Modern yoga

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Women in an outdoor yoga community class, Texas, 2010

Modern yoga[a][2][3][b] is a physical activity consisting largely of postures called asanas, often connected by flowing sequences called vinyasas, sometimes accompanied by the breathing exercises of pranayama, and usually ending with a period of relaxation or meditation. It is often known simply as yoga,[8] despite the existence of multiple older traditions of yoga within Hinduism where asanas played little or no part, some dating back over 2000 years to the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

Modern yoga was created by the blending of Western styles of gymnastics with postures from Haṭha yoga in India in the 20th century. Before 1900 there were few standing poses in Haṭha yoga. The flowing sequences of salute to the sun, Surya Namaskar, were pioneered by the Rajah of Aundh, Bhawanrao Shrinivasrao Pant Pratinidhi, in the 1920s.[9] Many standing poses used in gymnastics were incorporated into yoga by Krishnamacharya in Mysore from the 1930s to the 1950s. Several of his students went on to found influential schools of yoga: Pattabhi Jois created Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga, which in turn led to Power Yoga; B. K. S. Iyengar created Iyengar Yoga, and systematised the canon of asanas in his 1966 book Light on Yoga; Indra Devi taught yoga to many film stars in Hollywood; and Krishnamacharya's son T. K. V. Desikachar founded the Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandalam in Chennai. Other major schools founded in the 20th century include Bikram Choudhury's Bikram Yoga and Swami Sivananda of Rishikesh's Sivananda Vedanta Schools of Yoga. Modern yoga spread across America and Europe, and then the rest of the world.

The number of asanas used in modern yoga has increased rapidly from a nominal 84 in 1830, as illustrated in Joga Pradipika, to some 200 in Light on Yoga and over 900 performed by Dharma Mittra by 1984. At the same time, the goals of Haṭha yoga, namely spiritual liberation (moksha) through the raising of kundalini, were largely replaced by the goals of fitness and relaxation, while many of Haṭha yoga's components like shatkarmas, bandhas, mudras and pranayama were much reduced or removed entirely.

Yoga has developed into a worldwide multi-billion dollar business, involving classes, certification of teachers, clothing, books, videos, equipment, and holidays. The ancient cross-legged sitting asanas like lotus pose (Padmasana) and Siddhasana are widely-recognised symbols of yoga.

History[edit]

Ancient[edit]

Prajnaparamita seated in Padmasana for meditation, Java. 13th century

The practice of yoga using postures called asanas is often vaguely traced to Patanjali's Yoga Sutras (4th–2nd century BC), but that work does not mention any asana by name:[10] it states only that asanas must be "steady and comfortable".[11][12] The philologist James Mallinson notes that in ancient times āsana meant simply a meditation seat, a sitting posture, until about 1000 AD.[13]

Medieval to early modern[edit]

"Kapala Asana" (headstand, on a tiger skin) from manuscript of Jogapradipika, 1830.

The 8th century Pātañjalayogaśāstravivaraṇa, a commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, gives descriptions of the 12 seated asanas named in Patanjali's bhāṣya commentary on the sutras, including Dandasana, Svastikasana, and Virasana.[14]

In the medieval Haṭha yoga tradition, asanas, symbolically 84 in number,[c] are first named in manuscripts from the 10th or 11th centuries. The earliest of these, the Vimānārcanākalpa, gives the first description of a non-seated asana in the form of Mayurasana, the peacock, a balancing pose.[13][16] The Ahirbudhnya Saṃhitā describes Kukkutasana, the cockerel, another hand balance, and Kurmasana, the tortoise.[13] Non-seated poses appear, according to Mallinson, to have been created outside Shaivism, the home of the Nath yoga tradition, and were associated with asceticism.[13] The Goraksha Sataka describes two seated asanas, Siddhasana and Padmasana.[17][18]

Svātmārāma's 15th century compilation, the Haṭha Yoga Pradipika, describes 15 asanas, and states that of these, four are important, namely the seated poses Siddhasana, Padmasana, Bhadrasana and Simhasana.[19]

