Yehud (Persian province)

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Yehud Medinata
Province of Judah
c. 539 BCE–332 BCE
Flag of Yehud (Persian province)
Standard of Cyrus the Great
YehudObverse 1.jpg
Obverse of a silver coin of Jewish Yehud from the Persian period
Yehud (highlighted in pink) under Persian rule
Yehud (highlighted in pink) under Persian rule
StatusProvince of the Achaemenid Persian Empire
CapitalJerusalem
31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Coordinates: 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217
Common languagesAramaic, Hebrew, Old Persian
Religion
Second Temple Judaism, Samaritanism
Demonym(s)Jewish, Judean, JudahiteIsraelite
Historical eraAxial Age
c. 539 BCE
539 BCE
538 BCE
538 BCE
• Construction of the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem
520–515 BCE
332 BCE
CurrencyDaric, siglos
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Yehud (Babylonian province)
Coele-Syria
Today part of

Yehud, also known as Yehud Medinata[1][2][3][4][5] or Yehud Medinta[a] (lit.'Province of Judah'), was an administrative province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire in the region of Judea that functioned as a self-governing region under its local Jewish population. The province was a part of the Persian satrapy of Eber-Nari, and continued to exist for two centuries until its incorporation into the Hellenistic empires following the conquests of Alexander the Great.

The area of Persian Yehud corresponded to the previous Babylonian province of Yehud, which was formed after the fall of the Kingdom of Judah, the southern Israelite kingdom that had existed in the region prior to the Jewish–Babylonian War and subsequent Babylonian captivity. It had a considerably smaller population than that of the fallen kingdom. Yehud Medinata was the Aramaic-language name of the province, which was first introduced by the Babylonians during their governance of the same region prior to the Persian conquest in 539 BCE.[1]

Attempt at matching biblical to historical chronology[edit]

There is no complete agreement on the chronology of the Babylonian and Persian periods: the following table is used in this article, but alternative dates for many events are plausible. That is especially true of the chronological sequence of Ezra and Nehemiah, with Ezra 7:6–8 stating that Ezra came to Jerusalem "in the seventh year of Artaxerxes the King," without specifying whether he was Artaxerxes I (465–424 BCE) or Artaxerxes II (404–358 BCE). The probable date for his mission is 458 BCE, but it is possible that it took place in 397 BCE.[non-primary source needed]

Year Event
587 BCE Conquest of Jerusalem and destruction of Solomon's Temple by the Babylonians; second deportation (first deportation in 597); Gedaliah installed as governor in Mizpah
582? BCE Assassination of Gedaliah; refugees flee to Egypt; third deportation to Babylon
562 BCE Jeconiah, 19th king of Judah, deported and imprisoned in Babylon in 597, released; remains in Babylon
539 BCE Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II, ruled c. 559–530 BCE) and the Persian army conquer Babylon
538 BCE "Declaration of Cyrus" allowing Jews to return to Jerusalem
530 BCE Cambyses II (ruled 530–522 BCE) succeeds Cyrus
525 BCE Cambyses II conquers Egypt
522 BCE Darius I (ruled 522–486 BCE) succeeds Cambyses II
521 BCE Negotiations in Babylon between Darius I and the exiled Jews
520 BCE[10] Return to Jerusalem of Zerubbabel as the governor of Yehud and of Joshua the Priest as the High Priest of Israel
520–515 BCE[10] Rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem (Second Temple)
458? BCE Arrival in Jerusalem of Ezra (7th year of the reign of Artaxerxes I, ruled 465–424 BCE)
445/444 BCE Arrival in Jerusalem of Nehemiah (20th year of the reign of Artaxerxes I)
397? BCE
(possible)
Arrival in Jerusalem of Ezra (7th year of the reign of Artaxerxes II, ruled 404–358 BCE)
333/332 BCE Alexander the Great conquers the Mediterranean provinces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire; beginning of Hellenistic period

Background[edit]

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, including the province of Yehud.[11][12][13][14]

