|Region||Arizona, United States|
|Ethnicity||1,420 Yavapai people (2004)|
Yavapai is an Upland Yuman language, spoken by Yavapai people in central and western Arizona. There are four dialects: Kwevkepaya, Wipukpaya, Tolkepaya, and Yavepe. Linguistic studies of the Kwevkepaya (Southern), Tolkepaya (Western), Wipukepa (Verde Valley), and Yavepe (Prescott) dialects have been published (Mithun 1999:578).
Warren Gazzam, a Tolkapaya speaker, reported that "you know they (Hualapais) speak the same language as we do, some words or accents are a little different".
Due to extensive cultural interchange, many Yavapai were once bilingual in Apache, and some Apache were bilingual in Yavapai.
Unlike in Havasupai and Hualapai, postaspirated stops cannot appear in word-initial position (Shaterian 1983:215).
Yavapai has a large amount of consonant morphemes.
Vowels are /a/, /æ/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/.
Yavapai is a subject-verb-object language.
/-k/ and /-m/ Problem
According to Martha Kendall, the morphemes /k/ and /m/ are "semantically contrastable," but are pronounced the same. She writes that homophony is present in Yavapai, and /k/ and /m/ are similar in phonological situations, but are syntactically different.
Some sample words given in Yavapai translation:
|Home||Wah yoh woh|
|Grand Caynon||Mat K’i:la or Wika'ilaha|
There have been recordings of Yavapai (as well as other Yuman languages) done in 1974, relating to phonology, syntax, and grammar. This was meant to understand the three topics better and to hear them.
There is an effort to revitalize the language. There is a Yavapai language program for adults to learn the language and pass on to future generations.
There have been attempts to save the language in Yavapai community.
Poetry and stories have been published in Yavapai on several different occasions. Yavapai poems are featured in Gigyayk Vo'jka, the anthology of poetry in Yuman languages edited by Hualapai linguist Lucille Watahomigie. Yavapai stories also appear in Spirit Mountain: An Anthology of Yuman Story and Song. Both works are accompanied by English translations, and the poems in Gigyayk Vo'jka also feature a morphological analysis.
There is a published dictionary by Shaterian and an in process dictionary and grammar by Pamela Munro.
- Havasupai‑Walapai‑Yavapai at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Havasupai‑Walapai‑Yavapai". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yavapai". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Mierau, Eric (January 1963). "Concerning Yavapai-Apache Bilingualism". International Journal of American Linguistics. 29 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1086/464706.
- Shaterian, Alan (1983). Phonology and Dictionary of Yavapai.
- Kendall, Martha. "Relative Clause Formation and Topicalization in Yavapai". International Journal of American Linguistics.
- Kendall, Martha (1975). "The /-k/, /-m/ Problem in Yavapai Syntax". International Journal of American Linguistics.
- "Yavapai Apache Language".
- Kendall, Martha Oaks (Burnett); Sine, Harold (2017-03-09). "Yavapai linguistic material". Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- House, Deborah. "Yavapai Language Programs". Stabilizing Indigenous Languages.
- "Museum honors Yavapai elder for language work - USATODAY.com". usatoday30.usatoday.com. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- Biggs, Bruce. 1957. Testing Intelligibility among Yuman Languages. In International Journal of American Linguistics. Vol. 23, No. 2. (April 1957), pp. 57–62. University of Chicago Press.
- Mithun, Marianne. 1999. The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge University Press.
- Shaterian, Alan William. 1983. Phonology and Dictionary of Yavapai. University of California, Berkeley.
- "Language use by Yavapai-Apache students with recommendations for curriculum design". Journal of American Indian Education. 20 (1). October 1980. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Yavapai basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database
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