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Yilou tribal confederacy

Map showing the approximate location of Yilou
Map showing the approximate location of Yilou
Tungusic Shamanism
GovernmentProvisional Council of Shamans, Military Leader in war
Historical eraAncient
Succeeded by
Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
Dongdan Kingdom
Today part of Russia  China

Yilou is the modern Chinese name of a people in 3rd- to 12th -century ancient people who lived in the Primorsky Krai, Jilin, Heilongjiang. Known since the time of Zhou, probably associated with the Situanshan culture [1], used to communicate the Tungusic languages languages [2].. In the Chinese chronicles them in the 3-6 century AD. e. mixed with the tribal of the Sushen or considered Sushen the ruling dynasty, the relationship of Eilou and Sushen is still unknown. In 12 century joined the Jurchen.

The Eilou disappeared from chinese documents in the 6th century.[3] But continued to exist further as a tribal alliance.[4]


The Eilou lands extended to 1000 li to the northeast from the borders Fuyui, in the east they stretched to the sea. In the south they bordered on the lands of the Korean state Okcho.


Residents in clothes were partly similar to the inhabitants of Pouyo, but differed from them in language. Did not have Chinese rituals. They wore clothes from linen and hemp fabrics, as well as the skin of domestic pigs whose fat was spread on the body in the winter to protect against the cold. They lived in dugouts, the deepest dugouts were considered the best, the rich in the dugout had up to nine steps.

In Eilou, tribal relations prevailed. There were many small genera. There was a patriarchy and rituals of testing strength and courage.

The main weapon was the bows, which was required to own every man. Since the hunt was extremely important for survival. Luke about 100 cm long (4 chi), tight as Chinese [[[crossbow]]. The shaft of the arrow was roughly machined, over 40 cm (1 chi and 8 Tsuni) long, the tips were silicon and often smeared with poison oh, quite strong and fast-acting.

Small boats made of a hollowed out tree trunk or made from animal skins were a common means of transportation. There were also small vessels for 20 people, 6-8 meters long, made of hollowed and broken logs smeared with resin.

In the 5th century, low-growing ponies from Puyo began to be used massively. Height at withers is 120-130 cm. Related Przhevalsky horses.


State and state apparatus was not. There was no single tribal union. Each village was ruled by an elder.

The people of Eilou are related to the people of Mohe, who lived to the west and created Bohai. In the future, they constituted one people - Jurchen.

The Chinese chroniclers, who attached special importance to the monarchy, believed that the same kind of people were dominated by the dominant Sushen tribes in antiquity, and Yilou during the Chinese dynasties Han and Jin, and Ugie during the Northern Wei dynasty.


They knew farming. We bred pigs with a common pen in the middle of the village, where there was also a latrine for people. In their lands they mined Agate, hunted fur animals including Sables. With all this, they traded with Fuyui. The trade with which Chinese chroniclers did not correctly interpret as paying tribute due to the non-proportionality of the value of the goods according to Chinese ideas.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/k-voprosu-ob-etnicheskoy-prinadlezhnosti-nositeley-kultury-situanshan
  2. ^ "Chinese History – Non-Chinese peoples and neighboring states: Sushen". Chinaknowledge. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
  3. ^ "Chinese History – The Non-Chinese peoples and states of the northeast". Retrieved 5 April 2009..
  4. ^ https://cyberleninka.ru/search?q=%D0%98%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%83


  • Hyacinth (Bichurin) (о. Иакинф) «Собрание сведений…»/Часть II/Отделение III.
  • Л. Н. Гумилёв «Хунну в Китае»/I. Тление/Приамурье