In the late-7th century BCE, Judah became a vassal-kingdom of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, but there were rival factions at the court in Jerusalem, some supporting loyalty to Babylon and others urging rebellion. In the early years of the 6th century BCE, despite the strong remonstrances of the prophet Jeremiah and others, the Judahite king Jehoiakim revolted against Nebuchadnezzar II. The revolt failed, and in 597 BCE, many Judahites, including the prophet Ezekiel, were exiled to Babylon. A few years later, Judah revolted yet again. In 589, Nebuchadnezzar again besieged Jerusalem, and many Jews fled to Moab, Ammon, Edom and other countries to seek refuge. The city fell after an 18-month siege and Nebuchadnezzar again pillaged and destroyed Jerusalem and burned the Temple. Thus, by 586 BCE, much of Judah was devastated, the royal family, the priesthood, and the scribes, the country's elite, were in exile in Babylon, and the former kingdom suffered a steep decline of both economy and population.[15]

The former kingdom of Judah then became a Babylonian province Yehud, with Gedaliah, a native Judahite, as governor (or possibly ruling as a puppet king). According to Miller and Hayes, the province included the towns of Bethel in the north, Mizpah, Jericho in the east, Jerusalem, Beth-Zur in the west and En-Gedi in the south.[16] The administrative centre of the province was Mizpah.[17] On hearing of the appointment, the Jews that had taken refuge in surrounding countries returned to Judah.[18][unreliable source?] However, before long, Gedaliah was assassinated by a member of the former royal house, and the Babylonian garrison was killed, triggering a mass movement of refugees to Egypt.[16] In Egypt, the refugees settled in Migdol, Tahpanhes, Noph, and Pathros,[19][unreliable source?] and Jeremiah went with them as moral guardian.

The numbers deported to Babylon or who made their way to Egypt and the remnant that remained in Yehud province and in surrounding countries are subject to academic debate. The Book of Jeremiah reports that a total of 4,600 were exiled to Babylon. To such numbers must be added those deported by Nebuchadnezzar in 597 BCE after the first siege to Jerusalem, when he deported the king of Judah, Jeconiah, and his court and other prominent citizens and craftsmen along with a sizable portion of the Jewish population of Judah, numbering about 10,000. The Book of Kings also suggests that it was 8,000.

History[edit]

Biblical version[edit]

Silver coin (gerah) minted in the Persian province of Yehud, dated c. 375-332 BCE. Obv: Bearded head wearing crown, possibly representing the Persian Great King. Rev: Falcon facing, head right, with wings spread; Paleo-Hebrew YHD to right.
Coins bearing the inscription YHD, or Yehud. The coin at top shows the god YHWH, the coin at bottom right has an image of the owl of Athena (Athenian coinage was the standard for Mediterranean trade).[20]

In 539 BCE, Babylon fell to the Persians. That event is dated securely from non-biblical sources. In his first year (538 BCE), Cyrus the Great decreed that the deportees in Babylon could return to Yehud and rebuild the Temple.[21] Led by Zerubbabel, 42,360 exiles returned to Yehud,[22] where he and Jeshua the priest, although they were in fear of the "people of the land", re-instituted sacrifices.[23]

According to Book of Ezra, Jeshua and Zerubbabel were frustrated in their efforts to rebuild the Temple by the enmity of the "people of the land" and the opposition of the governor of "Beyond-the-River" (the satrapy of which Yehud was a smaller unit). (Ezra 3–4:4) However, in the second year of Darius (520 BCE), Darius discovered the Decree of Cyrus in the archives and directed the satrap to support the work, which he did, and the Temple was completed in the sixth year of Darius (516/515 BCE). (Ezra 6:15)

The Book of Ezra dates Ezra's arrival in Jerusalem to the second year of Artaxerxes. Its position in the narrative implies that he was Artaxerxes I in which case the year was 458 BCE. Ezra, a scholar of the commandments of Yahweh, was commissioned by Artaxerxes to rebuild the Temple and enforce the laws of Moses in Beyond-the-River. Ezra led a large party of exiles back to Yehud, where he found that Jews had intermarried with the "peoples of the land" and immediately banned intermarriage. (Ezra 6–10)

