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Ardha Navasana on a yoga mat

Yoga mats are specially fabricated mats used to prevent hands and feet slipping during asana practice in modern yoga as exercise. An early variety made of rubber carpet underlay, pioneered by the yoga teacher Angela Farmer in 1982, was called a sticky mat. Before modern times, meditative yoga and hatha yoga were practised on bare ground, sometimes with a deer or tiger skin rug. Modern mats suitable for energetic forms of yoga are made of plastic, rubber, and sometimes other materials including hessian and cork, trading off cost, comfort, grip, and weight. The yoga mat has been called "One of the most ubiquitous symbols of yoga's commercialization".[1]


In ancient India[edit]

In ancient times, meditational yoga was practised in India on kusha grass, on hard earth without any cover, or on a rug of deer or tiger skin, as specified in the Bhagavadgita and the Shvetashvatara Upanishad as suitable for attaining enlightenment.[2][3][4]

Seated in an easy posture, on a (deer or tiger) skin, placed on Kusha grass, worshipping Ganapati with fruits and sweetmeats, placing the right palm on the left, holding the throat and head in the same line, the lips closed and firm, facing the east or the north, the eyes fixed on the tip of the nose, avoiding too much food or fasting, the Nâdis should be purified, without which the practice will be fruitless.

— Shvetashvatara Upanishad, chapter II

Origin of the modern yoga mat[edit]

Old yoga mat from the 1980s made of carpet underlay

With yoga's introduction in the West, many practitioners used towels or cotton mats on wooden floors.[5] Feet tended to skid on these surfaces, requiring strength just to stand still in a pose like Trikonasana.[6] In 1982, while teaching yoga in Germany, Angela Farmer used carpet underlay cut to towel size during yoga classes; she returned home to London with the material. Angela's father, Richard Farmer, contacted the German padding manufacturer and became the first retailer of "sticky mats".[7] The first, purpose-made yoga mat was manufactured and sold by Hugger Mugger Yoga Products in the 1990s; the company initially imported Farmer-style mats, but finding that they began to crumble with use, developed their own more robust alternative.[8][9]


Yoga mats vary in thickness, composition, surface texture, "stickiness" or grip, and weight, as well as price.[10] They are normally around 6 feet (180 cm) long and have a width of 2 feet (61 cm). Yoga mats range in thickness from lightweight 'travel' style at 116 inch (2 mm) to 18 inch (3 mm) (standard), and up to 14 inch (6 mm) for either high performance mats or soft mats for yoga therapy.[11] Mats are available in many colours and patterns. "Alignment mats" are printed with guides to proper alignment, intended to help practitioners to place their feet the right distance apart and accurately in line with each other.[12] Others are printed with images.[13] Some travel mats can be folded into a small square.[14][15]

The first commercially produced "sticky"[11] yoga mats were made from PVC; they have a smooth surface, and tend to be cheaper.[11] More recently, some supposedly "eco-friendly"[11] mats are being made from natural jute, organic cotton, and rubber.[11] PVC mats are the spongiest, resulting in more "give" when stepped on; fibre mats such as cotton and jute are the firmest.[11] Jute mats are the roughest; "sticky" PVC mats give good grip, but some of the modern textured mats in other materials also grip well.[11][16] Smooth mats provide the most grip, so are suitable for the more energetic styles such as hot yoga and Ashtanga vinyasa yoga; the trade-off is that they may be less comfortable and appear dirty more quickly.[17] Mats with more padding are useful for styles such as yin yoga where poses are held for longer periods. Travel mats are thinner and lighter, but provide less padding.[17]

Standard rectangular yoga mats do not accommodate all possible positions within their area. Circular yoga mats, while unfamiliar, are helpful for sequences where the mat would need to be rotated through 90 degrees at intervals, and for demonstrating asanas to a class.[17]

Some yoga practices in Scandinavia use cotton futon mats.[18][19] They consist of a mattress, usually with pockets of cotton batting, sometimes with wool or polyester-cotton mixes, and a washable cover.[20][21] They give good cushioning and grip.[22][23] However, futons are much heavier than other mats, weighing as much as 4.7 kg.[18]

