Yazidis on the mountain of Sinjar, Iraqi–Syrian border, 1920s.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Armenia||35,272 (2011 census)|
|Northern Kurdish (a.k.a. Ezdiki among some Yazidis)
|Baba Sheikh||Khurto Hajji Ismail|
|Other name(s)||Êzidî, Yazdani|
The Yazidis (also Yezidis, Êzidî; i// yə-ZEE-dees) are an ethnically Kurdish religious community or an ethno-religious group indigenous to northern Mesopotamia (see also Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous. Their religion, Yazidism is linked to ancient Mesopotamian religions and combines aspects of Zoroastrianism, Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Yazidis who marry non-Yazidis are automatically considered to be converted to the religion of their spouse and therefore are not permitted to call themselves Yazidis. They live primarily in the Nineveh Province of Iraq. Additional communities in Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, Iran, and Syria have been in decline since the 1990s as a result of significant migration to Europe, especially to Germany. The Yazidis' cultural practices are observably Kurdish, and almost all speak Kurmanji (Northern Kurdish). The Soviet Union considered the Yazidis to be Kurds, as does Sharaf Khan Bidlisi's Sheref-nameh of 1597, which cites seven of the Kurdish tribes as being at least partly Yazidi, and Kurdish tribal confederations as containing substantial Yazidi sections.
The Yazidis are monotheists, believing in God as creator of the world, which he has placed under the care of seven holy beings or angels, the chief of whom is Melek Taus, the Peacock Angel. The Peacock Angel, as world-ruler, causes both good and bad to befall individuals, and this ambivalent character is reflected in myths of his own temporary fall from God's favour, before his remorseful tears extinguished the fires of his hellish prison and he was reconciled with God.
This belief has been linked by some people to Sufi mystical reflections on Iblis, who also refused to prostrate to Adam despite God's express command to do so. Because of this similarity to the Sufi tradition of Iblis, some followers of other monotheistic religions of the region equate the Peacock Angel with their own unredeemed evil spirit Satan, which has incited centuries of persecution of the Yazidis as "devil worshippers". Persecution of Yazidis has continued in their home communities within the borders of modern Iraq, under fundamentalist Sunni Muslim revolutionaries.
On 7 April 2007 a crowd of up to 2000 Yazidi stoned 17-year-old Iraqi of the Yazidi faith Du'a Khalil Aswad to death. Rumors that the stoning was connected to her alleged conversion to Islam prompted reprisals against Yazidis by Sunnis, including the 2007 Mosul massacre.
- 1 Demographics
- 2 Origins
- 3 Religious beliefs
- 4 Organization
- 5 Religious practices
- 6 In other cultures
- 7 Yazidi communities
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
Historically, the Yazidis lived primarily in communities in locales that are in present-day Iraq, Turkey, and Syria, and also had significant numbers in Armenia, Georgia and Iran. However, events since the 20th century have resulted in considerable demographic shift in these areas as well as mass emigration. As a result, population estimates are unclear in many regions, and estimates of the size of the total population vary.
The bulk of the Yazidi population lives in Iraq, where they make up an important minority community. Estimates of the size of these communities vary significantly, between 70,000 and 500,000. They are particularly concentrated in northern Iraq in the Nineveh Province. The two biggest communities are in Shekhan, northeast of Mosul, and in Sinjar, at the Syrian border 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of Mosul. In Shekhan is the shrine of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir at Lalish. During the 20th century, the Shekhan community struggled for dominance with the more conservative Sinjar community. The demographic profile has probably changed considerably since the beginning of the Iraq War in 2003 and the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime.
Yazidis in Syria live primarily in two communities, one in the Al-Jazira area and the other in the Kurd-Dagh. Population numbers for the Syrian Yazidi community are unclear. In 1963, the community was estimated at about 10,000, according to the national census, but numbers for 1987 were unavailable. There may be between about 12,000 and 15,000 Yazidis in Syria today, though more than half of the community may have emigrated from Syria since the 1980s. Estimates are further complicated by the arrival of as many as 50,000 Yazidi refugees from Iraq during the Iraq War.
According to the Human Rights Watch in 2009, some Yazidis who had previously lived under Arabization process of Saddam Hussein complained about the political tactics of the Kurdistan Regional Government that were intended to make Yazidis identify themselves as Kurds.
The Kurdish Yazidi community of Turkey declined precipitously during the 20th century. By 1982, the community had decreased to about 30,000, and in 2009 there were fewer than 500. Most of them have immigrated to Europe, particularly Germany; those who remain reside primarily in their former heartland of Tur Abdin. Population estimates for the communities in Georgia and Armenia vary, but they too have declined severely. In Georgia, the community fell from around 30,000 people to fewer than 5,000 during the 1990s. The numbers in Armenia may have been somewhat more stable; there may be around 40,000 Yazidis still in Armenia. Most Georgian and Armenian Yazidis have relocated to Russia, which recorded a population of 31,273 Yazidis in the 2002 census.
This mass emigration has resulted in the establishment of large Yazidi diaspora communities abroad. The most significant of these is in Germany, which now has a Yazidi community of more than 100,000 Yazidis living primarily in Celle, Bremen, Bad Oeynhausen, and Oldenburg. Most are from Turkey and, more recently, Iraq and live in the western states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Since 2008, Sweden has seen sizeable growth in its Yazidi emigrant community, which had grown to around 4,000 by 2010, and a smaller community exists in the Netherlands. Other Yazidi diaspora groups live in Belgium, Denmark, France, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Australia; these have a total population of probably less than 5,000.
In August 2007, some 500 Yazidis were killed in a coordinated series of bombings in Qahtaniya that became the deadliest suicide attack since the Iraq War began. In August 2009, at least 20 people were killed and 30 wounded in a double suicide bombing in northern Iraq, an Iraqi Interior Ministry official said. Two suicide bombers with explosive vests carried out the attack at a cafe in Sinjar, west of Mosul. In Sinjar, many townspeople are members of the Yazidi minority.
