|Type of business||Subsidiary|
Type of site
|Video hosting service|
|Founded||February 14, 2005|
|Headquarters||901 Cherry Avenue, San Bruno, California, United States|
|Area served||Worldwide (except blocked countries)|
|Key people||Susan Wojcicki (CEO)
Chad Hurley (Adviser)
Video hosting service
|Slogan(s)||Broadcast Yourself (2005–2012)|
(see list of localized domain names)
|Alexa rank||2 (Global, April 2017[update])|
|Registration||Optional (not required to watch most videos; required for certain tasks such as uploading videos, viewing flagged (18+) videos, creating playlists, liking or disliking videos and posting comments)|
|Launched||February 14, 2005|
|Uploader holds copyright (standard license); Creative Commons can be selected.|
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. The service was created by three former PayPal employees – Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim – in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries. The site allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to favorites, report and comment on videos, subscribe to other users, and it makes use of WebM, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and Adobe Flash Video technology to display a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos, short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos.
Most of the content on YouTube has been uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Vevo, and Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed potentially offensive are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube earns advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Red, a subscription service offering ad-free access to the website and access to exclusive content made in partnership with existing users. As of February 2017[update], there are more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, and one billion hours of content is watched on YouTube every day. As of April 2017[update], the website is ranked as the second most popular site in the world by Alexa Internet, a web traffic analysis company.
- 1 Company history
- 2 Features
- 3 Social impact
- 4 Revenue
- 5 Community policy
- 6 Censorship and filtering
- 7 NSA Prism program
- 8 April Fools
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible".
Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, and later from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site. Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.
YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup, primarily from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California. The domain name
www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo. The video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005. The first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005. Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched officially on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010.
In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, and 400 hours every minute in February 2017. The site has 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers, Alexa and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016[update]; SimilarWeb also lists YouTube as the top TV and video website globally, attracting more than 15 billion visitors per month.
The choice of the name
www.youtube.com led to problems for a similarly named website,
www.utube.com. The site's owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to
www.utubeonline.com. In October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.
In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event. On March 31, 2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter." In May 2010, YouTube videos were watched more than two billion times per day. This increased to three billion in May 2011, and four billion in January 2012. In February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube was watched every day.
In October 2010, Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as chief executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory role, and that Salar Kamangar would take over as head of the company. In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube software engineer, revealed that 30% of videos accounted for 99% of views on the site. In November 2011, the Google+ social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube videos to be viewed from within the Google+ interface.
In December 2011, YouTube launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites. At the same time, a new version of the YouTube logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, the first change in design since October 2006. In May 2013, YouTube launched a pilot program to begin offering some content providers the ability to charge $0.99 per month or more for certain channels, but the vast majority of its videos would remain free to view.
In February 2015, YouTube released a secondary mobile app known as YouTube Kids. The app is designed to provide an experience optimized for children, and features a simplified user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-approriate content (including existing channels and entertainment brands), and parental control features. Later on August 26, 2015, YouTube launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming-oriented sub-site and app that is intended to compete with the Amazon.com-owned Twitch.tv. 2015 also saw the announcement of a premium YouTube service titled YouTube Red, which provides users with both ad-free content as well as the ability to download videos among other features. On August 10, 2015, Google announced that it was creating a new company, Alphabet, to act as the holding company for Google, with the change in financial reporting to begin in the fourth quarter of 2015. YouTube remains as a subsidiary of Google. In January 2016, YouTube expanded its headquarters in San Bruno by purchasing an office park for $215 million. The complex has 554,000 square feet of space and can house up to 2,800 employees.
Previously, viewing YouTube videos on a personal computer required the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed in the browser. In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that used the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard. This allowed videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed. The YouTube site had a page that allowed supported browsers to opt into the HTML5 trial. Only browsers that supported HTML5 Video using the H.264 or WebM formats could play the videos, and not all videos on the site were available. On January 27, 2015, YouTube announced that HTML5 will be the default playback method on supported browsers. Supported browsers include Chrome, Safari 8, and Internet Explorer 11. YouTube experimented with Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available network. YouTube uses Adobe Dynamic Streaming for Flash.
