Yeonguijeong

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Yeonguijeong
Joseon-Portrait of Cha Jegong-Geumgwanjobok.jpg
Portrait of Chae Jegong who served as Yeonguijeong during the King Jeongjo's reign.
Korean name
Hangul 영의정/ 영상/ 상상/ 수규/ 원보
Hanja / / / /
Revised Romanization yeong-uijeong[1]/ sangsang/ sugyu/ wonbo
McCune–Reischauer yŏng'ŭijŏng / sangsang/ sukyu / wonbo

Yeonguijeong (Korean pronunciation: [jʌŋ ɰi tɕʌŋ]) was a title created in 1400, during the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (1392-1910) and given to the Chief State Councillor[1][2] as the highest government position of "Uijeongbu" (State Council). Existing for over 500 years, the function was handed over in 1895 during the Gabo Reform to the newly formed position of Prime Minister of Korea.[3][4] Only one official at a time was appointed to the position and though was generally called Yeongsang, was also referred to as Sangsang, Sugyu or Wonbo. Although, the title of Yeonguijeong was defined as the highest post in charge of every state affairs by law, its practical functions changed drastically depending on the particular King and whether that King's power was strong or weak.[4]

The establishment[edit]

The Korean Joseon Dynasty inherited the state structure of its predecessor, the Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392), but soon began to reorganize the government. In 1400, the second year after King Jeongjong ascended to the throne, he renamed the Privy Council or Dopyeonguisasa,[5] the highest assigned post in charge of the state affairs of Goryeo, to "Uijeongbu" and let the post be called "yeonguijeong busa" (領議政府事). As both functions of Uijeongbu got stronger, and its system was further revised, Yeonguijeong busa was renamed to Yeonguijeong in a firm establishment of the office.[4]

In 1466, the position was officially put in statutory form as Gyeongguk daejeon (Complete Code of Law)[6] was compiled.[7] The Yeongjuijeong title was generally conferred on a senior minister who had previously served as Jwauijeong (Second State Councillor[8][9]), a post immediately below that of Yeonguijeong, but higher than that of Uuijeong (Third State Councillor[10]). The three posts were collectively referred to as "Samjeongseung" (Three top officials[11]) or "Samuijeong" (Three High Councilors).[4]

List of the Chief State Councilors of Joseon Dynasty[edit]