By the 17th century, asanas became an important component of Haṭha yoga practice.[20] The Haṭha Ratnāvalī[21] by Srinivasa names 84 asanas, describing 36 of them.[22][23] These include several variations of Padmasana and Mayurasana, Gomukhasana, Bhairavasana, Matsyendrasana, Kurmasana, Kraunchasana, Mandukasana, Yoganidrasana, and many names now not in wide usage.[24] An illustrated 1602 Persian manuscript, the Bahr al-Hayāt, depicts a yogi performing 22 asanas; it describes postures including Garbhasana.[13][25] The Gheranda Samhita (late 17th century) states that of the 84 asanas claimed to exist, 32 "are useful in the world of mortals."[26]

An 1830 illustrated manuscript of Ramanandi Jayatarama's 1737 Joga Pradipika contains high quality paintings of 84 seated and inverted asanas and 24 mudras in the Rajput style, probably from the Punjab, from before the onset of modern yoga. The illustrations are symbolic, not naturalistic. The yoga scholar Gudrun Bühnemann observes that these early images do not demonstrate a more ancient lineage of 84 asanas, "nor is there any evidence that it ever existed."[27][28]

The Sritattvanidhi, a 19th century manuscript written before 1868, illustrates and describes 122 asanas.[29]

Yogi Ghamande's 1905 book Yogasopana Purvacatuska marks a transition from the secret, medieval treatment of Haṭha yoga to the public, modern form. Illustrated with half-tone engravings of Ghamande performing 37 asanas, it is the first book to display asanas in realistic, quasi-photographic detail, and in so doing breaking Haṭha yoga's injunction of secrecy.[30][31]

Western traditions[edit]

A pose close to Samakonasana in Thomas Dwight's "The Anatomy of a Contortionist", Scribner's Magazine, April 1889

In the Western world, poses much like Durvasasana, Ganda Bherundasana and Hanumanasana appeared in Thomas Dwight's 1889 article "Anatomy of a Contortionist".[32][11][33] poses close to Virabhadrasana, Adho Mukha Svanasana, Utthita Padangusthasana, Supta Virasana and others were described in Niels Bukh's 1924 Danish text Grundgymnastik eller primitiv gymnastik (known in English as Primary Gymnastics).[34][11]

Bukh's poses were derived from a 19th century Scandinavian tradition of gymnastics dating back to Pehr Ling, and "found their way to India" by the early 20th century.[11][35] In Singleton's view, "virtually all" the standing poses,[d] and the many other asanas first seen after 1900, were created under the influence of modern physical culture.[37]

In America, Genevieve Stebbins, loosely following the system of François Delsarte,[38] combined callisthenic exercises for women, deep breathing, relaxation and meditative visualisation in an esoteric spiritual framework, as described in her 1892 book Dynamic Breathing and Harmonic Gymnastics. A Complete System of Psychical, Aesthetic, and Physical Culture.[39][40] Yoga asanas were brought to America by Yogendra, who founded a branch of The Yoga Institute in New York state in 1919.[41] Among his many books on yoga is his 1928 Yoga Asanas Simplified.[42]

"Seal" posture from Mary Bagot Stack's Building the Body Beautiful, 1931. It closely resembles Salabhasana, locust pose.

In the 1930s, women in Britain regularly took exercise classes involving stretching exercises with postures that would now be called Paschimottanasana, Trikonasana and others, but these were not called "yoga".[43] Poses including what are now known as Sarvangasana and Salabhasana were illustrated in the exercise instructor Mary Bagot Stack's 1931 Building the Body Beautiful, along with "breath-work" and an esoteric spiritual context.[44][45] Postures "instantly recognizable" as Rajakapotasana, Urdhva Dhanurasana, Eka Pada Viparita Dandasana and Natarajasana were shown off by Adonia Wallace in Health and Strength magazine in July 1935; again, these were not associated with yoga, which the magazine covered in a separate section.[46] The form and content of modern yoga classes is in Singleton's view "strikingly similar"[47] to the exercise classes taught by Stack and others in the 1930s, and "may represent a direct historical succession" from them.[47]

Modern India[edit]

Modern yoga was created by the blending of Western styles of gymnastics with postures from Haṭha yoga in India in the 20th century. Before 1900 there were few or no standing poses in Haṭha yoga.[37][48][49] The yoga scholar Norman Sjoman states that there is "no continuous tradition of practice that can be traced back to the [medieval hatha yoga] texts on yoga."[50] The flowing sequences of salute to the sun, Surya Namaskar, now accepted as yoga and containing popular asanas such as Uttanasana and upward and downward dog poses,[51][52] were popularized by the Rajah of Aundh, Bhawanrao Shrinivasrao Pant Pratinidhi, in the 1920s, though the Rajah denied having invented them.[9][53]

