- The California yellowtail, Seriola lalandi dorsalis
- The southern yellowtail, or in New Zealand and Australia the yellowtail kingfish or kingfish S. l. lalandi
- The Asian yellowtail, S. l. aureovitta.
|Subspecies:||S. l. dorsalis|
|Seriola lalandi dorsalis
Cuvier and A Valenciennes, 1833
The California yellowtail is a species of ray-finned fish of the family Carangidae. This species is also known by several alternate names, such as amberjack, forktail, mossback, white salmon and yellowtail tunis or tuna  or by its Spanish name jurel.
The California yellowtail is carnivorous and feeds on a variety of fish. Mackerel, sardines, anchovies, squid, crab, and smelts are common in the yellowtail's diet. Often, California yellowtail are found in schools feeding at the surface of the water, as well as deeper. This species prefers water temperatures of 21–22 °C (70–72 °F), though have also been found in waters between 18 and 24 °C (64 and 75 °F). Temperatures cooler than 18 °C would make the yellowtail sink into deeper waters to conserve energy.
Range and habitat
The yellowtail's range is circumglobal, in subtropical waters. It can be found near Catalina Island, San Clemente Island, and Santa Monica Bay, as well as in Mexican waters such as Baja California Peninsula and Gulf of California, congregating at certain areas in mass numbers like Cedros Island and Benitos Island. During the summer they can also be found in association with floating kelp paddies off the coast of southern California and Baja California. Yellowtail populations have also been found in waters off South Africa, the Walter Shoals, Amsterdam Island, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Hawaii, Rapa, Pitcairn Island, Jeju Island, and Easter Island. In the Eastern Pacific, they can be found in waters off British Columbia, as well as from Canada to Chile. They are usually found around offshore islands, rocky reefs, and kelp beds. They are also found in increasing numbers off the Islands of the Tristan Da Cunha archipelago in the South Atlantic. They are frequently caught on the 3 northern Islands of Tristan Da Cunha, Nightingale and Inaccessible and were recently reported by Factory Manager Erik Mac Kenzie at Gough Island at 40 deg South which is 200 miles south of the other Islands. Fish in the size range 25 to 40 kg are not uncommon and are caught both from boats and the shore.
The yellowtail was more common in waters around California and Mexico, but has recently been overfished by Japanese commercial fishing ships. Overfishing is becoming more of a problem as fishers move away from areas in which this fish has become scarce to United States' waters in search of more. Yellowtail spawn in warm waters 100–300 miles off the California coast and return in May or June until September or December. They spawn slowly, but may live in excess of 30 years. Spawning usually begins at three years of age. One major spawning ground is at Cedros Island, where large numbers of 15- to 20-pound yellowtail can be caught. Yellowtail are aggressive towards other fish. They will often feed more frequently during spawning, which makes them an easy target for commercial fishing boats. They are currently not on the endangered list.
|This section does not cite any references (sources). (November 2010)|
|Subspecies:||S. l. lalandi|
|Seriola lalandi lalandi
The yellowtail kingfish or southern kingfish, S. l. lalandi, is a subspecies of yellowtail amberjack, a jack of the genus Seriola, found off southeastern Australia and the northeast coast of the North Island of New Zealand. Very little is known of the kingfish's biology, including their habitat preferences throughout juvenile life stages, migration patterns, and wild reproductive behaviour. Adults live around rocky reefs, rocky outcrops and dropoffs in coastal waters, and around pinnacles and offshore islands. Maximum length is often reported to reach up to 180 cm. Kingfish can be eaten in a variety of ways, including grilling, sashimi, and drying.
Seriola lalandi has been established as a suitable candidate for marine aquaculture. In contrast to the culture of S. quinqueradiata (which has been cultured extensively in Japan), juveniles of S. lalandi are not easily available from the wild, and juveniles are produced in hatcheries from captive breeding stock. The Stehr Group in South Australia is presently (2010) the largest producer of cultured S. lalandi in the world. Some attempts have been made to culture the species in New Zealand, both in seacages and a large land-based system at Parengarenga (northern New Zealand). Chile is currently trialling seacage and land-based farming methods. Most cultured S. lalandi is sold to the Japanese restaurant market for consumption as sashimi.
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