All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users who have a good track record of complying with the site's Community Guidelines may be offered the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, which requires verifying the account, normally through a mobile phone. When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload long videos, but a ten-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films. The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010. If an up-to-date browser version is used, videos greater than 20 GB can be uploaded. Videos captions are made using speech recognition technology when uploaded. Such captioning is usually not perfectly accurate, so YouTube provides several options for manually entering the captions for greater accuracy.
YouTube accepts videos that are uploaded in most container formats, including AVI, MP4, MPEG-PS, QuickTime File Format and FLV. It supports WebM files and also 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded from mobile phones.
Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning can be uploaded, but for the best video quality, YouTube suggests interlaced videos be deinterlaced before uploading. All the video formats on YouTube use progressive scanning. YouTube's statistics shows that interlaced videos are still being uploaded to YouTube, and there is no sign of that actually dwindling. YouTube attributes this to uploading of made-for-TV content.
Quality and formats
YouTube originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of 320×240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H.263), with mono MP3 audio. In June 2007, YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones. In March 2008, a high-quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480×360 pixels. In November 2008, 720p HD support was added. At the time of the 720p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9. With this new feature, YouTube began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD support was added. In July 2010, YouTube announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to 4096×3072 pixels. In June 2015, support for 8K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 7680×4320 pixels. In November 2016, support for HDR video was added which can be encoded with Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) or Perceptual Quantizer (PQ). HDR video can be encoded with the Rec. 2020 color space.
In June 2014, YouTube introduced videos playing at 60 frames per second, in order to reproduce video games with a frame rate comparable to high-end graphics cards. The videos play back at a resolution of 720p or higher. YouTube videos are available in a range of quality levels. The former names of standard quality (SQ), high quality (HQ) and high definition (HD) have been replaced by numerical values representing the vertical resolution of the video. The default video stream is encoded in the VP9 format with stereo Opus audio; if VP9/WebM is not supported in the browser/device or the browser's user agent reports Windows XP, then H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video with stereo AAC audio is used instead.
In a video posted on July 21, 2009, YouTube software engineer Peter Bradshaw announced that YouTube users can now upload 3D videos. The videos can be viewed in several different ways, including the common anaglyph (cyan/red lens) method which utilizes glasses worn by the viewer to achieve the 3D effect. The YouTube Flash player can display stereoscopic content interleaved in rows, columns or a checkerboard pattern, side-by-side or anaglyph using a red/cyan, green/magenta or blue/yellow combination. In May 2011, an HTML5 version of the YouTube player began supporting side-by-side 3D footage that is compatible with Nvidia 3D Vision.
In January 2015, Google announced that 360° videos would be natively supported on YouTube. On March 13, 2015, YouTube enabled 360° videos which can be viewed from Google Cardboard, a virtual reality system. YouTube 360 can also be viewed from all other virtual reality headsets.
On September 13, 2016, YouTube launched a public beta of Community, a social media-based feature that allows users to post text, images (including GIFs), live videos and others in a separate "Community" tab on their channel. At the time of release, Vlogbrothers, Lilly Singh, The Game Theorists, Karmin, The Key of Awesome, The Kloons, Peter Hollens, Rosianna Halse Rojas, Sam Tsui, Threadbanger and Vsauce3 received the feature.
YouTube offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web. This functionality is often used to embed YouTube videos in social networking pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by or related to another user's video are able to make a "video response". On August 27, 2013, YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature. Embedding, rating, commenting and response posting can be disabled by the video owner.
YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface. A small number of videos, such as the weekly addresses by President Barack Obama, can be downloaded as MP4 files. Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos. In February 2009, YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout. In June 2012, Google sent cease and desist letters threatening legal action against several websites offering online download and conversion of YouTube videos. In response, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube videos from its site. The default settings when uploading a video to YouTube will retain a copyright on the video for the uploader, but since July 2012, it has been possible to select a Creative Commons license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material if it is free of copyright.
Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video. Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site. Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone. In July 2010, the mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls. The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform. In September 2012, YouTube launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system. According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube was used by 35% of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third most used app.
A TiVo service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos. In January 2009, YouTube launched "YouTube for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles. In June 2009, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen. YouTube is also available as an app on Xbox Live. On November 15, 2012, Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube videos from the Wii channel. An app is also available for Wii U and Nintendo 3DS, and videos can be viewed on the Wii U Internet Browser using HTML5. Google made YouTube available on the Roku player on December 17, 2013, and, in October 2014, the Sony PlayStation 4.
On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system. The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 89 countries, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.
The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content. The interface of the YouTube website is available in 76 language versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Bengali, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local channel versions. Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims. In October 2012, a local version of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the domain
youtube.com.tr. The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law. In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009. In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.
YouTube Red is YouTube's premium subscription service. It offers advertising-free streaming, access to exclusive content, background and offline video playback on mobile devices, and access to the Google Play Music "All Access" service. YouTube Red was originally announced on November 12, 2014, as "Music Key", a subscription music streaming service, and was intended to integrate with and replace the existing Google Play Music "All Access" service. On October 28, 2015, the service was re-launched as YouTube Red, offering ad-free streaming of all videos, as well as access to exclusive original content.
On February 28, 2017, in a press announcement held at YouTube Space Los Angeles, YouTube announced the launch of YouTube TV, an over-the-top MVPD-style subscription service that would be available for $35 per month. Initially launching in five major U.S. markets (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia and San Francisco) on April 5, 2017, the service offers live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox Broadcasting Company and NBC), as well as approximately 40 cable channels owned by the corporate parents of those networks, The Walt Disney Company, CBS Corporation, 21st Century Fox, and NBCUniversal (including among others Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, E!, Fox Sports 1, Freeform, FX and ESPN). Subscribers can also receive Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus as optional add-ons for an extra fee, and can access YouTube Red original content (YouTube TV does not include a YouTube Red subscription).
Both private individuals and large production companies have used YouTube to grow audiences. Independent content creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic. Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the website at the invitation of a YouTube management that witnessed early content creators accruing substantial followings, and perceived audience sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television. YouTube channels launched by The Ellen DeGeneres Show and The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon became two of the most subscribed. While YouTube's revenue-sharing "Partner Program" made it possible to earn a substantial living as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $100,000 annually and its ten highest-earning channels grossing from $2.5 million to $12 million (the most successful of whom were YouTubers PewDiePie, Smosh, and the Fine Brothers)—in 2012 CMU business editor characterized YouTube as "a free-to-use... promotional platform for the music labels". In 2013 Forbes' Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists' work must not only be of high quality, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube platform and social media. Videos of the 2.5% of artists categorized as "mega", "mainstream" and "mid-sized" received 90.3% of the relevant views on YouTube and Vevo in that year, as the Vevo channels of Justin Bieber and Rihanna became two of the top five most subscribed, and music videos outperformed other content in attracting the most views and the most likes, particularly in the cases of "Gangnam Style" in 2012 and "See You Again" in 2015. By early 2013 Billboard had announced that it was factoring YouTube streaming data into calculation of the Billboard Hot 100 and related genre charts.
Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution", TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube contributors and asserted that "what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication". Anderson asserted that it's not far-fetched to say that online video will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video contributors may be about to launch "the biggest learning cycle in human history." In education, for example, the Khan Academy grew from YouTube video tutoring sessions for founder Salman Khan's cousin into what Forbes' Michael Noer called "the largest school in the world", with technology poised to disrupt how people learn. YouTube was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award, the website being described as a Speakers' Corner that "both embodies and promotes democracy." The Washington Post reported that a disproportionate share of YouTube's most subscribed channels feature minorities, contrasting with mainstream television in which the stars are largely white. A Pew Research Center study reported the development of "visual journalism", in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in content creation. The study also concluded that YouTube was becoming an important platform by which people acquire news.