From the 1850s onwards, there developed in India a culture of physical exercise to counter the colonial stereotype of supposed "degeneracy" of Indians compared to the British,[54][55] a belief reinforced by then-current ideas of Lamarckism and eugenics.[56][57] This culture was taken up from the 1880s to the early 20th century by Indian nationalists such as Tiruka, who taught exercises and unarmed combat techniques under the guise of yoga.[58][59] The German bodybuilder Eugene Sandow was acclaimed on his 1905 visit to India, at which time he was already a "cultural hero" in the country.[60] The scholar Joseph Alter suggests that Sandow was the person who had the most influence on modern yoga.[60][61] Meanwhile, the proponent of Indian physical culture K. V. Iyer consciously combined "hata yoga" (sic) with bodybuilding in his Bangalore gymnasium.[62][63]

Krishnamacharya teaching yoga in Mysore, 1930s[11][64]

In 1924, Swami Kuvalayananda founded the Kaivalyadhama Health and Yoga Research Center in Maharashtra.[65] He combined asanas with Indian systems of exercise and modern European gymnastics, having according to the scholar Joseph Alter a "profound" effect on the evolution of yoga.[66]

In 1925, Paramahansa Yogananda, having moved from India to America, set up the Self-Realization Fellowship in Los Angeles, and taught yoga, including asanas, breathing, chanting and meditation, to "tens of thousands of Americans".[67]

Tirumalai Krishnamacharya (1888–1989), "the father of modern yoga",[64][68] spent seven years with one of the few masters of Haṭha yoga then living, Ramamohana Brahmachari, at Lake Manasarovar in Tibet, from 1912 to 1918.[69][70] He studied under Kuvalayananda in the 1930s, creating in his yogaśālā in the Jaganmohan Palace in Mysore "a marriage of Haṭha yoga, wrestling exercises, and modern Western gymnastic movement, and unlike anything seen before in the yoga tradition."[11] The Maharajah of Mysore Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV was a leading advocate of physical culture in India, and a neighbouring hall of his palace was used to teach Surya Namaskar classes, then considered to be gymnastic exercises. Krishnamacharya adapted these sequences of exercises into his flowing style of yoga.[69]

Postures in Niels Bukh's 1924 Primary Gymnastics[71] resembling the asanas Parighasana, Parsvottanasana, and Navasana, supporting the suggestion that Krishnamacharya derived some of his asanas from the gymnastics culture of his time[72]

Among Krishnamacharya's pupils were people who became influential yoga teachers themselves: the Russian Eugenie V. Peterson, known as Indra Devi (from 1937), who moved to Hollywood and taught yoga to actors and other celebrities; Pattabhi Jois (from 1927), who founded the flowing style Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga whose Mysore style makes use of repetitions of Surya Namaskar, in 1948, which in turn led to Power Yoga;[73] B.K.S. Iyengar (from 1933), his brother-in-law, who founded Iyengar Yoga; T.K.V. Desikachar, his son, who continued his Viniyoga tradition; Srivatsa Ramaswami; and A. G. Mohan, co-founder of Svastha Yoga & Ayurveda.[74][75] Together they made yoga popular as physical exercise and brought it to the Western world.[70][76] The asanas taught by Jois and Iyengar, and derived from Krishnamacharya's teaching, include over 28 that are "strikingly similar (often identical)"[72] to illustrations in Bukh's Primary Gymnastics.[71][e] These formed a familiar part of worldwide gymnastic culture in the early 20th century, as seen in magazines like Health and Strength; there is no suggestion that Krishnamacharya borrowed directly from Bukh.[77] Other similarities are that Bukh's exercises are graded into six series, are vigorously aerobic, are meant to be accompanied by deep breathing, and are linked by jumping movements, all just as in Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga.[77] Iyengar's 1966 book Light on Yoga popularised yoga asanas worldwide with what Sjoman calls its "clear no-nonsense descriptions and the obvious refinement of the illustrations",[10] though the degree of precision it calls for is missing from earlier yoga texts.[78]

Other Indian schools of yoga took up the new style of asanas, but continued to emphasize Haṭha yoga's spiritual goals and practices to varying extents. The Divine Life Society was founded by Sivananda Saraswati of Rishikesh (1887–1963). His many disciples include Swami Vishnu-devananda, the founder of International Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres; Swami Satyananda of the Bihar School of Yoga, a major centre of Hatha yoga teacher training;[79][80] and Swami Satchidananda of Integral Yoga.[79]

Worldwide commodity[edit]

Yoga in public, Jakarta, 2013. The participants are relaxing in Savasana.

