Yarmukian culture

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Yarmukian culture
Yarmukian culture is located in Near East
Sha'ar HaGolan
Sha'ar HaGolan
Map showing the region of Sha'ar HaGolan, type site of the Yarmoukian culture.
Geographical rangeLevant
Dates6400–6000 BC
Type siteSha'ar HaGolan, Israel
Yarmukian pottery vessel, Sha'ar HaGolan

The Yarmukian culture (Hebrew: הַתַּרְבּוּת הַיַּרְמוּכִית) was a Pottery Neolithic A (PNA) culture of the ancient Levant. It was the first culture in prehistoric Israel and one of the oldest in the Levant to make use of pottery. The Yarmukian derives its name from the Yarmouk River, which flows near its type site of Sha'ar HaGolan, near Kibbutz Sha'ar HaGolan at the foot of the Golan Heights.

Related sites[edit]

Besides the site at Sha'ar HaGolan, 20 other Yarmukian sites have been identified in Israel, Jordan and Lebanon.[1] These include:

Although the Yarmukian culture occupied limited regions of northern Israel and northern Jordan, Yarmukian pottery has been found elsewhere in the region, including the Habashan Street excavations in Tel-Aviv and as far north as Byblos, Lebanon.

Relative chronology[edit]


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  • Stekelis M. 1972. The Yarmukian Culture. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.
  • Garfinkel Y. 1993. The Yarmukian Culture in Israel. Paleorient, Vol 19, No. 1, pp. 115 – 134.
  • Garfinkel Y. 1999. The Yarmukians, Neolithic Art from Sha'ar Hagolan. Jerusalem: Bible Lands Museum (Exhibition Catalogue).
  • Garfinkel Y. and Miller M. 2002. Sha'ar Hagolan Vol 1. Neolithic Art in Context. Oxford: Oxbow.
  • Garfinkel Y. 2004. The Goddess of Sha'ar Hagolan. Excavations at a Neolithic Site in Israel. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society (Hebrew version published in 2002 as: Sha'ar Hagolan. Neolithic Art in the Jordan Valley. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society).
  • Garfinkel Y. and Ben Shlomo D. In press. Sha'ar Hagolan Vol. 2. Qedem. Jerusalem: Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University.
  • Garfinkel Y., Vered A. and Bar-Yosef O. 2006. The Domestication of Water: The Neolithic Well of Sha'ar Hagolan, Jordan Valley, Israel. Antiquity 80: 686–696.
  • Obaidat Daifallah 1995. "Die neolithische Keramik aus Abu Thawwab/Jordanien". Berlin, ex Oriente.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Garfinkel, Y. 1999.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Yorke M. Rowan, Jonathan Golden, The Chalcolithic Period of the Southern Levant: A Synthetic Review, Journal of World Prehistory, April 2009, 22:1–92, DOI 10.1007/s10963-009-9016-4, accessed 27 December 2019
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Garfinkel, Yosef (1993). "The Yarmukian Culture in Israel". Paléorient (19–1): 115–134. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Vieugué, Julien; Garfinkel, Yosef; Barzilai, Omry; van den Brink, Edwin C. M. (2016). "Pottery function and culinary practices of Yarmukian societies in the late 7th millennium cal. BC: First results". Paléorient (42–2): 97–115. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  5. ^ Avi Gopher and Estelle Orrelle, Preliminary Report on Excavations of Nahal Zehora II — Seasons of 1990 and 1991, Mitekufat Haeven: Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society, 1991, pp. 169-172, accessed 27 December 2019
  6. ^ Kempinski, A.; Marder, O.; Prausnitz, M.W.; Khalaily, H.M.; Bankirer, R.Y. (2002). "7". In Scheftelowitz, N.; Oren, R. (eds.). Tel Kabri: The 1986-1993 Excavations Seasons. Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology. p. 305. ISBN 965-266-015-9.
  7. ^ Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. p. 13, Table 1.1 "Chronology of the Ancient Near East". ISBN 9781134750917.
  8. ^ a b Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme R.; Gangal, Kavita (7 May 2014). "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia". PLOS ONE. 9 (5): e95714. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...995714G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095714. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4012948. PMID 24806472.
  9. ^ Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Arpin, Trina; Pan, Yan; Cohen, David; Goldberg, Paul; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Xiaohong (29 June 2012). "Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China". Science. 336 (6089): 1696–1700. Bibcode:2012Sci...336.1696W. doi:10.1126/science.1218643. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 22745428.
  10. ^ Thorpe, I. J. (2003). The Origins of Agriculture in Europe. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 9781134620104.
  11. ^ Price, T. Douglas (2000). Europe's First Farmers. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780521665728.
  12. ^ Jr, William H. Stiebing; Helft, Susan N. (2017). Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 9781134880836.