YouTube has enabled people to more directly engage with government, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates (2007) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube video, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet video was changing the political landscape. Describing the Arab Spring (2010- ), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world." In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the "Kony 2012" video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to (Kony's) demise than all other action combined."
Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House's official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in 2012 and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson's YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)-compliant health insurance. In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the "YouTube Generation". Whereas YouTube's inherent ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube content creators' new media savvy was perceived necessary to better cope with the website's distracting content and fickle audience.
Some YouTube videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims (2012) which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally. TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a certain field share their independently developed skills in YouTube videos, thus challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field. Journalist Virginia Heffernan stated in The New York Times that such videos have "surprising implications" for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music.
The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra selected their membership based on individual video performances. Further, the cybercollaboration charity video "We Are the World 25 for Haiti (YouTube edition)" was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distributed singers into a single musical work, with The Tokyo Times noting the "We Pray for You" YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a trend to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes. The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a single YouTube video directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens, that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House staff, and several cabinet secretaries. Similarly, in response to fifteen-year-old Amanda Todd's video "My story: Struggling, bullying, suicide, self-harm", legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy.
Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing. In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales. In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical U.S. citizen watching television. In 2012, YouTube's revenue from its ads program was estimated at 3.7 billion. In 2013 it nearly doubled and estimated to hit 5.6 billion dollars according to eMarketer, others estimated 4.7 billion, The vast majority of videos on YouTube are free to view and supported by advertising. In May 2013, YouTube introduced a trial scheme of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $0.99 to $6.99 a month. The move was seen as an attempt to compete with other providers of online subscription services such as Netflix and Hulu.
YouTube entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006. In March 2007, it struck a deal with BBC for three channels with BBC content, one for news and two for entertainment. In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for US viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney. In November 2009, YouTube launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners. In January 2010, YouTube introduced an online film rentals service, which is available only to users in the US, Canada and the UK as of 2010. The service offers over 6,000 films.
Partnership with video creators
In May 2007, YouTube launched its Partner Program, a system based on AdSense which allows the uploader of the video to share the revenue produced by advertising on the site. YouTube typically takes 45 percent of the advertising revenue from videos in the Partner Program, with 55 percent going to the uploader. There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program. According to TubeMogul, in 2013 a pre-roll advertisement on YouTube (one that is shown before the video starts) cost advertisers on average $7.60 per 1000 views. Usually no more than half of eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers. Assuming pre-roll advertisements on half of videos, a YouTube partner would earn 0.5 X $7.60 X 55% = $2.09 per 1000 views in 2013.
Revenue to copyright holders
Much of YouTube's revenue goes to the copyright holders of the videos. In 2010, it was reported that nearly a third of the videos with advertisements were uploaded without permission of the copyright holders. YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue. In May 2013, Nintendo began enforcing its copyright ownership and claiming the advertising revenue from video creators who posted screenshots of its games. In February 2015, Nintendo agreed to share the revenue with the video creators.
YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior. Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism from news sources for content in violation of these guidelines.
At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws. Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted. Organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material. Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works".
During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights". In June 2010, Viacom's lawsuit against Google was rejected in a summary judgment, with U.S. federal Judge Louis L. Stanton stating that Google was protected by provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling. On April 5, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reinstated the case, allowing Viacom's lawsuit against Google to be heard in court again. On March 18, 2014, the lawsuit was settled after seven years with an undisclosed agreement.
In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy", and posted the 29-second video on YouTube. In the case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube. He asserted seven causes of action, and four were ruled in Smith's favor.
In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. The performance rights organization GEMA argued that YouTube had not done enough to prevent the uploading of German copyrighted music. YouTube responded by stating:
|“||We remain committed to finding a solution to the music licensing issue in Germany that will benefit artists, composers, authors, publishers and record labels, as well as the wider YouTube community.||”|
On November 1, 2016, the dispute with GEMA was resolved, with Google content ID being used to allow advertisements to be added to videos with content protected by GEMA.