Reign King Hangul Date Chief State Councilor # Hangul KO source
1 1392–1398 Taejo 태조 1 1392/07/17 Jeong Dojeon 배극렴 x kp
2 1398–1400 Jeongjong 정종
3 1400–1418 Taejong 태종 1 1401/07/13 Yi Seo 이서 x kp
2 1402/10/04 Seong Seok-rin 성석린 x kp
3 1403/07/16 Jo Jun 조준 x kp
4 1405/07/03 Seong Seok-rin 2 성석린 kp
5 1406/12/04 Yi Seo 2 이서 kp
6 1407/07/04 Uian Daegun (Yi Wa) 의안대군 (이화) x kp
7 1408/01/03 Uian Daegun (Yi Wa) 의안대군 … 사면 kp
8 1408/05/27 Ha Ryun 하륜 x kp
9 1409/08/10 Yi Seo 3 이서 kp
10 1408/10/11 Ha Ryun 2 하륜 kp
11 1412/08/21 Seong Seok-rin 3 성석린 kp
12 1414/04/17 Ha Ryun 3 하륜 kp
13 1415/10/28 Seong Seok-rin 4 성석린 kp
14 1416/05/25 Nam Jae 남재 x kp
15 1416/11/02 Yu Jung-hyun 유정현 x kp
16 1418/06/05 Han Sanggyung 한상경 x kp
4 1418–1450 Sejong 세종 1 1418/09/03 Sim On 심온 x kp
2 1418/12/07 Yu Jung-hyun 2 유정현 x kp
3 1424/09/07 Yi Jig 이직 x kp
4 1431/09/07 Hwang Hui 황희 x kp
5 1449/10/05 Ha Yun 하연 kp
5 1450–1452 Munjong 문종 1 1451/10/27 Hwangbo In 황보인 x kp
6 1452–1455 Danjong 단종 1 1453/10/11 Suyangdaegun (K-Sejo) 수양대군 (이유) x kp
7 1455–1468 Sejo 세조 1 1455/06/11 Jeong In-ji 정인지 x kp
2 1458/12/07 Jeong Changson 정창손 x kp
3 1459/11/05 Gang Maenggyung 강맹경 x kp
4 1461/04/29 Jeong Changson 2 정창손 kp
5 1461/05/20 Shin Suk-ju 신숙주 x kp
6 1466/04/18 Gu Chigwan 구치관 kp
7 1466/10/19 Han Myung-hoi 한명회 x kp
8 1467/04/06 Hwang Su-sin 황수신 kp
9 1467/05/20 Sim Hoe 심회 x kp
10 1467/12/12 Jo Seok-mun 조석문 kp
11 1468/07/17 Guseonggun 구성군 (이준) x kp
8 1468–1469 Yejong 예종 1 1468/12/20 Bak Wonhyung 박원형 kp
2 1469/01/23 Han Myung-hoi 2 한명회 x kp
3 1469/08/22 Hong Yun-seong 홍윤성 x kp
9 1469–1494 Seongjong 성종 1 1470/04/06 Yun Jaun 윤자운 kp
2 1471/10/23 Shin Suk-ju 2 신숙주 x kp
3 1475/07/01 Jeong Changson 3 정창손 x kp
4 1485/03/28 Yun Pilsang 윤필상 x kp
5 1493/11/06 Yi Geugbae 이극배 kp
10 1494–1506 Yeonsangun 연산군 1 1495/03/20 No Sasin 노사신 x kp
2 1495/10/04 Shin Sung-seon 신승선 kp
3 1500/04/11 Han Chi-hyung 한치형 kp
4 1503/01/04 Seong Jun 성준 x kp
5 1504/04/04 Yu Sun 유순 kp
11 1506–1544 Jungjong 중종 1 1506/09/2 Park Won-jong 박원종 x kp
2 1510/03/06 Kim Sudong 김수동 kp
3 1512/10/07 Yu Sun-jung 유순정 x kp
4 1513/04/02 Seong Hui-ahn 성희안 x kp
5 1513/10/27 Song Il 송일 kp
6 1514/10/01 Yu Sun 2 유순 kp
7 1516/04/09 Jeong Gwangpil 정광필 kp
8 1520/02/14 Kim Jeon 김전 x kp
9 1523/04/18 Nam Gon 남곤 x kp
10 1527/10/21 Jeong Gwangpil 2 정광필 kp
11 Nam Gon 2 남곤 x kp
12 1527/03/10 Jang Sun-son 장순손 kp
13 1534/11/20 Han Hyo-won 한효원 kp
14 1535/03/26 Kim Geun-sa 김근사 kp
15 1537/11/02 Yun Eunbo 윤은보 kp
12 1544–1545 Injong 인종 1 1545/01/13 Hong Eon-pil 홍언필 x kp
2 1545/01/06 Yun In-gyung 윤인경 kp
13 1545–1567 Myeongjong 명종 1 1548/05/17 Hong Eon-pil 2 홍언필 x kp
2 1549/05/21 Yi Gi 이기 x kp