Yoga Journal asked five yoga professionals for their views on yoga mats. They varied widely in their brand preferences, some choosing the traditional "sticky" type, but they agreed that mats must not be slippery.[14]

A hessian mat reviewed by The Independent gave good grip and was both comfortable and attractive; its rubber underside made it stable on any surface, but somewhat heavy; a cork mat provided both good grip and an exceptionally warm surface with a pleasant texture, and the property of being to some degree self-cleaning.[17] The best grip was given by a smooth latex mat; in the review's opinion, its 4 mm thickness both gave enough padding for yin yoga, and the stability for energetic yoga styles.[17] The review noted that a circular mat was at first unfamiliar, but helpful for personal practice of poses such as Prasārita Pādottānāsana (wide stance forward bend) and sequences where a rectangular mat would have to be turned through 90 degrees at intervals; it was also ideal for demonstrating asanas to a class.[17]

Attributes of different types of yoga mat
Composition Grip Surface Soft/firm Weight Durability Cleanliness Environmental impact Cost
"Sticky" PVC (plastic) Good[12] Smooth
Slightly sticky[16]
Softer*[16] Light*[16] Tend to crumble Tend to get dirty[17] High, not always recycled[12] Lowest[12]
Rubber (latex) Best[12][17] Smooth Firm*[16] Heavy[12] Excellent[16][24] Easy to wipe clean[16]
Light colours show dirt[24]
Low if natural and suitably sourced#;[12] high if combined with non-recyclable plastics e.g. polyurethane[12] High[12][24]
Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) Good[13] Smooth Firm[13] Very light[13] Good Tend to get dirty[17] Sustainably made, recyclable[13] Mid[13]
on rubber
Non-slip when wet[24]
Smooth[12] Very comfortable, firm but warm[12][17] Heavier Good Mainly self-cleaning[12][17] Low if suitably sourced#[12][17] High[12]
Hessian (Jute)
on rubber
Good[16] Rough weave[12]
Attractive texture[17]
Very comfortable*[23][17] Heavier[17] Good[16] Washable[25] Low if suitably sourced#[12] Mid[17]
Hemp Poor Smooth weave Firm[16]
Softens with use[26]
Light Good, better than cotton[16] Washable[16] Low if suitably sourced# Mid
Cotton Poor[23] Smooth weave Firm[23] Light Moderate, fibres wear out[16] Washable[16] Low if suitably sourced#[23] Mid
Futon cotton
with lining
(cotton, wool, or polyester)
Good[22] Smooth Softer[22] Very heavy[18] Good Washable cover[20] Low if natural and suitably sourced# High
* Comfort and weight depend on thickness; people choose thinner mats for portability, or thicker ones for comfort.[16]
# Environmental impact of these products depends on how they are grown; impact will be low if they are grown with low usage of pesticides, or in the case of rubber, if from suitably certified forests.

In popular culture[edit]

Dog in yoga costume complete with miniature yoga mat for the Carl Schurz Park Annual Halloween Howl, 2009, New York City