The Salafist militant group calling itself the "Islamic State", which considers the Yazidis devil-worshippers, captured Sinjar in August 2014 following the withdrawal of Peshmerga troops of Masoud Barzani, forcing up to 50,000 Yazidis to flee into the nearby mountainous region. Threatened with death at the hands of Islamist militants, they faced starvation in the mountains, leading the Kurdish armed groups from Turkey and Syria come to rescue them. Their plight received international media coverage, which led the US President Barack Obama to authorize humanitarian air drops of food and water onto Sinjar Mountain and US airstrikes against militants in support of the beleaguered religious minority. American humanitarian assistance began on 7 August 2014, with Royal Air Force subsequently contributing to the relief effort. At an emergency meeting in London, Australian prime minister Tony Abbott also pledged humanitarian support, while European nations resolved to join the US in helping to arm Peshmerga fighters aiding the Yazidis with more advanced weaponry. Although Kurdish troops managed to rescue thousand of Yazidi refugees via a humanitarian corridor, helping them cross the Tigris into Syria, one relief worker in the evacuation operation described the conditions on Mount Sinjar as "a genocide", having witnessed hundreds of corpses.
The Yazidi people speak Kurmanji Kurdish and adhere to the religion Yazidism, a branch of Yazdânism which is a pre-Islamic, native religion of the Kurds. It's rooted in Iranian religions blended with elements of pre-Islamic ancient Mesopotamian religious traditions and Zoroastrianism. Their cultural practices are observed in Kurdish, which is also the language of almost all the orally transmitted religious traditions of the Yazidis. Although they speak mostly Kurdish, their exact origin is disputed. Commentators identify the Yazidis as predominantly Kurds but according to some sources, they tend to regard themselves as distinct from Kurds. There are also small Yazidi communities in the villages of Bashiqa and Bahazane, that speak Arabic as their native language. According to the report published by UNCHR, the Yazidis can be classified as a distinct religious group but it's disputed, even among the community itself as well as among Kurds, whether they are ethnically Kurds or form a distinct ethnic group. In Armenia, the Yazidis are recognized as a distinct ethnic group.
Their principal holy site is in Lalish, northeast of Mosul. The Yazidis' own name for themselves is Êzidî or Êzîdî or, in some areas, Dasinî (the latter, strictly speaking, is a tribal name). Some scholars have derived the name "Yazidi" from Old Iranian yazata "divine being", and some Yazidis themselves believe that their name is derived from the word Yezdan or Êzid "God", though the current consensus among Western academics support the widespread idea that it is a derivation from Umayyad Caliph Yazid I (Yazid bin Muawiyah), who is revered as Sultan Ezi.
The religion of the Yazidis, Yazidism, is a kind of Yazdânism and has many influences: Sufi influence and imagery can be seen in the religious vocabulary, especially in the terminology of the Yazidis' esoteric literature, but much of the theology is non-Islamic. Their cosmogonies apparently have many points in common with those of ancient Persian religions. Early writers attempted to describe Yazidi origins, broadly speaking, in terms of Islam, or Persian, or sometimes even "pagan" religions; however, research published since the 1990s has shown such an approach to be simplistic.
The origin of Yazidism is now usually seen by scholars as a complex process of syncretism, whereby the belief system and practices of a local faith had a profound influence on the religiosity of adherents of the 'Adawiyya Sufi order living in the Yezidi mountains, and caused it to deviate from Islamic norms relatively soon after the death of its founder, Shaykh 'Adī ibn Musafir, who is said to be of Umayyad descent. He settled in the valley of Laliş (some 58 kilometres (36 mi) northeast of Mosul) in the early 12th century. Şêx Adî himself, a figure of undoubted orthodoxy, enjoyed widespread influence. He died in 1162, and his tomb at Laliş is a focal point of Yazidi pilgrimage.
According to the Yezidi calendar, April 2012 marked the beginning of their year 6,762 (thereby year 1 would have been in 4,750 BC in the Gregorian calendar).
During the 14th century, important Yazidi tribes whose sphere of influence stretched well into what is now Turkey (including, for a period, the rulers of the principality of Jazira) are cited in historical sources as Yazidi. According to Moḥammed Aš-Šahrastani,[who?] "The Yezidis are the followers of Yezîd bn Unaisa, who [said that he] kept friendship with the first Muhakkama before the Azariḳa. ... It is clear, then, that Aš-Šahrastani finds the religious origin of this interesting people in the person of Yezîd bn Unaisa. ... We are to understand, therefore, that to the knowledge of the writer, bn Unaisa is the founder of the Yezidi sect, which took its name from him. ... Now, the first Muhakkamah is an appellative applied to the Muslim schismatics called Al-Ḫawarij. ... According to this it might be inferred that the Yezidis were originally a Ḫarijite sub-sect. ... Yezid moreover, is said to have been in sympathy with Al-Abaḍiyah, a sect founded by 'Abd-Allah Ibn Ibaḍ."
Yazidis are monotheists, believing in one God, who created the world and entrusted it into the care of a Heptad of seven Holy Beings, often known as Angels or heft sirr (the Seven Mysteries). Preeminent among these is Tawûsê Melek (frequently known as "Melek Taus" in English publications), the Peacock Angel.
The Yazidis believe in a divine triad, like the Alawites. The original god of the Yazidis is considered to be remote and inactive in relation to his creation. His first emanation is Tawûsê Melek, who functions as the ruler of the world. The second hypostasis of this trinity is Sheikh Adî. The third is Sultan Ezid. These are the three hypostases of the one God. The identity of these three is sometimes blurred, with Sheikh Adî considered to be a manifestation of Tawûsê Melek and vice versa. The same also applies to Sultan Ezid. Besides the triad, the second peculiar feature of Yazidi belief is the similarity between Tawûsê Melek and the Abrahamic Satan (the Islamic Iblīs). A popular Yazidi story narrates the fall of Tawûsê Melek and his subsequent rejection by humanity, with the exception of the Yazidis.