From the 1970s, modern yoga spread across many countries of the world, changing as it did so, and becoming "an integral part of (primarily) urban cultures worldwide", to the extent that the word yoga in the Western world now means the practice of asanas, typically in a class.[f][8] The scholar Jon Brammer described its status in 2010 as "a popular semi-spiritual commodity for everyone", giving as an example the gathering that year of 10,000 yoga practitioners to be led as a class in New York's Central Park, the first of its kind. The event was in Brammer's view a demonstration that "yoga is so multi-faceted, accessible, and acculturated that a commercial entity can 'put on a show' to popularize yoga with the help of a state board of parks and recreation."[81] Singleton argues that the commodity is the yoga body itself, its "spiritual possibility"[82] signified by the "lucent skin of the yoga model",[82] a beautiful image endlessly sold back to the yoga-practising public "as an irresistible commodity of the holistic, perfectible self".[82]

Comparison with Haṭha yoga[edit]

Modern yoga is related to Haṭha yoga but with differences as shown in the table. All the traditional systems within Hinduism give asanas a "preparatory and subordinate place"[83] in their methods of achieving liberation (moksha) from the endless cycle of rebirth. The Yoga Sutras and the Upanishads do not emphasize asanas, while even most medieval Haṭha yoga and Nath texts "teach a very limited number of asanas".[83] The relationship between modern yoga and medieval Haṭha yoga is "one of radical innovation and experimentation", and not "the outcome of a direct and unbroken lineage of haṭha yoga."[84] Modern yoga is global, largely independent of its roots in India, and is viewed through "cultural prisms" including New Age religion, psychology, sports science, and medicine.[85]

Attribute Haṭha yoga Modern yoga
Date c. 1100–1800[17] 1920s onwards[65]
Practised by Nath and other yogins in South Asia[83] People worldwide, especially America,[86] Europe[85]
Objectives Samadhi (absorption), Moksha (liberation)[87] Fitness,[88] health,[89] stress relief[90]
Practices Shatkarmas, Asanas, Bandhas, Drishti, Mudras, Pranayama[91] Mainly or solely Asanas, sometimes Pranayama, relaxation[92]
Religion Hinduism[83] Any or none; some Christians practice yoga, some consider it Hindu[93]
Number of Asanas Few, mainly seated; very few standing poses before 1900[87][37] Hundreds, increasing rapidly, e.g. 200 in Light on Yoga (1966),[94] over 900 in Master Yoga Chart (1984)[95]
Importance of Asanas Minor aspect of spiritual work[83] Dominant[96]
Equipment None Yoga mats ubiquitous;[97] props e.g. blocks, straps sometimes used[98]
Performance Solitary, ascetic[13] Often in groups[90]
Speed Slow, holding a position for long periods[99] Fast or slow, sometimes as aerobic exercise[98]
Confidentiality All procedures secret[100] Published in books,[101] videos[102]
Instruction Guru to individual pupil (shishya), long-term[103] Public, by subscription or drop-in sessions[90]
Diet Sattvic vegetarian, no tea, coffee, or alcohol[104] Any, but favouring local, sustainable, organic, vegetarian[90]
Commercialisation None Multi-billion dollar businesses (teaching, clothing, equipment, holidays)[105]

Practices[edit]

Asanas[edit]

Modern yoga consists largely but not exclusively of the practice of asanas. The number of asanas grew slowly from the development of Haṭha yoga in the medieval period, but has grown rapidly since the start of the 20th century, as shown in the graph.[106]

Given this growth, many of the asanas now in use did not exist in Haṭha yoga. However, the ancient cross-legged sitting asanas like lotus pose (Padmasana) and Siddhasana are widely-recognised symbols of yoga, with the connotation of "spiritual urban cool".[107]

Asanas can be classified in different ways, which may overlap: for example, by the position of the head and feet (standing, sitting, reclining, inverted), by whether balancing is required, or by the effect on the spine (forward bend, backbend, twist), giving a set of asana types agreed by most authors.[108][109][110][111] Mittra uses his own categories such as "Floor & Supine Poses".[112] Yogapedia and Yoga Journal add "Hip-opening"; Rhodes, Yogapedia and Yoga Journal also add "Core strength".[113][114][115] The table shows an example of each type of asana, with the title and date of the earliest document describing that asana.