In the 20th year of Artaxerxes (almost definitely Artaxerxes I, whose twentieth year was 445/444 BCE) Nehemiah, the cup-bearer to the king and in a high official post, was informed that the wall of Jerusalem had been destroyed and was granted permission to return to Jerusalem to rebuild it. He succeeded in doing so but encountered strong resistance from the "people of the land", the officials of Samaria (the province immediately to the north of Yehud, the former kingdom of Israel) and other provinces and peoples around Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 1–7)

In chapter 8, the Book of Nehemiah abruptly switches back to Ezra,[24] apparently with no change in the chronology, but the year is not specified. The Book of Nehemiah says that Ezra gathered the Jews together to read and enforce the law (his original commission from Darius but put into effect only now, 14 years after his arrival). Ezra argued to the people that failure to keep the law had caused the Exile. The Jews then agreed to separate themselves from the "peoples of the land" (once again, intermarriage was banned), keep Sabbath and generally observe the Law. (Nehemiah 8–12)

Current scholarship[edit]

The Babylonians removed only a portion of the population of Jerusalem; of those exiles, only a small portion returned to Jerusalem (539) after the Persian conquest of Babylon, and did so over several decades. The population of Persian-period Jerusalem and the area was smaller than once believed, only a few thousands. Much of the literature which became the Hebrew bible was compiled during the Persian period, and Persian Yehud saw considerable conflict over the construction and function of the Temple and matters of cult (i.e., how God was to be worshiped). Persia controlled Yehud using the same methods it used in other colonies, and the bible reflects this, and Yehud's status as a Persian colony is crucial to understanding the society and literature of the period. The restoration of the Davidic kingdom under Persian royal patronage was clearly the project of the exile community in the early post-Exilic period. The returnees attempted to restore in Yehud the First Temple threefold leadership template of king (Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel), high priest (Joshua, descended from the priestly line), and prophets (Haggai, Zechariah). However, by the middle of the next century, probably around 450 BCE, the kings and prophets had disappeared and only the high priest remained, joined by the scribe-sage (Ezra) and the appointed aristocrat-governor (Nehemiah). This new pattern provided the leadership model for Yehud for centuries to come.[25]

Administration and demographics[edit]

Yehud was considerably smaller than the old kingdom of Judah, stretching from around Bethel in the north to about Hebron in the south (although Hebron itself was unpopulated throughout the Persian period), and from the Jordan River and Dead Sea in the east to, but not including, the Shephelah (the slopes between the Judean highlands and the coastal plains) in the west. After the destruction of Jerusalem the centre of gravity shifted northward to Benjamin; this region, once a part of the kingdom of Israel, was far more densely populated than Judah itself, and now held both the administrative capital, Mizpah, and the major religious centre of Bethel.[26] Mizpah continued as the provincial capital for over a century. The position of Jerusalem before the administration moved back from Mizpah is not clear, but from 445 BCE onwards it was once more the main city of Yehud, with walls, a temple (the Second Temple) and other facilities needed to function as a provincial capital, including, from 420 BCE, a local mint striking silver coins.[27] Nevertheless, Persian-era Jerusalem was tiny: about 1,500 inhabitants, even as low as 500 according to some estimates.[28] It was the only true urban site in Yehud, the bulk of the province's population lived in small unwalled villages. This picture did not much change throughout the entire Persian period. The entire population of the province remained around 30,000. There is no sign in the archaeological record of massive inwards migration from Babylon,[29] in contradiction to the biblical account where Zerubbabel's band of returning Israelite exiles alone numbered 42,360.[22]

The Persians seem to have experimented with ruling Yehud as a client-kingdom, but this time under the descendants of Jehoiachin, who had kept his royal status even in captivity.[30] Sheshbazzar, the governor of Yehud appointed by Cyrus in 538, was of Davidic origin, as was his successor (and nephew) Zerubbabel; Zerubbabel in turn was succeeded by his second son and then by his son-in-law, all of them hereditary Davidic governors of Yehud, a state of affairs that ended only around 500 BCE.[30] This hypothesis—that Zerubbabel and his immediate successors represented a restoration of the Davidic kingdom under Persian overlordship—cannot be verified, but it would be in keeping with the situation in some other parts of the Persian Empire, such as Phoenicia.[30]