The Kitêba Cilwe "Book of Illumination", which claims to be the words of Tawûsê Melek, and which presumably represents Yazidi belief, states that he allocates responsibilities, blessings and misfortunes as he sees fit and that it is not for the race of Adam to question him. Sheikh Adî believed that the spirit of Tawûsê Melek was the same as his own, perhaps as a reincarnation. He is reported to have said:
I was present when Adam was living in Paradise, and also when Nemrud threw Abraham in fire. I was present when God said to me: 'You are the ruler and Lord on the Earth'. God, the compassionate, gave me seven earths and throne of the heaven.
Yazidi accounts of creation differ from that of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. They believe that God first created Tawûsê Melek from his own (God's) illumination (Ronahî) and the other six archangels were created later. God ordered Tawûsê Melek not to bow to other beings. Then God created the other archangels and ordered them to bring him dust (Ax) from the Earth (Erd) and build the body of Adam. Then, God gave life to Adam from his own breath and instructed all archangels to bow to Adam. The archangels obeyed except for Tawûsê Melek. In answer to God, Tawûsê Melek replied, "How can I submit to another being! I am from your illumination while Adam is made of dust." Then, God praised him and made him the leader of all angels and his deputy on the Earth. (This probably furthers what some see as a connection to the Islamic Shaytan, as according to the Quran, he too refused to bow to Adam at God's command, though in this case it is seen as being a sign of Shaytan's sinful pride.) Hence, the Yazidis believe that Tawûsê Melek is the representative of God on the face of the Earth and comes down to the Earth on the first Wednesday of Nisan (April). Yazidis hold that God created Tawûsê Melek on this day, and celebrate it as New Year's Day. Yazidis argue that the order to bow to Adam was only a test for Tawûsê Melek, since if God commands anything then it must happen. (Bibe, dibe). In other words, God could have made him submit to Adam, but gave Tawûsê Melek the choice as a test. They believe that their respect and praise for Tawûsê Melek is a way to acknowledge his majestic and sublime nature. This idea is called "Knowledge of the Sublime" (Zanista Ciwaniyê). Şêx Adî has observed the story of Tawûsê Melek and believed in him.
One of the key creation beliefs held by Yazidis is that they are the descendants of Adam through his son Shehid bin Jer rather than Eve. The Yazidis believe that Adam was able to produce offspring on his own. Tawûsê Melek had the couple place their reproductive fluids in jars and store them for several months. When each jar was opened several months later, Eve's was found to contain vermin and insects, and Adam's was found to have contained a beautiful baby boy, Shehid bin Jer. The Yazidis believe they are the offspring of Shehid bin Jer and that the rest of humanity are the offspring through a mix of Adam and Eve's genetics.
The Yazidi holy books are claimed to be the Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Revelation) and the Mishefa Reş (Black Book). However, scholars generally agree that the manuscripts of both books published in 1911 and 1913 were forgeries written by non-Yazidis in response to Western travellers' and scholars' interest in the Yazidi religion; the material in them is consistent with authentic Yazidi traditions, however. True texts of those names may have existed, but remain obscure. The real core texts of the religion that exist today are the hymns known as qawls; they have also been orally transmitted during most of their history, but are now being collected with the assent of the community, effectively transforming Yazidism into a scriptural religion. The qawls are full of cryptic allusions and usually need to be accompanied by čirōks or 'stories' that explain their context.
A belief in the reincarnation of lesser Yazidi souls also exists. Like the Ahl-e Haqq, the Yazidis use the metaphor of a change of garment to describe the process, which they call kiras guhorîn in Kurmanji (changing the garment). Spiritual purification of the soul can be attained via continual reincarnation within the faith group, but it can also be halted by means of expulsion from the Yazidi community; this is the worst possible fate, since the soul's spiritual progress halts and conversion back into the faith is impossible. Alongside this notion of continuous rebirth, Yazidi theology also includes descriptions of heaven and hell, with hell extinguished, and other traditions incorporating these ideas into a belief system that includes reincarnation.
Tawûsê Melek is often identified by Muslims and Christians with Shaitan (Satan). Yazidis, however, believe Tawûsê Melek is not a source of evil or wickedness. They consider him to be the leader of the archangels, not a fallen angel.
"The Yazidis of Kurdistan have been called many things, most notoriously 'devil-worshippers,' a term used both by unsympathetic neighbours and fascinated Westerners. This sensational epithet is not only deeply offensive to the Yazidis themselves, but quite simply wrong." Non-Yazidis have associated Melek Taus with Shaitan (Islamic/Arab name) or Satan, but Yazidis find that offensive and do not actually mention that name.
According to claims in Encyclopedia of the Orient,
Comparison with other traditions
The Theosophical Society society believes that Sanat Kumara is the ruler of the world. The Society also believes in a trinity of divine hypostases, the first of which is represented by a being called the “Lord of the World.” Outsiders have, at times, viewed the Theosophical Society as worshiping Satan, due to the similarities between the Theosophical Sanat Kumara and the Biblical Lucifer and/or Satan. A 2002 book by Mark Pinkham attempts to link the Yazidi myth of the Peacock Angel to Christ. His claim is that Tawûsê Melek and the Theosophical Sanat Kumara are more or less the same individual, and that upon the fall of the Peacock Angel, evil entered the world, causing duality to enter Tawûsê Melek's being. The Peacock Angel's higher self was therefore represented by Christ, the historical Jesus being Sananda Kumara, Sanat Kumara's brother. This is the mystical explanation for Christ's statement: "I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven." The Angel's fallen state was represented by his being called Satan and his outcast nature. But the truth is that Christ and the Angel are one and the same. Pinkham claims that for this reason, the Yazidis refuse to refer to Tawûsê Melek as Satan, as this introduces time and duality into his being, by refusing to acknowledge Tawûsê Melek's eventual and predestined redemption, wherein he merges with Christ (his higher self).