GS = Goraksha Sataka; HY = Hemacandra's Yogaśāstra; HYP = Haṭha Yoga Pradīpikā; JP = Joga Pradīpikā; GhS = Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā; TK = Tirumalai Krishnamacharya; V = Vimanarcanakalpa
Types of asana, with dates and examples
Type Described Date Example English Image
Standing TK[116][37] 20th C. Parsvakonasana Side angle
Utthita-Parshvakonasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Sitting GS 1:10-12 10th-11th C. Siddhasana Accomplished
Siddhasana (as in Goraksha Samhita).png
Reclining HYP 1:34 15th C. Śavāsana Corpse
Shavasana.jpg
Inverted HY 11th C. Sirsasana Yoga
headstand
Raja shirshasana.jpg
Balancing V[13] 10th-11th C. Mayurasana Peacock
Nath yogi in Mayurasana peacock pose.jpg
Forward bend HYP 1:30 15th C. Paschimottanasana Seated Forward Bend
Paschimottanasana.jpg
Back bend HYP 1:27 15th C. Dhanurāsana Bow
Dhanurasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Twist HYP 1.28-29 15th C. Ardha
Matsyendrasana
Half Lord of
the Fishes
Ardha Matyendrasana - Half Lord of the Fishes Pose - Bound Arm Variation.jpg
Hip-opening HYP 1:20 15th C. Gomukhasana Cow Face
Gomukhasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Core strength TK[117][37] 20th C. Navasana Boat
Paripurna-Navasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg

Styles[edit]

Different schools teach yoga with emphasis on aerobic exercise (such as Bikram Yoga), precision in the asanas (like Iyengar Yoga), or spirituality (like Sivananda Yoga). Unbranded "hatha yoga" may teach any combination of these.

The number of schools and styles of yoga in the Western world has continued to grow rapidly. By 2012, Yoga Journal listed some 19 widespread styles from Ashtanga Yoga to Viniyoga. These emphasise different aspects including aerobic exercise, precision in the asanas, and spirituality in the Haṭha yoga tradition.[98]

These aspects can be illustrated by schools with distinctive styles. Thus, Bikram Yoga has an aerobic exercise style with rooms heated to 105 °F (41 °C) and a fixed pattern of 2 breathing exercises and 26 asanas. Iyengar Yoga emphasises correct alignment in the postures, working slowly, if necessary with props, and ending with relaxation. Sivananda Yoga focuses more on spiritual practice, with 12 basic poses, chanting in Sanskrit, pranayama breathing exercises, meditation, and relaxation in each class, and importance is placed on vegetarian diet.[98]

A "hatha yoga" class practising Vrikshasana, tree pose, in Vancouver, Canada

Alongside the yoga brands, many teachers, for example in England, offer an unbranded "hatha yoga", often mainly to women, creating their own combinations of poses. These may be in flowing sequences (vinyasas), and new variants of poses are often created.[47][118]

The tradition begun by Krishnamacharya survives at the Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram in Chennai; his son T. K. V. Desikachar and his grandson Kausthub Desikachar teach in small groups, coordinating asana movements with the breath, and personalising the teaching according to the needs of individual students.[98][119]

Hybrids[edit]

The evolution of modern yoga is not confined to the creation of new asanas and linking vinyasa sequences. Hybrid activities combining yoga with martial arts, aerial yoga combined with acrobatics, yoga with barre work (as in ballet preparation), horseback yoga, and yoga with weights are all being explored.[120]

Purposes[edit]

Physical or Hindu[edit]

Since the mid-20th century, modern yoga has been used, especially in the Western world, as physical exercise for fitness and suppleness,[88] rather than for any "overtly Hindu"[121] purpose. In 2010, this triggered what the New York Times called "a surprisingly fierce debate in the gentle world of yoga".[122] Some Indian-Americans campaigned to "Take Back Yoga"[122] by informing Americans and other Westerners about the connection between yoga and Hinduism. The campaign was criticised by the New Age author Deepak Chopra, but supported by the president of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, R. Albert Mohler Jr.[122]