3 1551/08/23 Sim Yeon-won 심연원 x kp
4 1558/05/29 San Gjin 상진 kp
5 1563/01/17 Yun Won-hyung 윤원형 x kp
6 1565/08/15 Yi Jungyung 이준경 x kp
14 1567–1608 Seonjo 선조 1 1573/03/22 Gwon Cheol 권철 kp
2 1574/04/11 Hong Seom 홍섬 kp
3 1576/08/18 Gwon Cheol 2 권철 kp
4 1580/05/25 Bak Sun 박순 x kp
5 1588/05/11 No Sunsin 노수신 x kp
6 Choi Hung-won 최흥원 kp
7 Yi Won-ik 이원익 x kp
8 Ryu Seong-ryong 유성룡 x kp
9 Yun Doo-su 윤두수 x kp
10 Yi San-hae 이산해 x kp
11 Yi Hang-bok 이항복 x kp
12 Yun Sung-hun 윤승훈 kp
13 Yu Yung-gyung 유영경 kp
15 1608–1623 Gwanghaegun 광해군 1 1608 Yi Won-ik 2 x kp
2 Yi Deok-hyung 이덕형 x kp
3 Gi Ja-heon 기자헌 x kp
4 Chung In-hong 정인홍 x kp
5 Bak Sung-jong 박승종 x kp
16 1623–1649 Injo 인조 1 1623 Yi Won-ik 3 이원익 x kp
2 Sin Hum 신흠 x kp
3 Oh Yun-gyum 오윤겸 kp
4 Yun Bang 윤방 x kp
5 Kim Ryu 김류 x kp
6 Yi Hong-ju 이홍주 kp
7 Choi Myung-kil 최명길 x kp
8 Yi Seong-gu 이성구 kp
9 Hong Seo-bong 홍서봉 kp
10 Sim Yeol 심열 kp
11 Kim Ja-jeom 김자점 x kp
17 1649–1659 Hyojong 효종 1 Kim Ja-jeom 2 김자점 x kp
2 Yi Gyung-seok 이경석 x kp
3 Kim Yuk 김육 x kp
4 Yi Si-baek 이시백 x kp
5 Sim Ji-won 심지원 x kp
6 Jeong Tae-hwa 정태화 kp
18 1659–1674 Hyeonjong 현종 1 Jeong Taehwa 2 정태화 kp
2 Hong Myungha 홍명하 kp
3 Kim Su-hung 김수흥 x kp
4 Heo Jeok 허적 x kp
19 1674–1720 Sukjong 숙종 1 Heo Jeok 2 허적 x kp
2 Kim Seok-ju 김석주 x kp
3 Kim Su-hang 김수항 x kp
4 Gwon Dae-un 권대운 kp
5 Nam Gu-man 남구만 x kp
6 1696–1699 Yu Sangun 유상운 kp,ws
7 1700–1701 Seo Mun-jung 서문중 kp,ws
8 1701 Choi Seok-jung 최석정 x kp,ws
9 1702 Seo Mun-jung 2 서문중 kp,ws
10 1702–1703 Choi Seok-jung 2 최석정 x kp,ws
11 1703–1705 Sin Wan 신완 kp,ws
12 1705–1710 Choi Seok-jung 3 최석정 x kp,ws
13 1710 Yi Yeo 이여 x kp,ws
14 1711–1712 Seo Jong-tae 서종태 kp,ws
15 1712–1713 Yi Yu 이유 x kp,ws
16 1714–1716 Seo Jong-tae 2 서종태 kp,ws
17 1717–1720 Kim Chang-jip 2 김창집 x kp,ws
20 1720–1724 Gyeongjong 경종 1 1720–1721 Kim Chang-jip 2 김창집 x kp,ws
2 1721–1723 Jo Tae-gu 조태구 kp,ws
3 1723–1724 Choi Gyu-seo 최규서 kp,ws
21 1724–1776 Yeongjo 영조 1 1724-2729 Yi Gwang-jwa 이광좌 kp,ws
2 1729–1732 Hong Chi-jung 홍치중 kp,ws
3 1732–1735 Shim Su-yun 심수현 kp,ws
4 1735–1737 Yi Ui-hyun 이의현 ws
5 1737–1740 Yi Gwang-jwa 2 이광좌 kp,ws
6 1740–1754 Kim Jae-ro 김재로 x ws
7 1754–1758 Yi Chun-bo 이천보 kp,ws
8 1758–1759 Yu Cheok-ki 유척기 x ws
9 1759 Yi Chun-bo 2 이천보 kp,ws
10 1759–1760 Kim Sang-ro 김상로 kp,ws
11 1761–1762 Hong Bonghan 홍봉한 kp,ws
12 1762–1763 Sim Man 신 만 kp,ws
13 1763–1766 Hong Bong-han 2 홍봉한 kp,ws
14 1766–1767 Seo Ji-su 서지수 ws
15 1767–1768 Kim Chi-in 김치인 kp,ws
16 1768 Seo Ji-su 2 서지수 ws
17 1768 Kim Chi-in 2 김치인 kp,ws
18 1768–1770 Hong Bong-han 3 홍봉한 kp,ws
19 1770–1772 Kim Chi-in 3 김치인 kp,ws
20 1772 Kim Sang-bok 김상복 kp,ws
21 1772 Sin Hoe 신회 kp,ws
22 1772 Kim Sang-bok 2 김상복 kp,ws
23 1772 Han Ik-mo 한익모 kp,ws