Pinkham predicts that the bipolar nature of the Peacock Angel (i.e. Christ and Satan) did not exist until after his fall, but that the Angel will eventually succeed in redeeming himself, thereby symbolically returning as Christ (via uniting with Christ; Pinkham uses a kundalini metaphor to describe the Devil's ascent from the depths of Hell to the crown of Christ, the moment these two unite will serve as the redemption of the Angel) and fulfilling the messianic prophecies of the world. The redemption of the Peacock Angel therefore serves as the redemption of the entire world and the ushering in of the eternal kingdom of God.
The distinction between the Theosophical belief and the classic Yazidi belief, is that the office of “Lord of the World,” is merely an initiation taken by an individual soul. The ninth initiation, in Theosophy, is the last initiation available on Earth. All other initiations are extra-planetary. Each solar system has only a need for a certain amount of initiates. According to Leadbeater, there is only one individual on Earth on the ninth initiation at a time. The Earth undergoes three ages, the last of which is an eschatological age. A particular “Lord of the World” serves for each age. The last “Lord of the World” has a difficult task as it involves tying up and rounding off all unfinished souls before the end of the age. Every individual who takes the ninth initiation will in some sense experience a fall or incarnation, a la Tawûsê Melek or Satan. Every individual who takes the ninth initiation also rules the world. Leadbeater claims that each solar system (“world system”) only has one Buddha at a time, if that Buddha wishes to advance further on the ladder without changing solar systems, he must take the ninth initiation (the “Buddha-initiation” is the eighth initiation).
The Ahl-i Haqq and the Nusayris
Leadbeater's schema does not include the existence of higher initiations that exist above the ninth one. The only “thing” above the “Lord of the World” is the “Trinity of the Logos,” a divine and limitless entity that resides inside the sun (acc. Blavatsky). In this sense, the Yazidi tradition squares with the Nusayri tradition. For the Alawites, ‘Ali was a mere docetic appearance of the supreme deity. This squares with Leadbeater's claim that the first person of the trinity does not descend below the mental plane (physical incarnation is impossible). The angels of the Logos and the Logos itself are all immaterial, being outside of this world. However, the Earthly representative of the Logos, is the “Ruler of the World,” AKA Tawûsê Melek. This squares with the Yazidi claim that Tawûsê Melek is an emanation of God, but not God himself. A sect of the Ahl-i Haqq, who tend to deify ‘Ali, believe that Tawûsê Melek is merely an incarnation of ‘Ali and serves as his representative on Earth. Interestingly enough, the Alawites tend to associate ‘Ali with the sun.
Yazidi society is hierarchical. The secular leader is a hereditary emir or prince, whereas a chief sheikh heads the religious hierarchy. The Yazidis are strictly endogamous; members of the three Yazidi castes, the murids, sheikhs and pirs, marry only within their group, marriage outside the caste is considered a sin punishable by death to restore lost honour. The current hereditary emir of the world's Yazidi is Prince Tahseen Said.
Yazidis have five daily prayers:
Nivêja berîspêdê (the Dawn Prayer), Nivêja rojhilatinê (the Sunrise Prayer), Nivêja nîvro (the Noon Prayer), Nivêja êvarî (the Afternoon Prayer), Nivêja rojavabûnê (the Sunset Prayer). However, most Yezidis observe only two of these, the sunrise and sunset prayers.
Worshipers should turn their face toward the sun, and for the noon prayer, they should face toward Laliş. Such prayer should be accompanied by certain gestures, including kissing the rounded neck (gerîvan) of the sacred shirt (kiras). The daily prayer services must not be performed in the presence of outsiders, and are always performed in the direction of the sun. Wednesday is the holy day, but Saturday is the day of rest. There is also a three-day fast in December.
The Yazidi New Year falls in Spring, on the first Wednesday of April (somewhat later than the Equinox). There is some lamentation by women in the cemeteries, to the accompaniment of the music of the Qewals, but the festival is generally characterized by joyous events: the music of dehol (drum) and zorna (shawm), communal dancing and meals, the decorating of eggs.
Similarly, the village Tawaf, a festival held in the spring in honour of the patron of the local shrine, has secular music, dance and meals in addition to the performance of sacred music. Another important festival is the Tawûsgeran (circulation of the peacock) where Qewals and other religious dignitaries visit Yazidi villages, bringing the senjaq, sacred images of a peacock made from brass symbolizing Tawûsê Melek. These are venerated, taxes are collected from the pious, sermons are preached and holy water distributed.
The greatest festival of the year for ordinary Yazidis is the Cejna Cemaiya "Feast of the Assembly" at Laliş, a seven-day occasion. A focus of widespread pilgrimage, this is an important time for social contact and affirmation of identity.
The religious centre of the event is the belief in an annual gathering of the Heptad in the holy place at this time. Rituals practised include the sacrifice of a bull at the shrine of Şêx Shams and the practice of sema.
A sacred microcosm of the world, as it were, it contains not only many shrines dedicated to the koasasa, but a number of other landmarks corresponding to other sites or symbols of significance in other faiths, including Pirra selat "Serat Bridge" and a mountain called Mt. Arafat. The two sacred springs are called Zamzam and Kaniya Sipî "The White Spring". If possible, Yazidis make at least one pilgrimage to Laliş during their lifetime, and those living in the region try to attend at least once a year for the autumn Feast of the Assembly which is celebrated from 23 Aylūl (September) to 1 Tashrīn (October). During the celebration, Yazidis bathe in the river, wash figures of Tawûsê Melek and light hundreds of lamps in the tombs of Şêx Adî and other saints. They sacrifice an ox, which is one reason they have been connected to Mithraism, in addition to the presence of the dog and serpent in their iconography. The sacrifice of the ox is meant to declare the arrival of fall and to ask for precipitation during winter to bring back life to the Earth in the next spring. Moreover, in astrology, the ox is the symbol of Tashrīn.
