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Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture

Coordinates: 43°08′N 129°11′E / 43.133°N 129.183°E / 43.133; 129.183
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Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
Chinese transcription(s)
 • Simplified Chinese延边朝鲜族自治州
 • Hanyu PinyinYánbiān Cháoxiǎnzú Zìzhìzhōu
Korean transcription(s)
 • Chosŏn'gŭl연변조선족자치주
 • McCune–ReischauerYŏnbyŏn Chosŏnjok Chach'iju
 • Revised RomanizationYeonbyeon Joseonjok Jachiju
Yanji, the prefectural seat of Yanbian
Yanji, the prefectural seat of Yanbian
Location of Yanbian Prefecture (red) in Jilin Province (orange) and Mainland China (yellow)
Location of Yanbian Prefecture (red) in Jilin Province (orange) and Mainland China (yellow)
Coordinates: 43°08′N 129°11′E / 43.133°N 129.183°E / 43.133; 129.183
County-level divisions6 county-level cities
2 counties
Prefectural seatYanji
 • CCP SecretaryHua Jiafu
 • Congress ChairmanZhang Taifan
 • GovernorHong Gyeong
 • Prefectural CPPCC ChairwomanKang Fang
 • Total43,509 km2 (16,799 sq mi)
 • Total2,015,500
 • Density46/km2 (120/sq mi)
 • Ethnic composition
 • LanguagesKorean, Mandarin Chinese
 • TotalCN¥ 85.9 billion
US$ 13.8 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 40,119
US$ 6,441
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Area code+86 433
ISO 3166 codeCN-JL-24
Licence plate prefixes吉H
Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
"Yanbian" written in Simplified Chinese and Chosŏn'gŭl
Simplified Chinese延边朝鲜族自治州
Traditional Chinese延邊朝鮮族自治州
Chinese Korean name

The Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture[a] is an autonomous prefecture in the east of Jilin Province, China. Yanbian is bordered to the north by Heilongjiang Province, on the west by Jilin's Baishan City and Jilin City, on the south by North Korea's North Hamgyong Province and on the east by Primorsky Krai in Russia. Yanbian is designated as a Korean autonomous prefecture due to the large number of Chaoxianzu living in the region. The prefectural capital is Yanji and the total area is 42,700 square kilometres (16,500 sq mi).

The prefecture has an important Balhae archaeological site: the Ancient Tombs at Longtou Mountain, which includes the Mausoleum of Princess Jeonghyo.


In the Ming dynasty, Yanbian was governed by the Jianzhou Guard (建州衛) and in the late Qing dynasty the area was divided into the Yanji (延吉廳) and Hunchun (琿春廳) subprefectures. From 1644 to the 1800s the Manchurian administrators of the Qing state attempted to separate Northeast China, politically and ethnographically, into a "Manchuria" to which they could retreat in case an ethnically Han Chinese dynasty regained control over China. However, this effort failed because of the trading and agricultural opportunities available to Han Chinese migrants in the northeast region which made it profitable to evade the rules, as well as later Qing relaxation of the same rules (Chuang Guandong) to discourage Russian encroachment.[2][3]

In the late 19th century, Korean immigrants migrated en masse from the Korean Peninsula to China. After the foundation of the Republic of China, a second wave arrived. Of the 2 million ethnic Koreans in Manchuria at the time of the communist takeover, 1.2 million remained in the region after the end of World War II. Many participated in the Chinese Civil War, most on the side of the Chinese communists. When the civil war was over, the new Chinese government gave these Koreans their own autonomous region () in 1952. Yanbian was upgraded to an ethnic autonomous prefecture in 1955.[citation needed] During the Cultural Revolution, ethnic Koreans were killed and persecuted in Yanbian.[4]

Korean (Joseon) migration into Northeast China began in significant numbers in the last quarter of the 19th century and was mainly motivated by economic hardship on the Korean side of the border. After the Japanese annexed Korea in 1910, a small but significant number of migrants also came to Manchuria for political reasons.[5]

In 1952, the Korean migrants comprised some 60% of the local population, but by 2000 that was down to 32%. The Chinese authorities subsidize Korean language schools and publications, but also take measures to prevent an emergence of Korean irredentism in the area. From the late 1990s, the Chaoxianzu have assimilated into mainstream Chinese culture with increasing speed, often switching to daily use of Chinese and choosing to attend Chinese-language schools.[6]