In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG. YouTube's owner Google announced in November 2015 that they would help cover the legal cost in select cases where they believe "fair use" laws apply.
In June 2007, YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute. The system, which became known as Content ID, creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found. When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video. YouTube describes Content ID as "very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File". Content ID accounts for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.
An independent test in 2009 uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible. The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use. If a YouTube user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision. YouTube has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site's rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.
YouTube has also faced criticism over the offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is prohibited by YouTube's terms of service. Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989. YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's terms of service. In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube responded by stating:
We have strict rules on what's allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly. (July 2008)
In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to remove from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki. YouTube pulled some of the videos in November 2010, stating they violated the site's guidelines. In December 2010, YouTube added the ability to flag videos for containing terrorism content.
YouTube's policies on "advertiser-friendly content" restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain". In September 2016, after introducing an enhanced notification system to inform users of these violations, YouTube's policies were criticized by prominent users, including Phillip DeFranco and Vlogbrothers. DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name". A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators."
In March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremism content. The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered in a safe and appropriate way". The Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and U.S. brands, similarly suspended their advertising on YouTube in response to their advertising appearing near offensive content. Google stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear". In early-April 2017, the YouTube channel h3h3Productions presented evidence claiming that a Wall Street Journal article had fabricated screenshots showing major brand advertising on an offensive video containing Johnny Rebel music overlaid on a Chief Keef music video, citing that the video itself had not earned any ad revenue for the uploader. The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had actually been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video.
On April 6, 2017, YouTube announced that in order to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10,000 lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program.
Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0 for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", and added that YouTube "harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred". The Guardian in 2009 described users' comments on YouTube as:
|“||Juvenile, aggressive, misspelled, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance – with the occasional burst of wit shining through.||”|
In September 2008, The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts". The Huffington Post noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube that appear "offensive, stupid and crass" to the "vast majority" of the people is hardly difficult.
On November 6, 2013, Google implemented a comment system oriented on Google+ that required all YouTube users to use a Google+ account in order to comment on videos. The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone. The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with abuse. In response, YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim posted the question "why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?" on his YouTube channel to express his negative opinion of the change. The official YouTube announcement received 20,097 "thumbs down" votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days. Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that "Google+ is nowhere near as popular a social media network as Facebook, but it's essentially being forced upon millions of YouTube users who don't want to lose their ability to comment on videos" and "Discussion forums across the Internet are already bursting with outcry against the new comment system". In the same article Melvin goes on to say:
|“||Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn't so bad.
Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible moderation. Isn't any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity.
On July 27, 2015, Google announced in a blog post that it would be removing the requirement to sign up to a Google+ account to post comments to YouTube.
On November 3, 2016, YouTube announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments.
In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube. On August 5, 2015, YouTube removed the feature which caused a video's view count to freeze at "301" (later "301+") until the actual count was verified to prevent view count fraud. YouTube view counts now update in real time.
Censorship and filtering
As of September 2012, countries with standing national bans on YouTube include China, Iran, and Turkmenistan.
YouTube is blocked for a variety of reasons, including:
- Limiting public exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest;
- Preventing criticism of a ruler, government, government officials, religion, or religious leaders;
- Violations of national laws, including:
- Copyright and intellectual property protection laws;
- Violations of hate speech, ethics, or morality-based laws; and
- National security legislation.
- Preventing access to videos judged to be inappropriate for youth;
- Reducing distractions at work or school; and
- Reducing the amount of network bandwidth used.
In some countries, YouTube is completely blocked, either through a long term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In other countries access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.
Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to bandwidth limitations and the site's potential for distraction.
Several countries have blocked access to YouTube:
- Iran temporarily blocked access on December 3, 2006, to YouTube and several other sites, after declaring them as violating social and moral codes of conduct. The YouTube block came after a video was posted online that appeared to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex. The block was later lifted and then reinstated after Iran's 2009 presidential election. In 2012, Iran reblocked access, along with access to Google, after the controversial film Innocence of Muslims' trailer was released on YouTube.
