|Native to||Papua New Guinea|
|Region||Yimas village, Karawari Rural LLG, East Sepik Province|
Yimas is an endangered language, being widely replaced by Tok Pisin, and to a lesser extent, English, and it is unclear if any children are native Yimas speakers. However, a Yimas pidgin was once used as a contact language with speakers of Alamblak and Arafundi.
|ISO 639-3||None (|
The phoneme inventory of Yimas is typical for the languages of Papua New Guinea. Like many languages of the region, Yimas has no fricative phonemes, although fricatives do sometimes appear in pronunciation as variants of plosives. The following table contains the phonemes of the language.
The phonemic status of the palatal consonants /c/, /ɲ/ and /ʎ/ (the latter is written as l in the examples) is not entirely clear. In general their appearance is predictable; they arise primarily through palatization of the alveolar consonants /t/, /n/, and /r/. However, there are a few words in which these consonants must be regarded as underlyingly palatal. Examples include akulɨm (wrist), ɨɲcɨt (urine), and other words, though these historically go back to alveolar consonants, as can be seen in their cognates in Karawari (awkurim (wrist) and sɨndi (urine)).
Adjacent nasals and plosives are usually homorganic. Other combinations such as mt, mk, np, ŋt, etc., are rare or unattested; an example is pamki (legs). The same is true when plosives appear before nasals at the ends of words or syllables. In this case, the nasal is syllabic, for example watn [ˈwatn̩] (a hardwood tree species).
Plosives are generally voiced after nasals, with /p/ becoming voiced also before u. At word onsets and before stressed vowels, they are aspirated and voiceless. For example: ɲct [ˈɪɲɟɪt] (urine), pamki [ˈpʰamgi] (legs), tkay [tʰəˈkʰaɪ̯] (nose), kput [kʰɞˈbut] (rain). /p/ and /w/ weaken to a voiceless fricative: ipwa [iˈβa]. When /k/ appears before two vowels, if the second vowel is unstressed, then the /k/ is realized as a voiced fricative: amanakn [ʌmʌˈnaɣɨn] (mine). Intervocally /c/ has age-based allophony, with older speakers preferring the stop realisation and younger ones the dental sibilant [s], as in acak [ˈasʌk] (to send). After another consonant, /c/ is always realised as a palatal stop.
ʎ is in free variation between [ʎ] and [lʲ]. r varies in pronunciation between [l] and [ɾ].
The most frequent vowels by far are /a/ and /ɨ/. ɨ also appears as an epenthetic vowel to break up otherwise illicit consonant clusters. In the vicinity of u and also occasionally in other contexts, an u is sometimes inserted instead: mml [məmɪʎ] (a kind of snake), ŋmkŋn [ŋəmgəŋɨn] (underneath), maŋkuml [maŋgɯmuʎ] (two veins). The appearance of /ɨ/ is often predictable from the surrounding consonant environment and as a result it can typically be treated as an epenthetic vowel even within lexical roots. Adopting this analysis results in whole words with no underlying vowels.
The primary accent lies in general on the first syllable of a word. If the first syllable contains an epenthetic vowel but the second does not, then the second syllable is stressed. When the first as well as the second syllable contain epenthetic vowels, then the stress lies on the first syllable. In words with more than three syllables, the third syllable carries secondary stress.
|kcakk||[kʰɪˈsaɣək]||to cut||first syllable has an epenthetic vowel → second syllable stressed|
|mɲŋ||[ˈmɪɲɪŋ]||tongue||first two syllables have epenthetic vowels → first syllable stressed|
|yamparan||[ˈjambʌɾʌn]||to stand up|
|yacɨrɨm||[ˈjɛsəɾəm]||an accessory for chewing betelnuts|
|yawkawpunumprum||[ˈjawkʌwˌpʰunɯmbɾɯm]||yellow opossum||Secondary stress on the third syllable|
The genitive suffix -na, which is used on personal pronouns, takes primary stress: ama-na-kn [ʌmʌˈnaɣɨn] (mine).
Yimas indpendent pronouns are:
sg du pc pl 1 ama kapa paŋkət ipa 2 mi kapwa paŋkət ipwa 3 mən mərəm məŋgət mum
Yimas is a polysynthetic language with (somewhat) free word order. It is an ergative-absolutive language morphologically but not syntactically, although it has several other case-like relations encoded on its verbs. It has 10 or 11 noun classes (genders), and a unique number system. Four of the noun classes are semantically determined (male humans, female humans, higher animals, plants and plantmaterial) whereas the rest are assigned on phonological bases.
Yimas has an elaborate tense-marking system, as illustrated below for the verb wa- ‘go’.
wa-ntut go-RM.PST ‘went more than a few days ago’ wa-kiantut go-FR.PST ‘went a few days ago’ wa-nan go-NR.PST ‘went yesterday’ wa-t go-IMM.PST ‘went today’ wa-n go-PRS ‘going now’ wa-wat go-HAB ‘usually go’ wa-kiak go-NR.FUT ‘will go tomorrow’ wa-kt go-RM.FUT ‘will go after tomorrow’
- Paradisec has an open access collection of Yimas Mambu music. They also have a collection of William Foley's recordings that contain some Yimas material.
- Yimas at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yimas". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2019). "Papua New Guinea languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (22nd ed.). Dallas: SIL International.
- United Nations in Papua New Guinea (2018). "Papua New Guinea Village Coordinates Lookup". Humanitarian Data Exchange. 1.31.9.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yimas-Alamblak-Pidgin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yimas-Arafundi-Pidgin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yimas-Iatmul Pidgin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yimas-Karawari Pidgin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Foley, William. 1991. The Yimas Language of New Guinea. Stanford University Press.
- See Foley 1991, page 45.
- Foley, William A. (2018). "The Languages of the Sepik-Ramu Basin and Environs". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 197–432. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
- Foley, William A. (2018). "The morphosyntactic typology of Papuan languages". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 895–938. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.