Yankton Sioux Tribe
Tachana, Yankton Sioux, 1872
|(3,500 enrolled members)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|United States ( South Dakota)|
|traditional tribal religion, Sun Dance,
Native American Church, Christianity
|Related ethnic groups|
|other Eastern Dakota, Western Dakota people|
The Yankton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota is a federally recognized tribe of Yankton Western Dakota people, located in South Dakota. Their Dakota name is Ihanktonwan Dakota Oyate, meaning "People of the End Village."
Lewis & Clark
According to local legend, when Meriwether Lewis learned that a male child had been born near the expedition's encampment in what is today southeastern South Dakota, he sent for the child and wrapped the new born baby boy in an American flag during the council at Calumet Bluff in late August 1804. Lewis declared the baby an American. This boy grew up to become a headman (chief) of the Ihanktonwan Dakota (Yankton Sioux), known as Struck By-the-Ree. However, the journals of the expedition make no mention of this incident.
Pressure and land cession
By the late 1850s, pressure to open up what is now southeastern South Dakota to white settlement had become very strong. Struck-by-the-Ree and several other headmen journeyed to Washington, D.C., in late 1857 to negotiate a treaty with the federal government. For more than three and a half months, they worked out the terms of a treaty of land cession. The Treaty of Washington was signed April 19, 1858.
Returning from Washington, Padaniapapi (Struck-by-The-Ree) told his people, "The white men are coming in like maggots. It is useless to resist them. They are many more than we are. We could not hope to stop them. Many of our brave warriors would be killed, our women and children left in sorrow, and still we would not stop them. We must accept it, get the best terms we can get and try to adopt their ways."
For about eleven and a half million acres, a payment of approximately $1.6 million in annuities was to paid over the next 50 years. Specific provisions of the treaty called for educating the tribe to develop skills in agriculture, industrial arts and homemaking. This treaty provided for the removal of the tribe to a 475,000-acre reservation on the north side of the Missouri River in what is now Charles Mix County. (Charles E. Mix was the commissioner who signed for the federal government.) The US Senate ratified the treaty on February 16, 1859 and President James Buchanan authorized it ten days later. On July 10, 1859, the Yankton Sioux vacated the ceded lands and moved onto the newly created reservation.
Notable tribal members
- Indigenous (band)
- Ella Cara Deloria (linguist, ethnologist)
- Rev. Philip Joseph Deloria, (first Episcopal priest to his people)
- Maria Pearson (activist, "Rosa Parks of NAGPRA")
- Paul Rouse Sr. (recognized Chief after Death)
- Jimmy Sanchez (Blackbelt Martial Artist/Motivational Speaker)
- Greg Zephier Sr. (AIM Activist/Activist/Artist/Musician (Vanishing Americans Band)
- Zitkala-Sa (writer, editor, musician, teacher and political activist)
- Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1
- Yankton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota, official website
- Yankton Sioux Reservation, Akta Lakota Museum and Cultural Center
- "Yankton Sioux Indians". PBS.
- "Yankton Sioux Tribe Official insignia". 1998.
- "Brownfields Assessment Pilot Fact Sheet – Yankton Sioux Tribe, SD". United States Environmental Protection Agency. May 2000.