Yantra tattooing (Thai: สักยันต์ RTGS: sak yan; Khmer: សាក់យ័ន្ត sak yoan; Burmese: တက်တူးထိုး) is a form of tattooing originally introduced by Khmer people of the Khmer Empire which influenced much of its culture in the region during its reign. It consists of sacred geometrical, animal and deity designs accompanied by Pali phrases that offer power, protection, fortune, charisma and other benefits for the bearer. These days, it remains popular in Cambodia, Thailand, and also in Laos and Myanmar (Burma). Sak means tattoo in Thai and Khmer, while yan and yoan are the Thai and Khmer pronunciation for the Sanskrit word yantra respectively, a type of mystical diagram used in Dharmic religions.
Tattoos believed to offer protection and other benefits have been recorded everywhere throughout both mainland Southeast Asia and as far south as Indonesia and the Philippines.. Over the centuries the tradition spread to what is now Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and parts of Myanmar. While the tradition itself originates with indigenous tribal animism, it became closely tied to the Hindu-Buddhist concept of yantra or mystical geometric patterns used during meditation. Tattoos of yantra designs were believed to hold magic power, and were used much like the kolam tattoos of India. For these people, religion is closely tied to the notion of magic, health, and good fortune.
The script used for yantra designs varies according to culture and geography. In Cambodia and central Thailand, Cambodian Khmer script is used, while in northern Thailand one sees yantra tattoos bearing Shan, northern Thai, or Tai Lu scripts, and in Laos the Lao Tham script is employed. The script spells out abbreviated syllables from Pali incantations. Different masters have added to these designs over the centuries through visions received in their meditations. Some yantra designs have been adapted from pre-Buddhist shamanism and the belief in animal spirits that was found in Southeast Asia and incorporated into Thai tradition and culture.
Yantra tattoos are believed to be magic and bestow mystical powers, protection, or good luck. There are three main effects of a yantra tattoo. One is that which benefits the wearer, such as making them more eloquent. Another is that of protection and to ward off evil and hardship. This is commonly used by military personnel, police, taxi drivers, gangsters and others in perceived dangerous professions. Another type is that which affects people around the wearer, such as invoking fear. The tattoo only confers its powers so long as the bearer observes certain rules and taboos, such as abstaining from a certain type of food.
It is believed that the power of sacred tattoos decreases with time. So to re-empower them each year, sak yan masters celebrate with their devotees the Wai Khru ritual. Wai khru means "pay homage to one's guru". In Thailand, the most impressive Wai Khru is held at the temple of Wat Bang Phra.
Sak yan designs are also applied to many other media, such as cloth or metal, and placed in one's house, place of worship, or vehicle as a means of protection from danger or illness, to increase wealth, and to attract lovers. In recent years Hollywood celebrities such as Angelina Jolie, whose tattoos were inked by Ajahn Noo Ganpai in Thailand, have made them popular among women.
However a modern movement in Thailand seeks to progress away from their animistic past. As part of this movement, many modern-day Thais view yantra tattoos as nothing more than good-luck symbols that are stylish.
Types and designs
There are many traditional types and designs of yantra tattoos, but some of the most well-known and popular include:
- Ong Phra (Thai: องค์พระ; translation: Buddha's body) - one of the most commonly used elements in Yantra tattooing, but can also be a more complex standalone design. Meant to provide insight, guidance, illumination, etc.
- Ha-thaeo (Thai: ห้าแถว; translation: five rows) - Typically tattooed on the back left shoulder. Each of the five lines relates to a different blessing for success and good luck.
- Kao-yot (Thai: เก้ายอด; translation: nine spires) - typically tattooed on the center top of the back in various sizes and levels of complexity. Simple version pictured at the top of this article.
- Si-yot (Thai: สี่ยอด; translation: four spires) - to influence the feelings or actions of others and protect the bearer.
- Paet-thit (Thai: แปดทิศ; translation: eight points) - represents protection in the eight directions of the universe. Round shape; typically tattooed on the center of the back. Pictured in gallery below.
- Sip-thit (Thai: สิบทิศ; translation: ten points) - a version of paet-thit, but protects in ten directions instead of eight.
- Maha-niyom (Thai: มหานิยม; translation: great preference) - to grant the bearer favor in the eyes of others. Round shape; typically placed on the back right shoulder.
