Yandruwandha is a generic term referring to a number of dialects, Yawarrawarrka, Nhirppi, Matja, Parlpamardramardra, Ngananhina, Ngapardajdhirri and Ngurawola. It belongs to the Karna group of Karnic languages The best known version is that recorded by Gavan Breen from informants in Innamincka.
The Yandruwandha ranged over an estimated 10,900 sq. miles of their tribal lands, which extended, according to Norman Tindale, from an area south of Cooper Creek, namely from Innamincka to Carraweena. This area also included Strzelecki Creek.
The Yandruwandha played a significant role in key moments of the Burke and Wills expedition. Oral lore conserved among them, according to a descendant, Aaron Paterson, has it that William John Wills, who recorded some of their words, made a good impression on the elders, who provided him with shelter in a walpa shared with an as yet uninitiated youth. While Burke and Will died, the only man to survive, John King, did so because he found sanctuary with the Yandruwandha, among whom he was eventually found by Edwin Welch, a surveyor with Alfred William Howitt, who had been dispatched to find the missing explorers. Many fell victims to the 1919 flu pandemic.
The practiced male circumcision.
The Yandruwandha Yawarrawarrka filed a petition to have their land rights recognized in 1988. In 2015, their native title was determined by a Federal Court over some 40,000 square kilometres of the outback, covering pastoral leases, and including Coongie Lakes National Park, the Innamincka Regional Reserve and the Strzelecki Regional Reserve.
- Murtee Johnny (born c.1888-died Adelaide 1979) was the last member of the Yandruwanda of the Strzelecki Track, many of whom died in the flu pandemic that spread through the area in 1919. He was an accomplished stockman, working on the Mount Hopeless in the Flinders Ranges.
- Yandruwunta, Yandruwonta, Yantruwanta, Jendruwonta, Yandra Wandra.
- Yandrawontha, Yanderawantha, Yantowannta, Jandruwalda.
- Innamouka (loose transcription of the toponym Innamincka).
Notes and references
- Breen, Gavan (2015a) [First published 2004]. Innamincka Talk: A grammar of the Innamincka dialect of Yandruwandha. Australian National University. ISBN 978-1-921-93420-9.
- Breen, Gavan (2015b) [First published 2004]. Innamincka Words: Yandruwandha dictionary and stories. Australian National University. ISBN 978-1-921-93422-3.
- Gage, Nicola (16 December 2015). "Native title granted by Federal Court for Yandruwandha Yawarrawarrka people". ABC News.
- Hercus, Luise A. (1980). "'How we danced the Mudlunga': Memories of 1901 and 1902" (PDF). 4 (1). Aboriginal History: 1–31.
- Paterson, Aaron (2013). "Introduction: A Yandruwandha Perspective". In Clark, Ian; Cahir, Fred. The Aboriginal Story of Burke and Wills: Forgotten Narratives. Csiro Publishing. pp. xiii=xvi. ISBN 978-0-643-10809-7.
- Phoenix, Dave (2011). "Introduction". In Joyce, E. B.; McCann, D. A. Burke and Wills: The Scientific Legacy of the Victorian Exploring Expedition. Csiro Publishing. pp. x–xxiv. ISBN 978-0-643-10334-4.
- Tindale, Norman Barnett (1974). "Jandruwanta (SA)". Aboriginal Tribes of Australia: Their Terrain, Environmental Controls, Distribution, Limits, and Proper Names. Australian National University Press. ISBN 978-0-708-10741-6.