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Yevonde Philone Cumbers
5 January 1893
London, United Kingdom
|Died||22 December 1975 (aged 82)|
London, United Kingdom
(m. 1920; died 1939)
Yevonde Philone Middleton (née Cumbers; 5 January 1893 – 22 December 1975) was an English photographer, who pioneered the use of colour in portrait photography. She used the professional name Madame Yevonde.
Educated at the liberal and progressive Lingholt Boarding School in Hindhead and subsequently at the Guilde Internationale in Paris, as well as boarding schools in Belgium and France, from an early age Yevonde Cumbers displayed an independent attitude. Her heroine was women's liberationist Mary Wollstonecraft, and she joined the Suffragette movement in 1910. Upon leaving school, she returned to the family home in Bromley, Kent, and became active in suffragette activities, but realised that she was not cut out to be a leader in the field of women's rights. Cumbers eventually ceased her active involvement, but not before answering an advert she had seen in The Suffragette for a photographer's apprentice. She attended an interview with Lena Connell, who took austere photos of nobility and suffragette leaders.
Instead, Cumbers sought, and was given, a three-year apprenticeship with the portrait photographer Lallie Charles. With the technical grounding she received from working with Charles, and a gift of £250 from her father, at the age of 21 Yevonde set up her own studio at 92 Victoria Street, London, and began to make a name for herself by inviting well-known figures to sit for free. Before long her pictures were appearing in society magazines such as the Tatler and The Sketch. Her style quickly moved away from the stiff "pouter pigeon" look of Lallie Charles, toward a still formal, but more creative, style. Her subjects were often pictured looking away from the camera, and she began using props to creative effect.
By 1921 Madame Yevonde had become a well-known and respected portrait photographer, and moved to larger premises at 100 Victoria Street. Here she began taking advertising commissions and also photographed many of the leading personalities of the day, including A.A. Milne, Barbara Cartland, Diana Mitford, Louis Mountbatten and Noël Coward.
In the early 1930s, Yevonde began experimenting with colour photography, using the new Vivex colour process from Colour Photography Limited of Willesden. The introduction of colour photography was not universally popular; indeed photographers and the public alike were so used to black-and-white pictures that early reactions to the new process tended toward the hostile. Yevonde, however, was hugely enthusiastic about it and spent countless hours in her studio experimenting with how to get the best results. Her dedication paid huge dividends. In 1932 she put on an exhibition of portrait work at the Albany Gallery, half monochrome and half colour, to enthusiastic reviews.
In 1933, Madame Yevonde moved once again, this time to 28 Berkeley Square. She began using colour in her advertising work as well as her portraits, and took on other commissions too. In 1936, she was commissioned by Fortune magazine to photograph the last stages in the fitting out of the new Cunard liner, the Queen Mary. This was very different from Yevonde's usual work, but the shoot was a success. People printed twelve plates, and pictures were exhibited in London and New York City. One of the portraits was of artist Doris Zinkeisen who was commissioned together with her sister Anna to paint several murals for the Queen Mary. Another major coup was being invited to take portraits of leading peers to mark the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. She joined the Royal Photographic Society in 1933, and became a Fellow in 1940. The RPS Collection holds examples of her work.
Yevonde's most famous work was inspired by a theme party held on 5 March 1935, where guests dressed as Roman and Greek gods and goddesses. Yevonde subsequently took studio portraits of many of the participants (and others), in appropriate costume and surrounded by appropriate objects. This series of prints showed Yevonde at her most creative, using colour, costume and props to build an otherworldly air around her subjects. She went on to produce further series based on the signs of the zodiac and the months of the year. Partly influenced by surrealist artists, particularly Man Ray, Yevonde used surprising juxtapositions of objects which displayed her sense of humour.
This highly creative period of Yevonde's career would only last a few years. At the end of 1939, Colour Photographs Ltd closed, and the Vivex process was no more. It was the second major blow to Yevonde that year—her husband, the playwright Edgar Middleton, had died in April. Yevonde returned to working in black and white, and produced many notable portraits. She continued working up until her death, just two weeks short of her 83rd birthday, but is chiefly remembered for her work of the 1930s, which did much to make colour photography respectable.
- Be Original or Die Photographs by Madame Yevonde in 1953 featured 64 color photographs produced from original glass plate negatives and Vivex prints. It showed her Goddesses series of 1935, in which society women posed in, surreal, mythical guises.
- Goddesses and Others: Photographs by Madame Yevonde in 2005 at the National Portrait Gallery, London displayed 15 of her colour photographs from the 1930s.
- Madame Yevonde: Colour, Fantasy & Myth was a retrospective of her work at the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1990. An exhibition catalogue was also published by the Gallery.
- "Visual Arts - Artists - Madame Yevonde (1883 -1975)". British Council. 1998. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "Artists - Madame Yevonde". Benham Gallery.
- Neale, Shirley (19 January 2015). "Mrs Beatrice Cundy, née Adelin Beatrice Connell, 1875–1949". History of Photography. 25: 61–67. doi:10.1080/03087298.2001.10443437. S2CID 191565007.
- "Doris Clare Zinkeisen". National Portrait Gallery (London). Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- Dwyer, Britta C. (13 November 2006). "The Zinkeisen sisters – Great Scotswomen (from The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women)". Heritage & Culture. Edinburgh University Press. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- Royal Photographic Society membership records. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- "Madame Yevonde". Cornerhouse Publications. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
- "Goddesses and Others - National Portrait Gallery". National Portrait Gallery, London. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
- Gibson, Robin; Roberts, Pam; Yevonde, Madame (1990). Madame Yevonde: Colour, Fantasy, and Myth. National Portrait Gallery, London. p. 119. ISBN 9781855140240. Retrieved 10 January 2022.