24 1772 Kim Sang-bok 3 김상복 kp,ws
25 1772–1773 Sin Hoe 2 신회 kp,ws
26 1773 Han Ik-mo 2 한익모 kp,ws
27 1773–1774 Kim Sang-bok 4 김상복 kp,ws
28 1774 Han Ik-mo 3 한익모 kp,ws
29 1774–1775 Sin Hoe 3 신회 kp,ws
30 1775 Han Ik-mo 4 한익모 kp,ws
31 1775–1776 Kim Sang-chul 김상철 kp,ws
? 1731 Kim Hung-gyung 김흥경 (조선) x kp
? Sin Im 신임 x kp
? Jeong Ho 정호 Err kp
22 1776–1800 Jeongjo 정조 1 1776–1779 Kim Yang-taek 김양택 ws
2 1779–1780 Seo Myung-sun 서명선 kp,ws
3 1780–1781 Kim Yang-taek 2 김양택 ws
4 1781–1783 Seo Myung-sun 2 서명선 kp,ws
5 1783–1784 Jeong Jong-yeom 정존겸 kp,ws
6 1784–1785 Seo Myung-sun 3 서명선 kp,ws
7 1785–1786 Jeong Jong-yeom 정존겸 kp,ws
8 1786–1789 Kim Chi-in 2 김치인 kp,ws
9 1789 Kim Ik 김익 kp,ws
10 1789–1790 Yi Jae-hyeop 이재협 kp,ws
11 1790 Kim Ik 2 김익 kp,ws
12 1790–1793 Choi Hyo-won 최효원 ws
13 1793 Chae Je-gong 채제공 x kp,ws
14 1793–1798 Hong Nak-sung 홍낙성 x kp,ws
15 1799–1800 Yi Byung-mo 이병모 kp,ws
? Kim Jong-su 김종수 x kp
23 1800–1834 Sunjo 순조 1 1800–1802 Shim Hwan-ji 심환지 x kp,ws
2 1802–1803 Yi Si-su 이시수 ws
3 1803–1805 Yi Byung-mo 이병모 kp,ws
4 1805–1806 Seo Mae-su 서매수 ws
5 1806 Yi Byung-mo 2 이병모 kp,ws
6 1806–1812 vacant ws
7 1812–1816 Kim Jae-chan 김재찬 x ws
8 1816–1819 vacant ws
9 1819–1821 Seo Yong-bo 서용보 ws
10 1821 Han Yong-gwi 한용귀 ws
11 1821–1823 Kim Jae-chan 2 김재찬 x ws
12 1823–1833 Nam Gong-chul 남공철 kp,ws
13 1833–1834 Yi Sang-hwang 이상황 kp,ws
24 1834–1849 Heonjong 헌종 1 1834–1835 Shim Sang-gyu 심상규 kp,ws
2 1835–1837 vacant ws
3 1837–1838 Yi Sang-hwang 2 이상황 kp,ws
4 1838–1841 vacant ws
5 1841–1844 Jo In-young 조인영 x kp,ws
6 1845–1848 Gwon Don-in 권돈인 kp,ws
7 1848–1849 Jeong Won-yong 정원용 x kp,ws
25 1849–1863 Cheoljong 철종 1 1849–1850 Jeong Won-yong 정원용 x kp,ws
2 1850 Jo In-young 2 조인영 x kp,ws
3 1851–1852 Gwon Don-in 2 권돈인 kp,ws
4 1853 Kim Hunggun 김흥근 x ws
5 1853–1859 Kim Jwa-gun 김좌근 x kp,ws
6 1859–1861 Jeong Won-yong 2 정원용 x kp,ws
7 1861–1862 Kim Jwa-gun 2 김좌근 x kp,ws
8 1862–1863 Jeong Won-yong 3 정원용 x kp,ws
26 1863–1897 Gojong 고종 1 1863–1864 Kim Jwa-gun 2 김좌근 x kp,ws
2 1864–1866 Jo Du-sun 조두선 ws
3 1866–1867 Yi Kyung-jae 이경재 ws
4 1867–1868 Kim Byung-hak 김병학 x kp,ws
5 1868 Jeong Won-yong 4 정원용 x kp,ws
6 1868–1872 Kim Byung-hak 2 김병학 x kp,ws
7 1872–1873 Hong Sun-mok 홍순목 x kp,ws
8 1873–1875 Yi Yu-won 이유원 kp,ws
9 1875–1882 Yi Choi-ung 이최응/흥인군 x kp,ws
?? 1878 Min Gyu-ho 민규호 x kp
10 1882 Seo Bang-bo 서방보 ws
11 1882–1884 Hong Sun-mok 2 홍순목 x kp,ws
12 1884 Kim Byung-guk 김병국 ws
13 1884–1894 Shim Sun-taek 심선택 ws
14 1894 Kim Byung-si 김병시 x ws
15 1894–1895 Kim Hong-jip 김홍집 x kp,ws
16 1895 Bak Jung-yang 박정양 ws
17 1895-1896/02/11 Kim Hong-jip 2 김홍집 x kp,ws
18 1896 Kim Byung-si 2 김병시 x ws
19 1896–1898 Yun Yong-sun 윤용순 ws

