Yashovarman (Paramara dynasty)
|King of Malwa|
|Reign||c. 1133 – c. 1142 CE|
Yashovarman (IAST: Yaśovarman; reigned c. 1133-1142 CE) was an Indian king from the Paramara dynasty, who ruled in the Malwa region of central India. He was defeated by the Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja.
War against Jayasimha Siddharaja
Multiple sources (including chronicles and inscriptions) prove that Yashovarman was defeated by Jayasimha Siddharaja, the Chaulukya (Solanki) king of Gujarat. Some chronicles also suggest that it was Yashovarman's father Naravarman who was defeated by Jayasimha. It appears that the Chaulukya-Paramara war began during the reign of Naravarman, and ended during Yashovarman's reign.
According to the 12th century writer Hemachandra's writings, Jayasimha invaded the Paramara kingdom because he wanted to visit the holy city of Ujjain. However, according to Prabandha-Chintamani of the 14th century author Merutunga, Yashovarman invaded the Chaulukya capital when Jayasimha was away on a pilgrimage. In response, Jayasimha attacked the Paramara capital Dhara and captured Yashovarman. Merutunga's account does not seem credible, because the Paramaras were too weak at this time to invade the powerful Chaulukya kingdom.
The Dahod inscription as well as the chronicles of Hemachandra and Jayasimha mention that Jayasimha imprisoned Yashovarman. As a result of this defeat, a large part of the Paramara kingdom, including its capital Dhara, came under Chaulukya rule. Jaysimha appointed Mahadeva as the governor of Avanti-mandala (that is, Malwa). Dhara and Ujjain remained under Chaulukya control during 1136-1143 CE.
In an 1191 VS (c. 1134 CE) inscription, Yashovaraman is titled Maharajadhiraja. However, in an inscription dated a year later, he assumes the lower status title Maharaja. This indicates that he lost his status as a sovereign sometime during this period. It is not certain if this was because of Jayasimha's invasion or some other cause. However, it certain that he spent some time in Jayasimha's prison.
An 1142 CE Jhalrapatan inscription suggests that Yashovarman escaped imprisonment, and ruled a small principality in the lower Kali Sindhu valley. However, some historians doubt that the Yashovarman mentioned in this inscription is same as the Paramara king. According to K. C. Jain, if this Yashovarman is indeed the Paramara king, he might have escaped the Chalukya prison with help from the Chauhans of Ajmer. Later, he might have reached some kind of arrangement with Jayasimha Siddharaja, and may have ruled as a Chaulukya feudatory until his death.
- Asoke Kumar Majumdar (1956). Chaulukyas of Gujarat. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. OCLC 4413150.
- Bhatia, Pratipal (1970). The Paramāras, c. 800-1305 A.D. Munshiram Manoharlal.
- Hazra, Kanai Lal (1995). The Rise And Decline Of Buddhism In India. Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 978-81-215-0651-9.
- Jain, Kailash Chand (1972). Malwa Through the Ages, from the Earliest Times to 1305 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0824-9.
- Om Prakash Misra (2003). Archaeological Excavations in Central India: Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-874-7.
- Trivedi, Harihar Vitthal (1991). Inscriptions of the Paramāras, Chandēllas, Kachchapaghātas, and two minor dynasties. Archaeological Survey of India.