November 11, 1926
Święciany, Second Polish Republic
|Occupation||Historian, retired IDF brigadier general|
Yitzhak Arad (Hebrew: יצחק ארד) (né Icchak Rudnicki) (born November 11, 1926), is an Israeli historian, author, retired IDF brigadier general and a former Soviet partisan, director of Yad Vashem from 1972 to 1993. He specialised in the history of the Holocaust.
Early life and war experiences
Arad was born Icchak Rudnicki on November 11, 1926, in what was then Święciany in the Second Polish Republic (now Švenčionys, Lithuania). In his youth, he belonged to the Zionist youth movement Ha-No'ar ha-Tsiyyoni. During the war – according to Arad's 1993 interview with Harry J. Cargas – he was active in the ghetto underground movement from 1942 to 1944. In February 1943, he joined the Soviet partisans of the Markov Brigade, a primarily non-Jewish unit in which he had to contend with antisemitism. Apart from a foray infiltrating the Vilna Ghetto in April 1943 to meet with underground leader Abba Kovner, he stayed with the Soviet partisans until the end of the war, fighting the Germans, taking part in mining trains and in ambushes around the Naroch Forest of Belarus. "The official attitude of the Soviet partisan movement was that there was no place for Jewish units" acting independently, said Arad.
In December 1945, Yitzhak Arad immigrated without authorization to Mandate Palestine , on the Ha'apala boat named after Hannah Szenes. In Arad's military career in the IDF, he reached the rank of brigadier general and was appointed to the post of Chief Education Officer. He retired from the military in 1972.
In his academic career as a lecturer on Jewish history at Tel Aviv University, he has researched World War II and the Holocaust, and has published extensively as author and editor, primarily in Hebrew. His current research deals with the Holocaust in the USSR. Dr. Yitzhak Arad served as the director (Chairman of the Directorate) of Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust Remembrance Authority, for 21 years (1972–1993). He remains associated with Yad Vashem in an advisor's capacity. Arad was awarded Doctor honoris causa degree by Poland's Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń on 7 June 1993.
Dismissed investigation in Lithuania
In 2006, following a story in the Lithuanian Respublika newspaper that called Arad a "war criminal" for his alleged role in the Koniuchy massacre perpetrated by anti-Nazi Soviet partisans, the Lithuanian state prosecutor initiated an investigation of Arad. Following an international outcry, the investigation was dropped in the fall of 2008.
Arad said he had nothing to apologize for - "I am proud that I fought the Nazi Germans and their Lithuanian collaborators ... That fate made it possible for me to fight against the murderers of my family, the murderers of my people." Arad has said he believes the investigation was motivated by revenge for expert evidence he gave in a United States trial of a Lithuanian Nazi collaborator. Further saying that ""I think they use my case as a general intention to rewrite history, show that Jews are not the only victims."
British historian Martin Gilbert said he was "deeply shocked" by the "perverse" investigation. Efraim Zuroff called the investigation "Lithuanian chutzpah", further saying that "To date, Lithuanian governments have not punished a single Lithuanian war criminal. In spite of our considerable efforts and the large amount of information we have given them, they handled three cases with astonishing slowness. Not one of the three served a single day in prison. On the other hand, they're not ashamed to persecute and harass Lithuanian partisans who fought the Nazis. What is common to all these cases is that they're all Jews. Instead of punishing Lithuanian criminals who collaborated with the Nazis and murdered Jews, they're harassing the partisans, Jewish heroes.". Some 200,000 Jews were murdered in Lithuania during the Holocaust, mainly by Lithuanian collaborators who murdered Jews without any need of Nazi encouragement.
Lithuania's record of prosecuting war criminals has been spotty, leading The Economist to write that the investigation against Jews was selective and even vindictive. According to Dovid Katz, this is "Holocaust obfuscation" that "involves a series of false moral equivalences: Jews were disloyal citizens of pre-war Lithuania, helped the Soviet occupiers in 1940, and were therefore partly to blame for their fate. And the genocide that really matters was the one that Lithuanian people suffered at Soviet hands after 1944".
He was born Icchak Rudnicki, later adopting the Hebrew surname Arad (Hebrew: ארד). During World War II, he was known as Tolya (Russian diminutive for Anatoly) in the underground and among the partisans.
Bibliography in English
- The partisan : from the Valley of Death to Mount Zion (1979)
- Ghetto in flames : the struggle and destruction of the Jews in Vilna in the Holocaust (1980)
- Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka : the Operation Reinhard death camps (1987) ISBN 0-253-21305-3
- In the Shadow of the Red Banner (2010), Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 978-965-229-487-6
- Documents on the Holocaust: selected sources on the destruction of the Jews of Germany and Austria, Poland, and the Soviet Union (1982, rev. 1989, 1999) with Israel Gutman and Abraham Margaliot
- The Einsatzgruppen reports: selections from the dispatches of the Nazi Death Squads’ campaign against the Jews July 1941-January 1943 (1989) with Shmuel Krakowski and Shmuel Spector
- Pictorial History of the Holocaust (1990)
- Ponary diary, 1941-1943 : a bystander’s account of a mass murder, by Kazimierz Sakowicz (2005, from the Polish; the title refers to Ponary massacre)
- Izhak Arad (Rudnicki) vital statistics at Jewish Partisans' website
- Yitzhak Arad interview for Martyrdom & Resistance, September/October 2010. Tishri/Cheshvan, 5771
- UMK Senat (2016). "Doktorzy honoris causa UMK". Nicolaus Copernicus University, UMK.pl.
- The Crime of Surviving, Tablet, Dovid Katz, May 2010
- Double Genocide, Daniel Brook, Slate, 2015
- Reopening Lithuania's old wounds, BBC, 21 July 2008
- Nazi Hunter: Lithuania Hunts Ex-partisans, Lets War Criminals Roam Free, Haaretz, 7 Aug 2008
- Prosecution and persecution, The Economist, 21 Aug 2008
- Burkhard Schröder, Litauen und die jüdischen Partisanen (Lithuania and the Jewish Partisans), Heise Online, September 14, 2008
- "Lithuanian-Israeli row brewing over WW2 killings," RT Newsline, "TV-Novosti", 18 September 2007
- Brook, Daniel (July 26, 2014). "Double Genocide: Lithuania wants to erase its ugly history of Nazi collaboration—by accusing Jewish partisans who fought the Germans of war crimes". Slate.