Purity and taboos
|This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (June 2015)|
The Yazidis' concern with religious purity, and their reluctance to mix elements perceived to be incompatible, is shown in not only their caste system, but also various taboos affecting everyday life. Some of these, such as those on insulting or offending men of religion or exogamy are both widely respected and severely enforced, such as the 2007 incident of the stoning of Du'a Khalil Aswad, suspected of both exogamy and conversion, afterwards, her body was tied to a car and dragged through the streets.
The purity of Earth, Air, Fire, and Water is protected by a number of taboos, e.g. against spitting on earth, water or fire. Some discourage spitting or pouring hot water on the ground because they believe that spirits or souls that may be present would be harmed or offended by such actions if they happen to be hit by the discarded liquid.
Too much contact with non-Yazidis is also considered polluting. In the past, Yazidis avoided military service which would have led them to live among Muslims, and were forbidden to share such items as cups or razors with outsiders. A resemblance to the external ear may lie behind the taboo against eating head lettuce, whose name koas resembles Yazidi pronunciations of koasasa. Additionally, lettuce grown near Mosul is thought by some Yazidis to be fertilized with human waste, which may contribute to the idea that it is unsuitable for consumption. However, in a BBC interview in April 2010, a senior Yazidi authority stated that ordinary Yazidis may eat what they want, but holy men refrain from certain vegetables (including cabbage) because "they cause gases".
Children are baptized at birth and circumcision is not required but is practiced by some due to regional customs. Dead are buried in conical tombs immediately after death and buried with hands crossed. Yazidis are dominantly monogamous but chiefs may be polygamous, having more than one wife. Yazidis are exclusively endogamous; clans do not intermarry even with other Kurds and accept no converts. They claim descent only from Adam and not from Eve. A severe punishment is expulsion, which is also effectively excommunication as the soul of the exilee is forfeit.
The tale of the Yazidis' origin found in the Black Book gives them a distinctive ancestry and expresses their feeling of difference from other races. Before the roles of the sexes were determined, Adam and Eve quarrelled about which of them provided the creative element in the begetting of children. Each stored their seed in a jar which was then sealed. When Eve's was opened it was full of insects and other unpleasant creatures, but inside Adam's jar was a beautiful boychild. This lovely child, known as son of Jar grew up to marry a houri and became the ancestor of the Yazidis. Therefore, the Yazidis regard themselves as descending from Adam alone, while other humans are descendants of both Adam and Eve.
In other cultures
Under the Ottoman Empire
A large Yazidi community existed in Syria, but they declined due to persecution by the Ottoman Empire. Several punitive expeditions were organized against the Yazidis by the Ottoman governors (Wāli) of Diyarbakir, Mosul and Baghdad. The objective of these persecutions was the forced conversion of Yazidis to the Sunni Hanafi Islam of the Ottoman Empire.
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Feleknas Uca, a Yazidi Member of the European Parliament for Germany's Party of Democratic Socialism, was the world's only Yazidi parliamentarian until the Iraqi legislature was elected in 2005. European Yazidis have contributed to the academic community, such as Khalil Rashow in Germany and Jalile Jalil in Austria.
In May 2012, five members of a Yazidi family living in Detmold, Germany, were convicted for having murdered their sister in a so-called "honour killing" and sentenced to terms ranging from five-and-a-half years to life in prison. The victim was 18-year-old Arzu Özmen (also spelled Ozmen outside Germany), who fell in love with a German journeyman baker and ran away from her family, violating the exogamy taboo. In November 2011, her siblings abducted her and brother Osman killed her with two shots in the head.
The Yazidi population in Georgia has been dwindling since the 1990s, mostly due to economic migration to Russia and the West. According to a census carried out in 1989, there were over 30,000 Yazidis in Georgia; according to the 2002 census, however, only around 18,000 Yazidis remained in Georgia. Today they number around 6,000 by some estimates, including recent refugees from Sinjar in Iraq, who fled to Georgia following persecution by ISIL.
On 16 June 2015, Yazidis celebrated the opening of a temple and a cultural centre named after Sultan Ezid in Varketili, a suburb of Tbilisi. This is the third such temple in the world after those in Iraqi Kurdistan and Armenia.
In Western theological references
As the Yazidis hold religious beliefs that are mostly unfamiliar to outsiders, many non-Yazidi people have written about them and ascribed to their beliefs facts that have dubious historical validity. The Yazidis, perhaps because of their secrecy, also have a place in modern occultism. George Gurdjieff wrote about his encounters with the Yazidis several times in his book Meetings with Remarkable Men, mentioning that they are considered to be "devil worshippers" by other ethnicities in the region. Also, in Peter Ouspensky's book "In Search of the Miraculous", he describes some strange customs that Gurdjieff observed in Yezidi boys: "He told me, among other things, that when he was a child he had often observed how Yezidi boys were unable to step out of a circle traced round them on the ground" (p. 36)
The Theosophical Society, in its electronic version of the Encyclopedic Theosophical Glossary states:
Yezidis (Arabic) [possibly from Persian yazdan god; or the 2nd Umayyad Caliph, Yazid (r. 680–683); or Persian city Yezd] A sect dwelling principally in Iraq, Armenia, and the Caucasus, who call themselves Dasni. Their religious beliefs take on the characteristics of their surrounding peoples, inasmuch as, openly or publicly, they regard Mohammed as a prophet, and Jesus Christ as an angel in human form. Points of resemblance are found with ancient Zoroastrian and Assyrian religion. The principal feature of their worship, however, is Satan under the name of Muluk-Taus. However, it is not the Christian Satan, nor the devil in any form; their Muluk-Taus is the hundred- or thousand-eyed cosmic wisdom, pictured as a bird (the peacock).
Idries Shah, writing under the pen-name Arkon Daraul, in the 1961 book Secret Societies Yesterday and Today, describes discovering a Yazidi-influenced secret society in the London suburbs called the "Order of the Peacock Angel." Shah claimed Tawûsê Melek could be understood, from the Sufi viewpoint, as an allegory of the higher powers in humanity.