Yoga (here Hanumanasana) is permitted in Malaysia as long as it does not contain religious elements.[123]

Authorities differ on whether modern yoga is purely exercise.[124] For example, in 2012, New York state decided that yoga was exempt from state sales tax as it did not constitute "true exercise", whereas in 2014 the District of Columbia was clear that yoga premises were subject to the local sales tax on premises "the purpose of which is physical exercise".[123] In Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur permits yoga classes provided they do not include chanting or meditation.[123]

However, authors such as Stefanie Syman consider that Haṭha yoga's "ecstatic .. transcendent .. possibly subversive" elements remain in modern yoga.[121] That context has led to a division of opinion among Christians, some like Alexandra Davis of the Evangelical Alliance asserting that it is acceptable as long as they are aware of modern yoga's origins,[93] others like Paul Gosbee stating that yoga's purpose is to "open up chakras" and release kundalini or "serpent power" which in Gosbee's view is "from Satan", making "Christian yoga .. a contradiction".[93] Church halls are sometimes used for yoga, and in 2015 a yoga group was banned from a church hall in Bristol by the local parochial church council, stating that yoga represented "alternative spiritualities".[125]

In a secular context, the journalists Nell Frizzell and Reni Eddo-Lodge have debated (in The Guardian) whether Western yoga classes represent "cultural appropriation". In Frizzell's view, yoga has become a new entity, a long way from the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and while some practitioners are culturally insensitive, others treat it with more respect. Eddo-Lodge agrees that Western yoga is far from Patanjali, but argues that the changes cannot be undone, whether people use it "as a holier-than-thou tool, as a tactic to balance out excessive drug use, or practised similarly to its origins with the spirituality that comes with it".[126]

Health[edit]

The Indian Minister for Women and Child Development, Maneka Gandhi, joining a programme of yoga for pregnant women in 2018. She is sitting in Dandasana, staff pose.

Modern yoga has been popularized in the Western world by claims about its health benefits.[127] The history of such claims was reviewed by William J. Broad in his 2012 book The Science of Yoga; he argues that while the health claims for yoga began as Hindu nationalist posturing, it turns out that there is ironically[89] "a wealth of real benefits".[89]

The impact of modern yoga on physical and mental health has been a topic of systematic studies, with evidence that regular yoga practice yields health benefits.[128][129][130]

Yoga participants report better sleep, increased energy levels and muscle tone, relief from muscle pain and stiffness, improved circulation and overall better general health, while yoga breathing can benefit heart rate and blood pressure.[131]

The practice of asanas has been claimed to improve flexibility, strength, and balance; to alleviate stress and anxiety, and to reduce the symptoms of lower back pain.[132][133] Claims have been made about beneficial effects on specific conditions such as asthma,[132][133] chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,[132][133] and diabetes.[134] A systematic review noted that yoga may be effective in alleviating symptoms of prenatal depression.[135]

There is evidence that practice of asanas improves birth outcomes[133] and physical health and quality of life measures in the elderly,[133] and reduces sleep disturbances[132] and hypertension.[136][137] Iyengar yoga is effective at least in the short term for both neck pain and low back pain.[138] A study suggests that soothing "yoga music" is beneficial for the heart and reduces anxiety, whereas pop music brought no such benefit and instead increased anxiety.[139] Studies suggest little or no effectiveness on cancer, though some researchers argue that yoga may reduce risk factors and assist in a patient's psychological healing.[140][141]

Business[edit]

Fashion leggings (yoga pants) are becoming big business.[142]

By the 21st century, yoga had become a flourishing business; a 2016 Ipsos study reported that 36.7 million Americans practise yoga, making the business of classes, clothing and equipment worth $16 billion in America, compared to $10 billion in 2012, and $80 billion worldwide. 72 percent of practitioners were women.[90][105][143] By 2010, Yoga Journal, founded in 1975, had some 360,000 subscribers and over a million readers.[144]

Clothing and equipment[edit]