- Thailand blocked access between 2006 and 2007 due to offensive videos relating to King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
- Some Australian state education departments block YouTube citing "an inability to determine what sort of video material might be accessed" and "There's no educational value to it and the content of the material on the site."
- China blocked access from October 15, 2007 to March 22, 2008, and again starting on March 24, 2009. Access remains blocked.
- Morocco blocked access in May 2007, possibly as a result of videos critical of Morocco's actions in Western Sahara. YouTube became accessible again on May 30, 2007, after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was a mere "technical glitch".
- Turkey blocked access between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In November 2010, a video of the Turkish politician Deniz Baykal caused the site to be blocked again briefly, and the site was threatened with a new shutdown if it did not remove the video. During the two and a half year block of YouTube, the video-sharing website remained the eighth most-accessed site in Turkey. In 2014, Turkey blocked the access for the second time, after "a high-level intelligence leak."
- Pakistan blocked access on February 23, 2008, because of "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of Muhammad. This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. On February 26, 2008, the ban was lifted after the website had removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software. In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan again blocked access to YouTube, citing "growing sacrilegious content". The ban was lifted on May 27, 2010, after the website removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. However, individual videos deemed offensive to Muslims posted on YouTube will continue to be blocked. Pakistan again placed a ban on YouTube in September 2012, after the site refused to remove the film Innocence of Muslims, with the ban still in operation as of September 2013. The ban was lifted in January 2016 after YouTube launched a Pakistan-specific version.
- Turkmenistan blocked access on December 25, 2009, for unknown reasons. Other websites, such as LiveJournal were also blocked.
- Libya blocked access on January 24, 2010, because of videos that featured demonstrations in the city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, and videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi at parties. The blocking was criticized by Human Rights Watch. In November 2011, after the Libyan Civil War, YouTube was once again allowed in Libya.
- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Russia, and Sudan blocked access in September 2012 following controversy over a 14-minute trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims which had been posted on the site.
- In Libya and Egypt, the Innocence of Muslims trailer was blamed for violent protests in September 2012. YouTube stated that "This video—which is widely available on the Web—is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya and Egypt we have temporarily restricted access in both countries."
Music Key licensing
In May 2014, prior to the launch of YouTube's subscription-based Music Key service, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were "undervalued" in comparison to other streaming services, and that YouTube would block all music content from labels who do not reach a deal to be included on the paid service. In a statement to the Financial Times in June 2014, Robert Kyncl confirmed that YouTube would block the content of labels who do not negotiate deals to be included in the paid service "to ensure that all content on the platform is governed by its new contractual terms." Stating that 90% of labels had reached deals, he went on to say that "while we wish that we had [a] 100% success rate, we understand that is not likely an achievable goal and therefore it is our responsibility to our users and the industry to launch the enhanced music experience." The Financial Times later reported that YouTube had reached an aggregate deal with Merlin Network—a trade group representing over 20,000 independent labels, for their inclusion in the service. However, YouTube itself has not confirmed the deal.
NSA Prism program
Following media reports about PRISM, NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in June 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including YouTube. According to leaks of said program, YouTube joined the PRISM program in 2010.
YouTube featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year from 2008 to 2016.
In 2009, when clicking on a video on the main page, the whole page turned upside down. YouTube claimed that this was a "new layout".
In 2010, YouTube temporarily released a "TEXTp" mode, which translated the colors in the videos to random upper case letters. YouTube claimed in a message that this was done in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $1 per second.
In 2012, clicking on the image of a DVD next to the site logo led to a video about "The YouTube Collection", a purported option to order every YouTube video for home delivery on DVD, videocassette, LaserDisc, or Betamax tapes. The spoof promotional video touted "the complete YouTube experience completely offline."
In 2013, YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim that the video sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would announce a winner of the contest when the site went back up in 2023. A video of two presenters announcing the nominees streamed live for twelve hours.