The second and third pillars of the early period of Persian rule in Yehud, copying the pattern of the old Davidic kingdom destroyed by the Babylonians, were the institutions of High Priest and Prophet. Both are described and preserved in the Hebrew Bible in the histories of Ezra-Nehemiah-Chronicles and in the books of Zechariah, Haggai and Malachi, but by the mid-5th century BCE the prophets and Davidic kings had ended, leaving only the High Priest.[31] The practical result was that after c.500 BCE Yehud became in practice a theocracy, ruled by a line of hereditary High Priests.[32]

The governor of Yehud would have been charged primarily with keeping order and seeing that tribute was paid. He would have been assisted by various officials and a body of scribes, but there is no evidence that a popular "assembly" existed, and he would have had little discretion over his core duties.[33] Evidence from seals and coins suggests that most, if not all, of the governors of Persian Yehud were Jewish, a situation which conforms with the general Persian practice of governing through local leaders.[34]

Governors of Yehud Medinata[edit]

Coin of Hezekiah, Satrap of Judaea, Achaemenid period. Circa 375–333 BCE.[35]

The succession order and dates of most of the governors of the Achemenid province of Yehud cannot be recreated with any degree of certainty.[36] Coins, jar-stamp impressions, and seals from the period are giving us the names of Elnathan, Hananiah (?), Jehoezer, Ahzai and Urio, all of them Jewish names.[36] Some of them must have served between Zerubbabel and Nehemiah.[36] Bagoas the Persian (Bagohi or Bagoi in Persian) is known by this short form of several theophoric names that was often used for eunuchs.[36][37] He is mentioned in the 5th-century Elephantine papyri, and must therefore have served after Nehemiah.[36]

  • Sheshbazzar (either identical with, or governor before Zerubbabel)
  • Zerubbabel (second half of the sixth century BCE). Led the first wave of Jewish exiles back to Judea after the fall of Babylonian Empire to Cyrus the Great. His family, however, remained behind in Nehardea.
  • Ezra ben Seraiah (mid-fifth or early fourth century BCE, depending on whether Artaxerxes I or II was king in his time), the subject of the Hebrew Bible's Book of Ezra.
  • Nehemiah ben Hachaliah (second half of the fifth century BCE). Nehemiah is mentioned in the 5th-century Elephantine papyri.xxxx
  • Hezekiah (governor); Yehezqiyah or Hezekiah, identified as hphh, 'ha-pechah' (the governor), by the script on a coin type dated to the late fourth century, possibly around 335 BCE, one of which was found at Beth Zur[38][39] The inscription is also rendered in English as "the governor Hezekiah".[40]

Religion and community[edit]

There is a general consensus among biblical scholars that ancient Judah during the 9th and 8th centuries BCE was basically henotheistic or monolatrous, with Yahweh as a national god in the same way that surrounding nations each had their own national gods.[41] Monotheistic themes arose as early as the 8th century, in opposition to Assyrian royal propaganda, which depicted the Assyrian king as "Lord of the Four Quarters" (the world), but the Exile broke the competing fertility, ancestor and other cults and allowed it to emerge as the dominant theology of Yehud.[42] The minor gods or "sons of Yahweh" of the old pantheon now turned into a hierarchy of angels and demons in a process that continued to evolve throughout the time of Yehud and into the Hellenistic age.[41]

Persian Zoroastrianism certainly influenced Judaism. Although the exact extent of that influence continues to be debated, they shared the concept of God as Creator, as the one who guarantees justice and as the God of heaven. The experience of exile and restoration itself brought about a new world view in which Jerusalem and the House of David continued to be central ingredients, and the destruction of the Temple came to be regarded as a demonstration of Yahweh's strength.[43]