This table started as a translation of the ko:영의정 (Yeonguijeong) page published by the Korean Wikipedia .[a] The corresponding items are tagged "kp" in the "source" column. Not a single reference was provided in this page. For the 1st-14th reigns, an Gregorian installation date was given (the best possibility). In case of multiple occurrences e.g. Seong Seokrin during Taejong reign, this is acknowledged by a tag in the "#" column. For the 14th-26th reigns, only the names were given, so that chronological order is not enforced. For example, Chae Jegong was cited once for the Jeongjo reign, while the biographical article ko:채제공 (Chae Jegong) was listing 1776, 1790, 1793.

Additional material coming from the WorldStatesmen page[12] is tagged as "ws" in the source column. Here too, no references are given. When a cross-checking with the Korean page of a given statesman has been possible, hangul transcription and life dates have been borrowed.

In any case, the column KO is checked each time the corresponding biography exists on the Korean Wikipedia.

Changes of Yeonguijeong's roles[edit]

Until April 1436, the 18th year of Sejong the Great's reign, Jwauijeong and Uuijeong concurrently served as Panijosa (判吏曹事) and Panbyeongjosa (判兵曹事) respectively, so that they governed personnel affairs of yangban (the literary and military nobility).

Yeonguijeong continued to exist as an honorary post, and so only managed to contemplate and adjust diplomatic documents or re-examine the cases of condemned people.