  • Geographic coordinates: 41° 59' 47" – 44° 30' 42" N, 127° 27' 43" – 131° 18' 33" E
  • Total border length: 755.2 kilometres (469.3 mi)
    • With North Korea: 522.5 kilometres (324.7 mi)
    • With Russia: 232.7 kilometres (144.6 mi)

Mountains that are in the prefecture are:

There have been over 40 types of minerals and 50 kinds of metals – including gold, lead, zinc, copper, silver, manganese and mercury – discovered near or in the mountains.

The average land height is 500 metres above sea level.

Main rivers include:

The rivers sustain 28 running water processing facilities. They created basins, which are suitable for agricultural uses, like rice paddies and bean farms.



Title CCP Committee Secretary People's Congress Chairman Governor Yanbian CPPCC Chairwoman
Name Hua Jiafu Zhang Taifan Hong Gyeong Kang Fang
Ethnicity Han Korean Korean Han
Born October 1967 (age 56) November 1964 (age 59) November 1976 (age 47) March 1966 (age 58)
Assumed office June 2022 January 2022 November 2021 January 2022

Administrative divisions[edit]

The prefecture is subdivided into eight county-level divisions: six county-level cities and two counties:

Administrative divisions of the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
Division code Division Area (km2) Total population 2020 Seat Postal code
222400 Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture 43,329.34 1,941,700 Yanji 133000
222401 Yanji City 1,722.24 686,136 Xinxing Subdistrict 133000
222402 Tumen City 1,140.50 85,248 Xiangshang Subdistrict 133100
222403 Dunhua City 11,787.76 392,486 Minzhu Subdistrict 133700
222404 Hunchun City 5,141.29 239,359 Henan Subdistrict 133300
222405 Longjing City 2,208.80 129,286 Anmin Subdistrict 133400
222406 Helong City 5,068.71 117,087 Wenhua Subdistrict 133500
222424 Wangqing County 8,825.81 167,911 Dachuan Subdistrict 133200
222426 Antu County 7,434.23 124,187 Jiulong Subdistrict 133600

The above counties and cities are divided into 642 villages (边境村).


Railways include:

  • Chang-Tu Line (长图线)
  • Mu-Tu Line (牡图线)
  • Chao-Kai Line (朝开线)
  • Yangchuan-Shantun Line (阳川山屯线)
  • Jilin–Hunchun intercity railway (吉珲客运专线)

There are 1,480 km (920 mi) of public roads altogether. There are four airports.


The total registered population in Yanbian at the end of 2022 was 2.015 million.[7] The urbanization rate was 69.6% in 2022.[7] Between 1952 and 2002, Yanbian had among the highest rates of urbanization at 55.6%, 20 percentage points greater than the provincial average (31.3%) and 25 more than the national average (26.5%).[8]

Ethnic composition[edit]

The population of Yanbian was predominantly Han as of 2022, who were estimated to make up 60.2%, followed by Koreans at 35.5%, and Manchus at 3.6%.[7] The ethnic composition according to the 2020 census:[9]

Demographic Profile of the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
Ethnicity Han Korean Manchu Hui Mongol Miao Tujia Zhuang Jingpo Yi Other
Population 1,222,372 597,426 54,292 5,530 4,532 349 248 219 214 168 1,350
% 65.79 30.77 2.80 0.28 0.23 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.07
% of ethnic minorities 89.93 8.17 0.83 0.68 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.20

As on the Korean peninsula, the most common surname among Yanbian Koreans is Kim (Jin [] in Chinese). Many emigrated from Korea during the 19th century and again during the Japanese occupation.[citation needed]


The GDP of Yanbian was about CN¥83.887 billion (US$12.472 billion) as of 2022. Its per capita for 2022 was CN¥44,007 (US$6,542).[10] Its primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth CN¥7.652 billion (US$1.138 billion), CN¥33.527 billion (US$4.985 billion), and CN¥42.708 billion (US$6.350 billion), respectively.[10]


Colleges and universities:

International schools:


Both Mandarin Chinese and Chaoxianzu style Korean are used as official languages in Yanbian.