In Western literature
In William Seabrook's book Adventures in Arabia, the fourth section, starting with Chapter 14, is devoted to the "Yezidees", and is titled "Among the Yezidees". He describes them as "a mysterious sect scattered throughout the Orient, strongest in North Arabia, feared and hated both by Moslem and Christian, because they are worshipers of Satan." In the three chapters of the book, he completely describes the area, including the fact that this territory, including their holiest city of Sheik-Adi, was not part of "Irak".
In her memoir of her service with an intelligence unit of the US Army's 101st Airborne Division in Iraq during 2003 and 2004, Kayla Williams (2005) records being stationed in northern Iraq near the Syrian border in an area inhabited by "Yezidis". The Yezidis were Kurdish-speaking, but did not consider themselves Kurds, and expressed to Williams a fondness for America and Israel. She was able to learn only a little about the nature of their religion: she thought it very ancient, and concerned with angels. She describes a mountain-top Yezidi shrine as "a small rock building with objects dangling from the ceiling", and alcoves for the placement of offerings. She reported that local Muslims considered the Yezidis to be devil worshippers.
In an October 2006 article in The New Republic, Lawrence F. Kaplan echoes Williams's sentiments about the enthusiasm of the Yazidis for the American occupation of Iraq, in part because the Americans protect them from oppression by militant Muslims and the nearby Kurds. Kaplan notes that the peace and calm of Sinjar is virtually unique in Iraq: "Parents and children line the streets when U.S. patrols pass by, while Yazidi clerics pray for the welfare of U.S. forces."
A fictional Yazidi character of note is the super-powered police officer King Peacock of the Top 10 series (and related comics). He is portrayed as a kind, peaceful character with a broad knowledge of religion and mythology. He is depicted as conservative, ethical, and highly principled in family life. An incredibly powerful martial artist, he is able to perceive and strike at his opponent's weakest spots, a power that he claims is derived from communicating with Malek Ta'us.
The Yazidis play a significant role in the thriller Genesis Secret, by Tom Knox, which was an international best-seller in 2006, published in 23 languages. In the book, the Yazidis are portrayed as ancient guardians of the megalithic site, Gobekli Tepe, in Kurdish Turkey.
Tony Lagouranis comments on a Yazidi prisoner in his book Fear Up Harsh: An Army Interrogator's Dark Journey through Iraq:
There's a lot of mystery surrounding the Yazidi, and a lot of contradictory information. But I was drawn to this aspect of their beliefs: Yazidi don't have a Satan. Malak Ta'us, an archangel, God's favorite, was not thrown out of heaven the way Satan was. Instead, he descended, saw the suffering and pain of the world, and cried. His tears, thousands of years' worth, fell on the fires of hell, extinguishing them. If there is evil in the world, it does not come from a fallen angel or from the fires of hell. The evil in this world is man-made. Nevertheless, humans can, like Malak Ta'us, live in this world but still be good.
Persecution by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)
In 2014, with the territorial gains of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) there was much upheaval in the Iraqi Yazidi population. In early August the town of Sinjar was nearly deserted as Kurdish Peshmerga forces were no longer able to keep ISIL forces from advancing. ISIL had previously declared the Yazidis to be devil worshippers and had taken the two nearby small oil fields and the town of Zumar as part of a plan to try to seize Mosul's hydroelectric dam.
In Sinjar, ISIL destroyed a Shiite shrine and demanded that the remaining population convert to their version of Islam, pay jizya (a religious tax) or be executed. Up to 200,000 people (including an estimated 40,000 Yazidi) fled the city before it was captured by ISIL forces, giving rise to fears of a humanitarian tragedy. Alongside the local Yazidis fleeing Sinjar were Yazidis (and Shiites) who fled to the city a month earlier when ISIL captured the town of Tal Afar.
Most of the population fleeing Sinjar retreated by trekking up nearby mountains with the ultimate goal of reaching Dohuk in Iraqi Kurdistan (normally a five-hour drive by car). Concerns for elderly and those of fragile health were expressed by the refugees, who told reporters of their lack of water. Reports coming from Sinjar stated that sick or elderly Yazidi who could not make the trek were being executed by ISIL. Yazidi parliamentarian Haji Ghandour told reporters that "In our history, we have suffered 72 massacres. We are worried Sinjar could be a 73rd." UN groups say at least 40,000 members of the Yazidi sect, many of them women and children, have taken refuge in nine locations on Mount Sinjar, a craggy, 1,400 m (4,600 ft) high ridge identified in local legend as the final resting place of Noah's ark, facing slaughter at the hands of jihadists surrounding them below if they flee, or death by dehydration if they stay. United States President Barack Obama has authorised "targeted airstrikes" against Islamic militants to protect American military personnel and airdrops of meals and water to thousands of Yazidi and Christian religious minorities trapped on the mountaintop in northwest Iraq. Between 20,000 and 30,000 Yazidis, most of them women and children, besieged by ISIL, escaped from the mountain after the YPG and PKK opened corridor for them. The Yazidi minority surrounded by Islamist militants on Mount Sinjar were escorted back to Iraqi Kurdistan by Peshmerga and YPG forces after fleeing via Syria, Kurdish officials have said. Later PKK and YPG fighters with Peshmergas and support of the US airstrikes helped the rest of trapped Yazidis to espace from the mountain. Yazidi girls in Iraq allegedly raped by ISIL fighters have committed suicide by jumping to their death from Mount Sinjar, as described in a witness statement.
Captured women are treated as sex slaves or spoils of war, some are driven to suicide. Women and girls who convert to Islam are sold as brides, those who refuse to convert are tortured, raped and eventually murdered. Babies born in the prison where the women are held are taken from their mothers to an unknown fate.
Haleh Esfandiari from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars has highlighted the abuse of local women by ISIL militants after they have captured an area. "They usually take the older women to a makeshift slave market and try to sell them. The younger girls ... are raped or married off to fighters", she said, adding, "It's based on temporary marriages, and once these fighters have had sex with these young girls, they just pass them on to other fighters." Speaking of Yazidi women captured by ISIL, Nazand Begikhani said "[t]hese women have been treated like cattle... They have been subjected to physical and sexual violence, including systematic rape and sex slavery. They've been exposed in markets in Mosul and in Raqqa, Syria, carrying price tags." Dr. Widad Akrawi said that ISIL uses slavery and rape as weapons of war.
