Yemen Arab Republic

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Yemen Arab Republic
الجمهورية العربية اليمنية
al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah al-Yamanīyah

1962–1990
Flag Emblem
Capital Sana'a
Government Single-party Republic under Military Junta rule
President
 -  1962–1967 (first) Abdullah as-Sallal
 -  1978–1990 (last) Ali Abdullah Saleh
Prime Minister
 -  1962–1963 (first) Abdullah as-Sallal
 -  1983–1990 (last) Abdul Aziz Abdul Ghani
Historical era Cold War
 -  Established 27 September 1962
 -  Unification 22 May 1990
Area
 -  1990 388,032 km² (149,820 sq mi)
Population
 -  1990 est. 19,876,187 
     Density 51.2 /km²  (132.7 /sq mi)
Currency North Yemeni rial
Calling code +967
Today part of  Saudi Arabia
 Yemen
The Arabian peninsula in 1914

The Yemen Arab Republic (YAR; Arabic: الجمهورية العربية اليمنيةal-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah al-Yamanīyah), also known as North Yemen or Yemen (Sana'a), was a country from 1962 to 1990 in the northwestern part of what is now Yemen.[1] Its capital was at Sana'a. It united with the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, commonly known as South Yemen, on May 22, 1990, to form the current Republic of Yemen.

History[edit]

Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, northern Yemen became an independent state as the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. On 27 September 1962, revolutionaries inspired by the Arab nationalist ideology of United Arab Republic (Egyptian) President Gamal Abdel Nasser deposed the newly crowned King Muhammad al-Badr, took control of Sana'a, and established the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR). This coup d'état marked the beginning of the North Yemen Civil War that pitted YAR troops assisted by the United Arab Republic (Egypt) while Saudi Arabia and Jordan supported Badr's royalist forces opposing the newly formed republic. Conflict continued periodically until 1967 when Egyptian troops were withdrawn. By 1968, following a final royalist siege of Sana'a, most of the opposing leaders reached a reconciliation; Saudi Arabia recognized the Republic in 1970.

Unlike East and West Germany or North and South Korea, the YAR and its southern neighbour, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY), also known as South Yemen, remained relatively friendly, though relations were often strained. In 1972 it was declared unification would eventually occur. However, these plans were put on hold in 1979, and war was only prevented by an Arab League intervention. The goal of unity was reaffirmed by the northern and southern heads of state during a summit meeting in Kuwait in March 1979.

Reunification[edit]

Main article: Yemeni unification

In May 1988, the YAR and PDRY governments came to an understanding that considerably reduced tensions including agreement to renew discussions concerning unification, to establish a joint oil exploration area along their undefined border, to demilitarize the border, and to allow Yemenis unrestricted border passage on the basis of only a national identification card.

Official Yemeni unification took place on May 22, 1990, with a planned, 30-month unification process, scheduled for completion in November 1992. The first stamp bearing the inscription "Yemen Republic" was issued in October 1990.[2] While government ministries proceeded to merge, both currencies remained valid until 11 June 1996. A civil war in 1994 delayed the completion of the final merger.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The United States extended diplomatic recognition to the Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) on 19 December 1962, The Times, 20 December 1962.
  2. ^ Scott (2008) "Yemen" Scott 2009 Standard Postage Stamp Catalogue Volume 6 (165th edition) Scott Publishing Co., Sidney, Ohio, page 1081. ISBN 978-0-89487-422-2

Coordinates: 15°21′17″N 44°12′24″E / 15.35472°N 44.20667°E / 15.35472; 44.20667