The Museum of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture was planned in 1960, and constructed in 1982. It contains over 10,000 exhibits, including 11 first-level artifacts.[citation needed] The exhibits' labels and explanations are bilingual in Korean and Chinese and tour guides are also available in both languages.


Yanji Dinosaur Museum

There are seven public parks in Yanbian's green space (18% of whole prefecture), including:

  • Yanji People's Park (延吉人民公园)
  • Youth Lake Park (青年湖公园)

Also popular among locals during holidays and festivities.

Nature and environment[edit]

Over 70% of the prefecture is forest, so there is a rich biodiversity.[citation needed]


Yanji Stadium

Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture is an important region for Chinese football. Over 50 years, more than 40 footballers have been selected by the China national team.

The first professional football team in this prefecture is Jilin Three Stars Football Club. From 1994 to 2000, this club had played each year in the top Chinese football league. In 2000, they were relegated from the top league. Because of poor economic conditions the club was sold to Lucheng Group in Zhejiang Province.

Yanbian Longding plays in the 30,000-seater Yanji Stadium in China League One, the second tier of the Chinese football league system.

In 2016, Yanbian Football Club was sponsored by Shenzhen Funde Group (Chinese: 富德集团) when they got the permission of Chinese Super League, since they acquired the 1st place in the Chinese Second League in 2015.

See also[edit]


  1. ^
    • Chinese: 延边朝鲜族自治州; pinyin: Yánbiān Cháoxiǎnzú Zìzhìzhōu
    • Korean연변조선족자치주; RRYeonbyeon Joseonjok Jachiju; MRYŏnbyŏn Chosŏnjok Chach'iju



  1. ^ 吉林省统计局、国家统计局吉林调查总队 (September 2016). 《吉林统计年鉴-2016》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7899-5. Archived from the original on 2018-04-28. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
  2. ^ Lee, Robert H. G. (1970). The Manchurian frontier in Chʼing history. Internet Archive. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-674-54775-9.
  3. ^ Matsuzato, Kimitaka (2016-12-07). Russia and Its Northeast Asian Neighbors: China, Japan, and Korea, 1858–1945. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-1-4985-3705-6. Archived from the original on 2 October 2022. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  4. ^ Lovell, Julia (2019-09-03). Maoism: A Global History. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-0-525-65605-0. Events took a horrific turn in the frontier town of Yanbian, where freight trains trundled from China into the DPRK, draped with the corpses of Koreans killed in the pitched battles of the Cultural Revolution, and daubed with threatening graffiti: 'This will be your fate also, you tiny revisionists!'
  5. ^ Min, Pyong Gap (1992). "A Comparison of the Korean Minorities in China and Japan". International Migration Review. 26 (1): 4–21. doi:10.2307/2546934. JSTOR 2546934. PMID 12285045.
  6. ^ Lankov, Andrei (2007-08-16). "The Gentle Decline of the 'Third Korea'". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 2007-08-27. Retrieved 2007-08-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  7. ^ a b c "延边州2022年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 - 中国统计信息网" [Yanbian Prefecture's 2022 National Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin]. www.tjcn.org. 16 June 2023. Retrieved 2024-01-06.
  8. ^ Li, Yabiao 李亚彪; Wang, Jinghe 王景和 (2002-09-02). "Jílín Yánbiān Cháoxiǎnzú Zìzhìzhōu chéngshìhuà shuǐpíng zǒuzài quánguó qiánliè" 吉林延边朝鲜族自治州城市化水平走在全国前列. Xinhua (in Simplified Chinese). Archived from the original on October 1, 2002. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  9. ^ "吉林省人口普查年鉴-2020" [Jilin Province Census Yearbook-2020]. Jilin Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2024-01-06.
  10. ^ a b "延边朝鲜族自治州2022年国民经济和社会发展统计公报" [Statistical Bulletin on National Economic and Social Development of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in 2022]. Jilin Bureau of Statistics. 4 July 2023. Retrieved 2024-01-06.
  11. ^ "Yanbian University". Study in China : China University Admission. Retrieved 2023-05-19.
  12. ^ "YUST | YUST PUST Foundation". www.yustpust.org. Retrieved 2023-05-19.


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]