In September 2014, Defend International launched a worldwide campaign entitled "Save The Yazidis: The World Has To Act Now" to raise awareness about the tragedy of the Yazidis in Sinjar and to co-ordinate activities related to intensifying efforts aimed at rescuing Yazidi and Christian women and girls captured by ISIL. In October 2014 the United Nations reported that more than 5,000 Yazidis had been murdered and 5,000 to 7,000 (mostly women and children) had been abducted by the ISIL. In the same month, President of Defend International dedicated her 2014 International Pfeffer Peace Award to the Yazidis. She asked the international community to make sure that the victims are not forgotten; they should be rescued, protected, fully assisted and compensated fairly.
ISIS has, in their digital magazine Dabiq, explicitly claimed religious justification for enslaving Yazidi women. According to The Wall Street Journal, ISIL appeals to apocalyptic beliefs and claims "justification by a Hadith that they interpret as portraying the revival of slavery as a precursor to the end of the world". A pamphlet has surfaced[when?] purporting to be from IS and stating their interpretation of Islam that sex slavery is for them permissible. Mainstream Islam disagrees. In December 2014, Amnesty International published a report. Despite the oppression Yazidis' women have sustained, they have appeared on the news as examples of retaliation. They have received training, and taken positions at the frontlines of the fighting, making up about a third of the Kurd-Yazidi coalition forces, and have distinguished themselves as warriors.
The vast majority of Yazidis live in Iraq. According to the HRW, Yazidis were under arabization process of Saddam Hussein between 1970 and 2003.
A report from Human Rights Watch (HRW), in 2009, declares that to incorporate disputed territories in northern Iraq—particularly the Nineveh province—into the Kurdish region, the KDP authorities had used KRG's political and economical resources to make Yazidis identify themselves as Kurds. The HRW report also criticizes heavy-handed tactics."
- Minority politics in Iraq
- Yazidis in Armenia
- Yazidis in Germany
- Yazidis in Syria
- Yezidian Academy
- Malik Al-Tawus Troop
- Allison, Christine (2004-02-20). "Yazidis i: General". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 20 August 2010.
There are probably some 200,000–300,000 Yazidis worldwide.
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The Yezidis speak Kurmanji, a Northern-Kurdish dialect related to the North-West Iranian dialects). In order to underscore their separate identity the Yezidis call their language Ezdiki
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- *The Religion of the Yezidis: Religious Texts of the Yezidis: Translation, Introd. and Notes, by Giuseppe Furlani, J.M. Unvala, 1940 -- "The religion of the Yezidis is monotheistic" pg. 3
- The Yezidis: The History of a Community, Culture and Religion, by Birgul Acikyildizm, I.B.Tauris, August 20, 2014 -- "...the monotheism of the Yezidis..." pg. 71
- Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, by Barbara A. West, Infobase Publishing, January 1, 2009 -- "... the ancient Yezidi religion (monotheist with elements of nature worship) ..." p. 53
- Religious Freedom in the World, by Paul A. Marshall, Rowman & Littlefield, 2000 -- "The Ezidi ('Yezidi') religion, a monotheistic faith ..." p. 212
- Empson, R.H.W. (1928). The Cult of the Peacock Angel. London: H.F. & G. Witherby. p. 184.
In connection with the Yezidi beliefs in Shaitan, Melak Ta'us and Hell, there is a consideration which may be of great important in the inquiry into the memories conveyed in the term Melak Ta'us. In modern Yezidi belief there is no Hell, as it was extinguished by the weeping of a diseased child, who cried into a yellow (asfar) jar for seven years, and this was emptied over the fire of Hell and extinguished them. This child is variously named Abrik Shautha and Ibrik al-Asfar (the Yellow). A variant of the legend says it was the weeping of Shaitan during his seven thousand years of exile in Hell that extinguished the fires. With reference to these legends it has been suggested that Melak Ta'us is a memory of Ta'uz, said to be a form of the very ancient Babylonian hero-god Tammuz, and it is to be remembered that weeping for the terrible legendary sufferings in the seven forms of death to which he was subjected is a prominent feature in the ceremonies once celebrated in connection with Tammuz.
- Asatrian and Arakelova 2014, 26–29
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Recently, Yazidis in Armenia tried to establish themselves as an independent, non-Kurdish ethnic group for political reasons...
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- Asatrian, Garnik S.; Arakelova, Victoria (2014). The Religion of the Peacock Angel. Routledge. p. 3.
A careful analysis of the Yezidi triad will show its component deities to be unambiguous manifestations of the one god worshipped by adherents. … The Yezidi triad comprises the following: Malak-Tawus, the Peacock-Angel (in the Yezidi imagination being featured as a bird, a peacock or a cock, and sometimes even a dove); Sheikh ‘Adi (Seyx ‘Adi = Sheikh ‘Adi bin Musafir, a historical personality, the founder of the proto-Yezidi community, as an old man); and Sultan Yezid (Silt’an Ezid, as a youth). All three characters are manifestations of god – xwade (or xwadi, xuda, the term deriving from the New Pers. xuday).
- "The Cult of Angels". Kurdistanica. July 17, 2008.
The Cult believes in a boundless, all encompassing, yet fully detached "Universal Spirit" (Haq), whose only involvement in the material world has been his primeval manifestation as a supreme avatar who after coming into being himself, created the material universe. (Haq, incidentally, is not derived from the Arabic homophone haqq, meaning "truth," as commonly and erroneously believed.) The Spirit has stayed out of the affairs of the material world except to contain and bind it together within his essence. The prime avatar who became the Creator is identified as the Lord God in all branches of the Cult except Yezidism, as discussed below.
- Asatrian, Garnik S.; Arakelova, Victoria (2014). The Religion of the Peacock Angel. Routledge. pp. 21–22.