Possibly the single most important development in the post-Exilic period was the promotion and eventual dominance of the idea and practice of Jewish exclusivity, the idea that the Jews (meaning followers of the god of Israel and of the law of Moses) were or should be a race apart from all others. According to Levine, that was a new idea, originating with the party of the golah, those who returned from the Babylonian exile.[44] In spite of the reforming ex-Babylonian golah leader, Nehemiah, refusing the request of the Yahweh-worshiping Samaritans to help rebuild the Temple, and Ezra's horror at learning that Yehudi Yahweh-worshipers were intermarrying with non-Yehudis (possibly even non Yahweh-worshipers), the relations with the Samaritans and other neighbours were, in fact, close and cordial.[44] Comparison of Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles bears this out: Chronicles opens participation in Yahweh-worship to all twelve tribes and even to foreigners, but for Ezra-Nehemiah, "Israel" means the tribes of Judah and Benjamin alone as well as the holy tribe of Levi.[45]

Despite Yehud being consistently monotheistic, some pockets of polytheistic Yahwism still appeared to exist in the Persian period: the Elephantine papyri (usually dated to the 5th century BCE) shows that a small community of Jews living in the Egyptian island of Elephantine, while being devout supporters of Yaweh, also venerated the Egyptian goddess Anat and even had their own temple in the island. Such community had probably been founded before the Babylonian Exile and had, therefore, remained immune to religious reforms in the mainland.[46] While it appears that the Elephantine community had some contact with the Second Temple (as evidenced by the fact that they had written a letter to the High Priest Johanan of Jerusalem[47]), the exact relationship between the two is currently unclear.[48] Following the expulsion of the Persians from Egypt by Pharaoh Amyrtaeus (404 BCE), the Jewish temple in Elephantine was abandoned.[49]

Literature and language[edit]

Scholars believe that in the Persian period the Torah assumed its final form, the history of ancient Israel and Judah contained in the books from Joshua to Kings was revised and completed and the older prophetic books were redacted.[43] New writing included the interpretation of older works, such as the Book of Chronicles, and genuinely original work including Ben Sira, Tobit, Judith, 1 Enoch and, much later, Maccabees. The literature from Ben Sira onwards is increasingly permeated with references to the Hebrew Bible in the present form, suggesting the slow development of the idea of a body of "scripture" in the sense of authoritative writings.[50]

One of the more important cultural shifts in the Persian period was the rise of Aramaic as the predominant language of Yehud and the Jewish diaspora. Originally spoken by the Aramaeans, it was adopted by the Persians and became the lingua franca of the empire, and already in the time of Ezra, it was necessary to have the Torah readings translated into Aramaic for them to be understood by Jews.[51]

Only a small amount of Hebrew-written epigraphic material from the Persian period has survived, including some coins from Tell Jemmeh and Beth-zur using the Paleo-Hebrew script, two seal impressions on bullae from a cave in Wadi Daliyeh, a seal from Tell Michal, etc. In contrast, Aramaic-written epigraphic material is much more prevalent.[52]

Archaeology[edit]

