from Rau (2006: 135).

Dynamic intransitive
  • -om-/om- (subjunctive: N-)
  • mi-
  • ma-
  • maN-
  • maka-
  • maci-/masi-/macika-/macipa-
Stative
  • ma- (subjunctive: a-)
  • ka- ... -an (subjunctive: ka- ... -i)
Dynamic
  • pi-
  • pa-
  • paN- (subjunctive: maN-)
  • paka- (subjunctive: maka-)
  • paci- (subjunctive: maci-)
Transitive
  • -en (subjunctive: -a)
  • -an (subjunctive: -i)
  • i- (subjunctive: -an)
Stative functioning as transitive
  • ma- (subjunctive: a- ... -a)
  • ka- ... -an (subjunctive: a- ... -a)

Affixes[edit]

The following list of Yami affixes is from Rau & Dong (2006: 135-136).

  • icia- 'fellows such and such who share the same features or fate'
  • ikeyka- 'even more so'
  • ika- 'feel such and such because...'
  • ika- 'ordinal number'
  • ipi- 'multiple number'
  • ji a- 'negation or emphatic'
  • ka- 'company, as ... as, abstract noun'
  • ka- 'and then, just now, only'
  • ka- 'stative verb prefix reappearing in forming transitive verbs'
  • ka- (reduplicated root) 'very'
  • ka- (reduplicated root) 'animals named after certain features'
  • ka- ... -an 'common noun'
  • ma- ... -en 'love to do such and such'
  • mapaka- 'pretend to be such and such'
  • mapi- 'do such and such as an occupation'
  • mi-/mala- 'kinship relationships in a group of two or three'
  • mika-/mapika-/ipika- 'all, gradually, one by one'
  • mala- 'taste or look like...'
  • mipa- 'getting more and more...'
  • mipipa- 'even more...'
  • mapi-/mapa-/pa- ... -en/ipa- 'causative verb affixes'
  • ni- 'perfective'
  • ni- ... na 'superlative'
  • noka- 'past'
  • noma- 'future (remote)'
  • sicia- 'present'
  • sima- 'future (proximal)'
  • tey- 'direction'
  • tey- 'very, too'
  • tey- (reduplicated root) 'amount allocated to each unit

Vocabulary[edit]

Cognates with Philippine languages[edit]

English Yami Tagalog/Ilokano/Visayan, etc.
Person tao tao (Tagalog), tawo (Cebuano Vis.)
Mother ina ina
Father ama ama
Head oo ulo
Yes nohon oho (opo)
Friend kagagan kaibigan
who sino sino, sin-o (Hiligaynon Vis.), hin-o (Waray Vis.)
they sira sila (Tagalog), sira/hira (Waray Vis.)
their nira nila
offspring anak anak
I (pronoun) ko ko, -ko (Ilokano)
you ka ka, -ka (Ilokano)
day araw araw, aldaw (Ilokano), adlaw (Cebuano Vis.)
eat kanen kain, kanen (Ilokano), kaon (all Visayan)
drink inomen inumin, inomen (Ilokano)
speech ciriciring chirichirin (Itbayaten Ivatan), siling (Hiligaynon Vis., say), siring (Waray Vis., say)
and aka saka
ouch Ananay Aray, Agay (Cebuano Vis.), Annay (Ilokano)
home vahay bahay, balay (Ilokano, Cebuano Vis.)
pig viik biik (Tagalog, piglet)
goat kadling kambing, kanding (Cebuano Vis.), kalding (Ilokano)
stone vato bato (Tagalog, all Visayan, etc.)
town ili ili (Ilokano)
one ása isa (Tagalog, Hiligaynon Vis.), maysa (Ilokano), usa (Cebuano Vis.)
two dóa (raroa) dalawa (Tagalog), duha (Cebuano), dua (Ilokano)
three tílo tatlo, tulo/tuto (Cebuano Vis.), tallo (Ilokano)
four ápat apat (Tagalog, Hiligaynon Vis.), upat (Cebuano Vis.), uppat (Ilokano)
five líma lima
six ánem anim (Tagalog), innem (Ilokano), unom (Cebuano Vis.), anum (Hiligaynon Vis.)
seven píto pito
eight wáo walo
nine síam siyam, siam (Ilokano)
ten póo sampu (Tagalog), sangapulo (Ilokano), napulo (all Visayan)

Japanese loanwords[edit]

English Yami Japanese
Airplane sikoki hikouki (飛行機)
Alcohol saki sake ()
Battleship gengkang gunkan (軍艦)
Bible seysio seisho (聖書)
Christ Kizisto kirisuto (キリスト)
Doctor koysang o-isha-san? (お医者さん)
Flashlight dingki denki (電気)
Holy Spirit seyzi seirei (聖霊)
Key kagi kagi ()
Medicine kosozi kusuri ()
Monkey sazo saru ()
Motorcycle otobay ōtobai (オートバイ; auto bike)
Police kisat keisatsu (警察)
School gako gakkō (学校)
School bag kabang kaban ()
Teacher sinsi sensei (先生)
Ticket kipo kippu (切符)
Truck tozako torakku (トラック; truck)

Chinese loanwords[edit]

English Yami Mandarin Chinese
Wine potaw cio pútáojiǔ (葡萄酒)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rau & Dong 2006, p. 79
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yami". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Rau & Dong 2006, pp. 79-80
  4. ^ Rau & Dong 2006, p. 81
  5. ^ "A grammar of Yami" (PDF): 123. Retrieved 8 June 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Lai, Li-Fang; Gooden, Shelome (2016). "Acoustic cues to prosodic boundaries in Yami: A first look". Proceedings of Speech Prosody 8, May 31-June 3, Boston, USA.
  • Lai, Li-Fang; Gooden, Shelome (2015). "What does the question sound like: Exploring wh-and yes/no interrogative prosody in Yami". ICPhS.
  • Lai, Li-Fang; Gooden, Shelome (2018). "Tonal hybridization in Yami-Mandarin contact". Proceedings of the 6th Tonal Aspects of Languages. pp. 1–5.

External links[edit]