A little star fell from heaven, said an ancient Yezidi legend, and hid in the depth of the then still dark earth. … That beam, that particle of endless light, was the great and glorious Melak-Tauz [sic!]; … he believed and hoped that a spark of the better light that had been brought by him would not be extinguished even among cruel and corrupt people, and the bright hope did not deceive Melak-Tauz. There came about kind people, pure in heart, who had preserved the unextinguished spark of endless light falling on earth as a bright start of heaven; they recognized and welcomed Melak-Tauz, … Those people were the Yezidis; until now they go after Melak-Tauz, hated and cursed by the whole world.
- "Yezidi Reformer: Sheikh Adi". The Truth about the Yezidis. YezidiTruth.org, A Humanitarian Organization, Sedona, Arizona. Archived from the original on 20 March 2008.
- Kjeilen, Tore. "Yazidism". Encyclopaedia. LookLex. Retrieved 2008-03-31.
Malak Taus filled 7 jars of tears through 7,000 years. His tears were used to extinguish the fire in hell. Therefore, there is no hell in Yazidism.
- "Yezidi Religious Tradition".
- Asatrian, Garnik S.; Arakelova, Victoria (2014). The Religion of the Peacock Angel. Routledge. p. 33.
This verse is interesting because it features the concept of the Yezidis having originated from Adam directly, rather from his union with Eve, as is the case with all the rest of mankind.
- Allison C 1998 The Evolution of Yazidi Religion From Spoken Word to Written Scripture. ISIM Newsletter. https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/16757/ISIM_1_The_Evolution_of_the_Yezidi_Religion_From_Spoken_Word_to_Written_Scripture.pdf?sequence=1
- "The Eternal Youth: Thoughts on Sanat Kumara". Aleph's Heretical Domain. April 21, 2014.
Some people, mostly Christians, equate Sanat Kumara with Lucifer/Satan, perhaps due to the fact that in Theosophical lore, Sanat Kumara arrived to Earth from Venus, just as Lucifer was associated with the morning star (Venus), as well as Sanat Kumara being referred to as King of the World or Lord of the World.
- "Luke 10:18". Bible Hub.
- Pinkham, Mark Amaru (2002). The Truth Behind the Christ Myth: The Redemption of the Peacock Angel. Adventures Unlimited Press.
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- Asatrian, Garnik S.; Arakelova, Victoria (2014). The Religion of the Peacock Angel. Routledge. p. 31.
Malak-Tawusis believe that ‘Ali had existed before the Creation as Perfect (Absolute) Light (nur-e mutlaq). Four servitor Angels were created from ‘Ali's pure essence … Israil from his tongue, and Malak-Amin (i.e. Malak-Tawus) as the reincarnation of ‘Ali (dun-e ‘Ali).
- Procházka, Stephan (September 2015). "The Alawis". Oxford Research Encyclopedias.
The deity is comparable to the sun in that He radiates light and heat forever.
- Christensen-Ernst, Jørgen (2012). Antioch on the Orontes. Hamilton Books. p. 146.
They expect to regain their former status, making themselves deserving this by living as good Nusayris during consecutive rebirths, eventually ending up as stars or perfect souls in heaven. Ali himself is the sun.
- Lyde, Samuel (1860). The Asian Mystery. p. 138.
From this reverence for light, since the sun is the light of lights, Ali is supposed to reside in the sun and in the eyes of the sun, from which he is said to appear; and when they pray, according to the Ansairee catechism, they turn their faces toward the sun.
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Yazidis pray three times a day, at dawn, midday and sunset, facing the direction of the sun each time. 'The sun is very holy to us,' said Walid Abu Khudur, the stocky, bearded guardian of the temple built in honor of a holy man here. 'It is like the eye of God, so we pray toward it.'... They have adopted Christian rituals like baptism and a smattering of practices from Islam ranging from circumcision to removal of their shoes inside their temples. The importance of fire as a divine manifestation comes from Zoroastrianism, the ancient Iranian faith that forms the core of Yazidi beliefs. Indeed their very name is likely taken from an old Persian word for angel.
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The Yazidis, who are part of Iraq's Yazidi minority, had 100 of 150 villages demolished during the counterinsurgency operation against the Kurdish rebel movement that reached its peak in 1988. The campaign, which moved hundreds of thousands of people to collective villages, saw 4,000 Yazidi villages dynamited into rubble. ... The sect follows the teachings of Sheik Adi, a holy man who died in 1162, and whose crypt lies in the shrine in the Lalish Valley, about 15 miles [24 km] east of Mosul. The shrine's graceful, fluted spires poke above the trees and dominate the fertile valley. ... Like Zoroastrians they venerate fire, the sun and the mulberry tree. They believe in the transmigration of souls, often into animals. The sect does not accept converts and banishes anyone who marries outside the faith. Yazidis are forbidden to disclose most of their rituals and beliefs to nonbelievers.
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In a dusty camp here, Iraqi refugees have new heroes: Syrian Kurdish fighters who battled militants to carve out an escape route for tens of thousands trapped on a mountaintop. While the U.S. and Iraqi militaries struggle to aid the starving members of Iraq's Yazidi minority with supply drops from the air, the Syrian Kurds took it on themselves to rescue them. The move underlined how they—like Iraqi Kurds—are using the region's conflicts to establish their own rule. For the past few days, fighters have been rescuing Yazidis from the mountain, transporting them into Syrian territory to give them first aid, food and water, and returning some to Iraq via a pontoon bridge. [...] The U.N. estimated around 50,000 Yazidis fled to the mountain. But by Sunday, Kurdish officials said at least 45,000 had crossed through the safe passage, leaving thousands more behind and suggesting the number of stranded was higher.
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- "Who, What, Why: Who are the Yazidis?" BBC News Magazine Monitor, 7 August 2014
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- "Being Yezidi", on Yezidi identity politics in Armenia, by Onnik Krikorian, first published by Transitions Online (2004).
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