Fashion has entered the world of yoga, with brands such as Lorna Jane and Lululemon offering their own ranges of women's yoga clothing.[105] Sales of goods such as yoga mats are increasing rapidly;[105] sales are projected to rise to $14 billion by 2020 in North America, where the key vendors are Barefoot Yoga, Gaiam, Jade Yoga, and Manduka, according to a 2016 report by Technavio.[97] Sales of athleisure clothing such as yoga pants were worth $35 billion in 2014, forming 17% of American clothing sales.[142] A wide variety of instructional videos are available, some free,[145][146] for yoga practice at beginner and advanced levels; by 2018, over 6,000 commercially-produced titles were on sale.[102] Over 1,000 books have been published on yoga poses.[101]

Holidays and training[edit]

Yoga holidays are offered in "idyllic"[147] places around the world, including in Croatia, England, France, Greece, Iceland, Indonesia, India, Italy, Montenegro, Morocco, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Turkey;[147][148][149] in 2018, prices were up to £1,295 (about $1,500) for 6 days.[147]

Teacher training, as of 2017, could cost between $2,000 and $5,000.[105] It can take up to 3 years to obtain a teaching certificate.[150] Yoga training courses, as of 2015, were still unregulated in the UK; the British Wheel of Yoga has been appointed the activity's official governing body by Sport England,[151] but it lacks power to compel training organisations, and many people are taking short unaccredited courses rather than one of the nine so far accredited.[150]

Bikram Choudhury teaching a Bikram Yoga class, 2003

Copyright claims[edit]

Bikram Yoga has become a global brand,[152] and its founder, Bikram Choudhury, spent some ten years from 2002 attempting to establish copyright on the sequence of 26 postures used in Bikram Yoga, with some initial success. However in 2012, the American federal court ruled that Bikram Yoga could not be copyrighted.[153] In 2015, after further legal action, the American court of appeals ruled that the yoga sequence and breathing exercises were not eligible for copyright protection.[154]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Perhaps the first use of the term "Modern yoga" was in the title of Ernest Wood's 1948 book.[1]
  2. ^ De Michelis 2004 introduced a typology[4] that rooted a category she named "Modern Yoga" (in a special sense, not followed here) in Vivekananda's "Raja Yoga", leading to "Modern Psychosomatic Yoga" such as that of The Yoga Institute. A branch led to "Modern Denominational Yoga", such as that of ISKCON, Sahaja Yoga, or Brahma Kumaris. Another branch led to "Modern Postural Yoga" (like Iyengar Yoga or Ashtanga Yoga) and "Modern Meditational Yoga" such as early Transcendental Meditation. This article is broadly about her "Modern Postural Yoga"; it uses the term "modern yoga" in that sense, following Ernest Wood and others. Other academic terms sometimes used include modern postural yoga,[5] modern transnational yoga,[6] and transnational anglophone yoga.[7]
  3. ^ The number 84 is symbolic not literal: it is the product of 7, the number of planets in astrology, and 12, the number of signs of the zodiac, while in numerology, 84=(3+4)×(3×4).[15]
  4. ^ A possible exception is Vrikshasana, which may have ancient roots.[36]
  5. ^ Niels Bukh's Primary Gymnastics includes postures resembling Adho Mukha Svanasana (p. 36), Balasana (p. 32), Dandasana (p. 44), Navasana (p. 125), Prasarita Padottasana (p. 141), Parighasana (p. 119), Salabhasana (p. 140), Paschimottanasana (p. 99), Parsvottanasana (p. 86) Savasana (p. 46), Sukhasana (p. 45), Supta Trivikramasana (p. 83), Tadasana (p. 28), Uttanasana (p. 44), and Vajrasana (p. 32).
  6. ^ De Michelis notes that to speakers of Indic languages, yoga has a "quite different" semantic range, including meditation, prayer, ritual and devotional practices, ethical behaviour, and "secret esoteric techniques" that average English speakers would not consider to be yoga.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wood, Ernest E. (2015) [1948]. Practical yoga, ancient and modern : being a new, independent translation of Patanjali's yoga aphorisms interpreted in the light of ancient and modern psychological knowledge and practical experience. Josephs Press [Wilshire Book Co, Rider and Co]. ISBN 978-1-4465-2820-4. OCLC 285464424.
  2. ^ Singleton 2010, p. 18.
  3. ^ De Michelis 2004, pp. 1-2 and whole book.
  4. ^ The De Michelis 2004 typology can be seen at Yoga as Linkage.
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