Throughout the fourth century CE, the province of Yehud was home to a network of strongholds. One of these is Hurvat Eres, a little rectangular fort that was discovered atop Har HaRuach, north of Kiryat Ye'arim.[53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Crotty, Robert Brian (2017). The Christian Survivor: How Roman Christianity Defeated Its Early Competitors. Springer. p. 25 f.n. 4. ISBN 9789811032141. Retrieved 28 September 2020. The Babylonians translated the Hebrew name [Judah] into Aramaic as Yehud Medinata ('the province of Judah') or simply 'Yehud' and made it a new Babylonian province. This was inherited by the Persians. Under the Greeks, Yehud was translated as Judaea and this was taken over by the Romans. After the Jewish rebellion of 135 CE, the Romans renamed the area Syria Palaestina or simply Palestine. The area described by these land titles differed to some extent in the different periods.
  2. ^ Spolsky, Bernard (2014). The Languages of the Jews: A Sociolinguistic History. Cambridge University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-107-05544-5. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  3. ^ Gooder, Paula (2013). The Bible: A Beginner's Guide. Beginner's Guides. Oneworld Publications. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-78074-239-7. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  4. ^ "medinah". Bible Hub: Search, Read, Study the Bible in Many Languages. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  5. ^ Philologos (21 March 2003). "The Jews of Old-Time Medina". Forward. The Forward Association. Retrieved 4 May 2020. ...in the book of Esther,...the opening verse of the Hebrew text tells us that King Ahasuerus ruled over 127 medinas from India to Ethiopia — which the Targum, the canonical Jewish translation of the Bible into Aramaic, renders not as medinata, "cities," but as pilkhin, "provinces."
  6. ^ Kalimi, Isaac (2005). An Ancient Israelite Historian: Studies in the Chronicler, His Time, Place and Writing. Studia Semitica Neerlandica. BRILL. pp. 12, 16, 89, 133, 157. ISBN 9789004358768. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  7. ^ Bar-Asher, Moshe (2014). Studies in Classical Hebrew. Studia Judaica, Volume 71 (reprint ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 76. ISBN 978-3-11-030039-0. ISSN 0585-5306. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  8. ^ Fleishman, Joseph (2009). Gershon Galil; Markham Geller; Alan Millard (eds.). To stop Nehemiah from building the Jerusalem wall: Jewish aristocrats triggered an economic crisis. Homeland and Exile: Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honour of Bustenay Oded. Vetus Testamentum, Supplements. Brill. pp. 361-390 [369, 374, 376, 377, 384]. ISBN 9789047441243. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  9. ^ Kochman, Michael (1981). Status and Territory of 'Yehud Medinta' in the Persian Period (dissertation) (in Hebrew). Hebrew University of Jerusalem. p. 247. ISBN 9783161452406. Retrieved 28 September 2020 – via "Bibliography" (p. 247; just the work's title) in Kasher, Aryeh. "Jews, Idumaeans, and Ancient Arabs: Relations of the Jews in Eretz-Israel with the Nations of the Frontier and the Desert During the Hellenistic and Roman Era (332 BCE-70 CE)". Mohr Siebeck, 1988, Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism Series (Volume 18), ISBN 9783161452406.
  10. ^ a b Rainer Albertz, Israel in Exile: The History and Literature of the Sixth Century BCE, (2003) ISBN 1-58983-055-5, p.xxi
  11. ^ O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2002). Atlas of World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 9780195219210.
  12. ^ Philip's Atlas of World History. 1999.
  13. ^ Davidson, Peter (2018). Atlas of Empires: The World's Great Powers from Ancient Times to Today. i5 Publishing LLC. ISBN 9781620082881.
  14. ^ Barraclough, Geoffrey (1989). The Times Atlas of World History. Times Books. p. 79. ISBN 0723003041.
  15. ^ Lester L. Grabbe, A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period – Vol 1: A History of the Persian Province of Judah (2004) ISBN 0-567-08998-3, p.28.
  16. ^ a b James Maxwell Miller and John Haralson Hayes, A History of Ancient Israel and Judah (1986) ISBN 0-664-21262-X, p.xxi, 425.
  17. ^ 2 Kings 25:22–24, Jeremiah 40:6–8
  18. ^ Jeremiah 40:11–12
  19. ^ Jeremiah 44:1
  20. ^ Diane V. Edelman, "The Triumph of Elohim", p.223
  21. ^ Ezra 1:3–4
  22. ^ a b Nehemiah 7:66–67 and Ezra 2:64–65
  23. ^ Ezra 3:2–5
  24. ^ Nehemiah 8:1
  25. ^ Lee I. Levine, Jerusalem: portrait of the city in the second Temple period (538 B.C.E.-70 C.E.), p.42
  26. ^ Philip R. Davies, The Origin of Biblical Israel
  27. ^ Izaak J. de Hulster, "Iconographic Exegesis and Third Isaiah", pp.135-6