The yoga mat has become the definitive symbol of modern yoga as exercise.[6] The journalist Ann Louise Bardach wrote in The New York Times in 2011 that "precious few of the estimated 16 million supple, spandex-clad yoginis in the United States, who sustain an annual $6 billion industry, seem to have a clue that they owe their yoga mats to Vivekananda."[27][28] The yoga scholar Andrea Jain wrote in The Washington Post that "One of the most ubiquitous symbols of yoga's commercialization is the mat, which many consider a necessity to prevent slipping, to mark territory in crowded classes or to create a ritual space."[1] She noted that "committed adherents" could pay over $100 for a luxury mat.[1] The yoga scholar Noora-Helena Korpelainen agreed that the yoga mat had a ritual function: every Ashtanga Yoga session "starts with opening a yoga mat, taking a straight standing pose (samastitiḥ) and chanting a mantra. ... The practice ends with a mantra, relaxation, and rolling up the mat."[29]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Jain, Andrea (14 August 2015). "Five myths about yoga". The Washington Post.
  2. ^ Mallinson, James; Singleton, Mark (2017). Roots of Yoga. Penguin Books. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-241-25304-5. OCLC 928480104.
  3. ^ Bhagavadgita 6.11: In a clean place he should set up a firm seat for himself, neither too high nor too low, with a cloth, a deerskin and kusha grass on top.
  4. ^ Swami Vivekananda. "The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda/Volume 1/Raja-Yoga/Appendix - References To Yoga. Volume 1, Raja-Yoga. Appendix: References to Yoga. Shvetâshvatara Upanishad Chapter II". Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  5. ^ Cler, Cameron. "Before Mats Were Modern". Wanderlust. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  6. ^ a b Hall, Colin. "Yoga Mats: Are They Really Necessary?". Yoga International. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  7. ^ Pagés Ruiz, Fernando (5 April 2017). "The Sticky Business + History of Yoga Mats". Yoga Journal. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  8. ^ Brooks, Janet Rae (5 November 2003). "Yoga-Supply House Fit for a Market; Utah-built company reflects strength of founder's vision". The Salt Lake Tribune.
  9. ^ jbyrdyoga (4 October 2015). "Hugger Mugger Tapas Yoga Mat". Archived from the original on 27 April 2019.
  10. ^ Morrissy-Swan, Tomé (23 February 2021). "The best yoga mats of 2021 - tested by our experts". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "How to Choose the Right Yoga Mat". Gaiam. Archived from the original on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Pearce, Amie (2 July 2020). "8 best yoga mats for 2020". Good Housekeeping. Retrieved 21 March 2021. The attractive Aztec print design provides body alignment guides for easy positioning and you can just as easily use it for a HIIT session. It's expensive
  13. ^ a b c d e f Olewitz, Chloe (12 February 2021). "The 7 best yoga mats of 2021, including sweat-resistant, eco-friendly, and travel options". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 March 2021. This mat comes in a variety of fun colors and prints
  14. ^ a b Anon (12 April 2017). "Test Your Mat Savvy: 5 Teachers' Favorite Yoga Mats". Yoga Journal. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  15. ^ "Top 5 Best Travel Yoga Mats". Yoga Nomads. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Types of Yoga Mats". DoYouYoga. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Dodd, Liz (18 September 2019). "8 best yoga mats that are perfect for every pose". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2022-05-07.
  18. ^ a b c "Yoga Futon Mat". Skandinavisk Yoga- og Meditationsskole. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  19. ^ "Yoga mat a wool luxury". Haa Retreat Center. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  20. ^ a b "Yogamadras" [Yoga Mattress] (in Danish). yogaudstyr.dk. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  21. ^ "Økologisk yogamadrass standard (ull)" [Ecological Yoga Mattress Standard (wool)] (in Norwegian). Stillhet.no. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  22. ^ a b c "Yogamatten-Test: Das sind die besten Matten für Yoga-Übungen". Öko-Test Label. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  23. ^ a b c d e "Chemicals in Yoga Mats to Watch Out For". LeafScore. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  24. ^ a b c d "My Top 3 Non-Slip Yoga Mats". Brett Larkin Yoga. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  25. ^ "Eco Jute, Natural Rubber yoga Mat". Sukha Lounge. Archived from the original on 22 March 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  26. ^ "Hemp Yoga Mat". Vitality Hemp. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  27. ^ Bardach, Ann Louise (2 October 2011). "How Yoga Won the West". The New York Times. p. SR4.
  28. ^ Jain, Andrea R. (5 October 2011). "No, I Don't Owe My Yoga Mat to Vivekananda". Religion Dispatches.
  29. ^ Korpelainen, Noora-Helena (2019). "Sparks of Yoga: Reconsidering the Aesthetic in Modern Postural Yoga". Journal of Somaesthetics. 5 (1): 46–60.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Yoga mats at Wikimedia Commons