Yashovarman (Paramara dynasty)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Yashovarman
Maharaja
King of Malwa
Reign c. 1133 – c. 1142 CE
Predecessor Naravarman
Successor Jayavarman I
Dynasty Paramara

Yashovarman (IAST: Yaśovarman; reigned c. 1133-1142 CE) was an Indian king from the Paramara dynasty, who ruled in the Malwa region of central India. He was defeated by the Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja.

Early life[edit]

Yashovarman succeeded his father Naravarman. His 1135 CE Ujjain inscription mentions him as Maharaja Yashovarma-deva. This Sanskrit-language inscription records the grant of a village.[1]

War against Jayasimha Siddharaja[edit]

Ujjain is located in Madhya Pradesh
Ujjain
Ujjain
Location of Ujjain, where an inscription of Yashovarman has been found[2]

Multiple sources (including chronicles and inscriptions) prove that Yashovarman was defeated by Jayasimha Siddharaja, the Chaulukya (Solanki) king of Gujarat. Some chronicles also suggest that it was Yashovarman's father Naravarman who was defeated by Jayasimha. It appears that the Chaulukya-Paramara war began during the reign of Naravarman, and ended during Yashovarman's reign.[3]

According to the 12th century writer Hemachandra's writings, Jayasimha invaded the Paramara kingdom because he wanted to visit the holy city of Ujjain.[4] However, according to Prabandha-Chintamani of the 14th century author Merutunga, Yashovarman invaded the Chaulukya capital when Jayasimha was away on a pilgrimage. In response, Jayasimha attacked the Paramara capital Dhara and captured Yashovarman.[5] Merutunga's account does not seem credible, because the Paramaras were too weak at this time to invade the powerful Chaulukya kingdom.[6]

The Dahod inscription as well as the chronicles of Hemachandra and Jayasimha mention that Jayasimha imprisoned Yashovarman.[7] As a result of this defeat, a large part of the Paramara kingdom, including its capital Dhara, came under Chaulukya rule. Jaysimha appointed Mahadeva as the governor of Avanti-mandala (that is, Malwa). Dhara and Ujjain remained under Chaulukya control during 1136-1143 CE.[8]

Last days[edit]

In a 1191 VS (c. 1134 CE) inscription, Yashovaraman is titled Maharajadhiraja. However in an inscription dated a year later, he assumes the lower status title Maharaja. This indicates that he lost his status as a sovereign sometime during this period. It is not certain if this was because of Jayasimha's invasion or some other cause. However, it certain that he spent some time in Jayasimha's prison.[3]

A 1142 CE Jhalrapatan inscription suggests that Yashovarman escaped imprisonment, and ruled a small principality in the lower Kali Sindhu valley.[5] However, some historians doubt that the Yashovarman mentioned in this inscription is same as the Paramara king. According to K. C. Jain, if this Yashovarman is indeed the Paramara king, he might have escaped the Chalukya prison with help from the Chauhans of Ajmer. Later, he might have reached some kind of arrangement with Jayasimha Siddharaja, and may have ruled as a Chaulukya feudatory until his death.[8]

Yashovarman was succeeded by Jayavarman I, who managed to regain control of Dhara.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Trivedi 1991, pp. 126-128.
  2. ^ Om Prakash Misra 2003, p. 12.
  3. ^ a b Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 75.
  4. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 72.
  5. ^ a b Hazra 1995, p. 209.
  6. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, pp. 74-75.
  7. ^ Bhatia 1970, p. 122.
  8. ^ a b c Jain 1972, p. 362.

Bibliography[edit]