  28. ^ Oded Lipschits, "Persian Period Finds from Jerusalem: Facts and Interpretation", Journal of Hebrew Scriptures (vol.9, art.20, 2009)
  29. ^ Lester L. Grabbe, A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period, Volume 1, p.30
  30. ^ a b c Herbert Niehr, "Religio-Historical Aspects of the Early Post-Exilic Period", in Bob Becking, Marjo Christina Annette Korpel (eds), The Crisis of Israelite Religion: Transformation of Religious Tradition in Exilic & Post-Exilic Times (Brill, 1999) pp.229–231
  31. ^ Lee I. Levine, Jerusalem: Portrait of the City in the second Temple Period (538 B.C.E.–70 C.E.) p.42
  32. ^ Stephen M. Wylen, The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction, p.25
  33. ^ Lester L. Grabbe, A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period, Volume 1, p.154–155
  34. ^ Lee I. Levine, Jerusalem: Portrait of the City in the Second Temple Period (538 B.C.E.–70 C.E.), p.34
  35. ^ Bar-Kochva, Bezalel (2010). Pseudo Hecataeus, "On the Jews": Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora. Univ of California Press. p. 86. ISBN 9780520268845.
  36. ^ a b c d e Nelson, Richard (2014). Historical Roots of the Old Testament (1200-63 BCE). Biblical Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. Society of Biblical Literature (SBL Press). p. 208. ISBN 978-1-62837-006-5. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  37. ^ Bagoas, Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11), via theodora.com. Accessed 28 September 2020.
  38. ^ Fitzpatrick-McKinley, Anne (2015). Empire, Power and Indigenous Elites: A Case Study of the Nehemiah Memoir. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism, vol. 169. BRILL. p. 162. ISBN 9789004292222. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  39. ^ Lykke, Anna (2016). Coins and Coinages in the Context of Ancient Greek Sanctuaries: Jerusalem – a Case Study from the Fringe of the Greek World. J. Hengstl, E. Irwin, A. Jördens, T. Mattern, R. Rollinger, K. Ruffing, & O. Witthuhn (Eds.), Eine neue Prägung: Innovationspotentiale von Münzen in der griechisch-römischen Antike. Philippika - Altertumswissenschaftliche Abhandlungen / Contributions to the Study of Ancient World Cultures (Vol. 102, pp. 109-118). Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 109–118. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  40. ^ Avraham Negev and Shimon Gibson (2001). Achzib Beth Zur; Bethsura. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1.
  41. ^ a b Lester L. Grabbe, "A history of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period", vol.1 (T&T Clark International, 2004), pp.240-244
  42. ^ Christopher B. Hayes, Religio-historical Approaches: Monotheism, Morality and Method, in David L. Petersen, Joel M. LeMon, Kent Harold Richards (eds), "Method Matters: Essays on the Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Honor of David L. Petersen", pp.178-181
  43. ^ a b Izaak J. de Hulster, "Iconographic Exegesis and Third Isaiah", pp.136-7
  44. ^ a b Levine, Lee I., "Jerusalem: portrait of the city in the second Temple period (538 B.C.E.-70 C.E.)" (Jewish Publication Society, 2002) p.37
  45. ^ Steven L. McKenzie, Matt Patrick Graham, "The Hebrew Bible today: an introduction to critical issues" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998) p.204
  46. ^ Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (2000-12-31). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2.
  47. ^ Pritchard, James B. ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Princeton University Press, third edition with supplement 1969, p. 492
  48. ^ Levine, Lee I. (2002-12-02). Jerusalem: Portrait of the City in the Second Temple Period (538 B.C.E. - 70 C.E.). Jewish Publication Society. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8276-0750-7.
  49. ^ Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (2000-12-31). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2.
  50. ^ Lester L. Grabbe, "A history of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period", Volume 1, p.238-9
  51. ^ Levine, Lee I., "Jerusalem: portrait of the city in the second Temple period (538 B.C.E.-70 C.E.)" (Jewish Publication Society, 2002) pp.36-7
  52. ^ Sáenz-Badillos, Angel; Elwolde, John, eds. (1993), "Hebrew in the period of the Second Temple", A History of the Hebrew Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 128, doi:10.1017/cbo9781139166553.006, ISBN 978-0-521-55634-7, retrieved 2022-08-31
  53. ^ Mazar, Amihai; Wachtel, Ido (2015). "Ḥurvat ՙEres: A Fourth-Century BCE Fortress West of Jerusalem". Israel Exploration Journal. 65 (2): 214–244. ISSN 0021-2059.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some Israeli authors, such as Isaac Kalimi, Moshe Bar-Asher, Joseph Fleishman, etc. prefer 'medinta', based on their reading of Ezra 5:8.[6][7][8][9]

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