- Yot Mongkut (Thai: ยอดมงกุฎ; translation: spired crown) - for good fortune and protection in battle. Round shape; typically tattooed on the top of the head.
- Panchamukhi (Thai: ปัญจมุขี; translation: five Deva faces) - intended to ward off illness and danger.
- Suea (Thai: เสือ; translation: tiger) - typically depicts twin tigers. Represents power and authority.
Many internet sites recommend Thailand as the place to attain the most refined ritual tattoos and consider the country as the most popular for learning this art. Every year, hundreds of foreigners in search of original and magical tattoos come to Thailand to have their tattoos done. In Southeast Asia, Thailand is by far the country with the highest number of devotees.
- One of the most famous temples in the present day for yantra tattooing is Wat Bang Phra in Nakhon Chai Si District, Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand. Ajaan Noo Kanpai, perhaps the most famous practitioner of sak yan in Thailand, trained here.
- One well-known temple in northern Thailand is Wat Nhong Khem (khem means needle). It is in San Patong just outside Chiang Mai and was home to the late sak yan master Phra Ajaan Gamtawn, who died in Chiang Mai on 14 September 2010. This temple no longer applies tattoos.
While tattoos in the west are largely a matter of aesthetics, in Thailand they are imbued with both spirituality and superstition. The designs, lines of script, geometric patterns and animal shapes, are deeply interwoven with Buddhist and animist imagery that some Thais fear Westerners fail to appreciate. Tattoos of religious deities are problematic, especially if they are below the waist. In Southeast Asian culture, the head is the most sacred part of the body. The further down the body, the less sacred, and foreigners with religious figures inked on their legs have caused upset. On the main highway into Bangkok from Suvarnabhumi Airport, 15-metre-wide billboards declare "It's wrong to use Buddha as a decoration or tattoo". Some groups want a complete ban on any tattoos of religious figures.
Hlwong Pi Nan tattooing at Wat Bang Phra Temple
Hlwong Pi Pant tattooing a yan in Ang Thong Province.
- "สักยันต์". thai-language.com. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
- Monier-Williams, Monier (1899), A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Delhi
- Lars Krutak. Spiritual Skin: Magical Tattoos and Scarification. Reuss. ISBN 9783943105117.
- Cummings, Joe, (2011) Sacred Tattoos of Thailand: Exploring the Magic, Masters and Mystery of Sak Yan, Marshall Cavendish.
- Drouyer, Isabel Azevedo; Drouyer, Rene, (2013) Thai Magic Tattoos, The Art and Influence of Sak Yant, Riverbooks editions.
- Drouyer Isabel; Drouyer, Rene. Thai Magic Tattoos The Art and Influence of Sak Yant. River Books, 2013, p.99.
- "Tattoo Chiang Mai - Your destination in northern Thailand". thai.tattoo. Retrieved 2017-04-02.
- Thibaut, Marion (2015-05-18). "The sacred side of Sak Yant". The Nation. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- Chean Rithy Men. "The Changing Religious Beliefs and Ritual Practices among Cambodians in Diaspora", in Journal of Refugee Studies. Vol. 15, No. 2 2002, pp 222–233.
- Cummings, Joe. Sacred Tattoos of Thailand: Exploring the Masters, Magic and Mystery of Sak Yan. Singapore, 2011.
- Drouyer, Isabel; Drouyer, Rene. Thai Magic Tattoos The Art And Influence of Sak Yant. Ed. River Books, 2013.
- Drouyer, Isabel, René Drouyer. "Tatouages Sacrés, Thaïlande, Cambodge, Laos et Myanmar. Un tatouage peut-il changer votre vie?". Paris, Soukha Editions, 2017.
- Harris, Ian. Cambodian Buddhism: History and Practice. Honolulu, 2008.
- Igunma, Jana. "Human Body, Spirit and Disease; the Science of Healing in 19th century Buddhist Manuscripts from Thailand", in The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Universities. Vol. 1, 2008, pp. 120–132.
- Rivers, Victoria Z. "Layers of Meaning: Embellished Cloth for Body and Soul", in Jasleen Dhamija, Asian Embroidery. New Delhi, 2004, pp. 45–66. ISBN 81-7017-450-3.
- Swearer, Donald K. Becoming the Buddha: the Ritual of Image Consecration in Thailand. Princeton, 2004.