However, when Hwang Hui was appointed as "Yeonguijeong busa" in that same year, the king modified the government system to strengthen the power of Samjeongseung from the Yukjo (Six Ministries) centered system. With the reform, Sejong noted that a situation in which three highest senior advisors could not participate in the state affairs contravened the original intention to have them as the high state councillors.[4]

During the reform, Yukjo conferred with Uijeongbu regarding the responsibilities of each minister. Uijeongbu discussed legitimacy of the issues, and then reported to the king. After receiving an approval from the king, Uijeongbu returned to Yujo to enact the assigned affairs. As a result, Yeonguijeong came to participate more actively in the representative work as the head of Uijeongbu. However, other ministerial duities, such as the rights of Ijo (吏曹; Ministry of Personnel[13]) and Byeongjo (兵曹, Ministry of Military Affairs[14]) to implement personnel management, Byeongjo's mobilization of soldiers, Hyeongjo (刑曹, Ministry of Punishments[15])'s right to handle all criminals other than condemned people, were still directly operated by the related ministers.[4]

When Prince Suyang usurped the place of his nephew, King Danjong, the function of Yeonguijeong was relegated to its previous powerless position. This was because when the King Sejo was still a prince, his actions were greatly restricted by his political rivals, Yeonguijeong, Hwangbo In (皇甫仁) and Jwauijeong, Kim Jongseo (金宗瑞). So during the reigns of King Seongjong and Jungjong, there were several proposals to restore the former powers of Uijeongbu, but those suggestions were not implemented.[4]

Major affairs of the state were discussed when Bibyeonsa was established in 1558 (during the 10th year of King Myeongjong's reign). The three High Councillors attended meetings only as "Dojejo" (Supreme Commissioner[16][17]). So the power of Yeonguijeong tended to be increased or decreased, depending on the political atmosphere of the times, such as the degree of the king's power, the relationship between Uijeongbu and Yukjo, the establishment of Bibyeonsa (備邊司; Border Defense Command[18]), the later administration of Kyujanggak (the Royal Library), the conflicts between political parties, and the advancement of "in-law government" (勢道政治, Sedo jeongchi[19]), among others. Regardless, the title "Yeonguijeong" continued as the apex in the bureaucratic system throughout the entire Joseon period.[4]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ accessdate: 2011-07-14

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "영의정(領議政 ), yeong-uijeong" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  2. ^ Choi (2006), The Origin of the Roman Catholic Church in Korea p. 375
  3. ^ 영의정 (in Korean and English). Daum Korean-English Dictionary. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h 영의정 (領議政) (in Korean). Empas /EncyKorea. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  5. ^ "도평의사사 (都評議使司), Dopyeonguisasa" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  6. ^ "경국대전(經國大典), Gyeonggukdaejeon" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  7. ^ John B. Duncan (2000). The Origins of the Chosŏn Dynasty. University of Washington Press. p. 229. ISBN 0-295-97985-2. 
  8. ^ Choi (2006), The Origin of the Roman Catholic Church in Korea p. 372
  9. ^ "좌의정(左議政), Jwauijeong" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  10. ^ "우의정(右議政), uuijeong" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  11. ^ "정승(政丞), Jeongseung" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  12. ^ "WorldStaesmen". Retrieved 2011-08-01. 
  13. ^ "이조(吏曹), Ijo" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  14. ^ "병조(兵曹), Byeong-jo" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  15. ^ "형조(刑曹), Hyeongjo" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  16. ^ James B. Palais (1996). Confucian Statecraft and Korean Institutions: Yu Hyŏngwŏn and the Late Chosŏn Dynasty. University of Washington Press. p. 1271. ISBN 0-295-97455-9. 
  17. ^ 도제조 (都提調) (in Korean). Empas/EncyKorea. 
  18. ^ "비변사(備邊司), Bibyeonsa" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. 
  19. ^ "세도정치(勢道政治), sedo jeongchi" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. 

External links[edit]