In 2014, YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming memes, such as "Clocking", "Kissing Dad", and "Glub Glub Water Dance".
In 2015, YouTube added a music button to the video bar that played samples from "Sandstorm" by Darude. Additionally, when users searched for a song title, a message would appear saying "Did you mean: Darude – Sandstorm by Darude".
- CNN-YouTube presidential debates
- List of most viewed YouTube videos
- List of YouTubers
- Ouellette v. Viacom International Inc.
- Reply Girls
- YouTube Awards
- YouTube Instant
- YouTube Live
- YouTube Multi Channel Network
- YouTube Symphony Orchestra
- Viacom International Inc. v. YouTube, Inc.
- Alternative media
- Comparison of video hosting services
- List of Internet phenomena
- List of video hosting services
- "youtube.com Traffic Statistics". Alexa Internet. Amazon.com. April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Wilson, Jesse (May 19, 2009). "Guice Deuce". Official Google Code Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Lextrait, Vincent (July 2010). "YouTube runs on Python". Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved September 5, 2010.
- Graham, Jefferson (November 21, 2005). "Video websites pop up, invite postings". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "YouTube: Sharing Digital Camera Videos". University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Cloud, John (December 25, 2006). "The YouTube Gurus". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Hopkins, Jim (October 11, 2006). "Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Earliest surviving version of the YouTube website Wayback Machine, April 28, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- Helft, Miguel; Richtel, Matt (October 10, 2006). "Venture Firm Shares a YouTube Jackpot". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Kehaulani Goo, Sara (October 7, 2006). "Ready for Its Close-Up". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Whois Record for
www.youtube.com". DomainTools. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- Alleyne, Richard (July 31, 2008). "YouTube: Overnight success has sparked a backlash". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Me at the zoo". YouTube. April 23, 2005. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- "Ronaldinho: Touch of Gold - YouTube". Wayback Machine. November 25, 2005. Archived from the original on November 25, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- "Most Viewed - YouTube". Wayback Machine. November 2, 2005. Archived from the original on November 2, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- "YouTube: a history". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. April 17, 2010. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Dickey, Megan Rose (February 15, 2013). "The 22 Key Turning Points In The History Of YouTube". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "YouTube serves up 100 million videos a day online". USA Today. Gannett Company. July 16, 2006. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "comScore Releases May 2010 U.S. Online Video Rankings". comScore. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
- Oreskovic, Alexei (January 23, 2012). "Exclusive: YouTube hits 4 billion daily video views". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Welch, Chris (May 19, 2013). "YouTube users now upload 100 hours of video every minute". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Russell, Jon (May 19, 2013). "YouTube reveals users now upload more than 100 hours of video per minute, as the site turns eight". The Next Web. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- E. Solsman, Joan (November 12, 2014). "YouTube's Music Key: Can paid streaming finally hook the masses?". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Hamedy, Saba (February 28, 2017). "People now spend 1 billion hours watching YouTube every day". Mashable. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Bates, Daniel (March 1, 2017). "YouTube users watch more than a BILLION hours of footage every day … and is set to overtake TV viewing". The Sun. News UK. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Seabrook, John (January 16, 2012). "Streaming Dreams". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- Carter, Lewis (April 7, 2008). "Web could collapse as video demand soars". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Youtube.com Analytics". SimilarWeb. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- "Top 50 sites in the world for Arts And Entertainment > TV And Video". SimilarWeb. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- Zappone, Christian (October 12, 2006). "Help! YouTube is killing my business!". CNN. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Blakely, Rhys (November 2, 2006). "Utube sues YouTube". The Times. London. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- La Monica, Paul R. (October 9, 2006). "Google to buy YouTube for $1.65 billion". CNNMoney. CNN. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Arrington, Michael (October 9, 2006). "Google Has Acquired YouTube". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Arrington, Michael (November 13, 2006). "Google Closes YouTube Acquisition". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Google closes $A2b YouTube deal". The Age. Fairfax Media. November 14, 2006. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Sweney, Mark (January 20, 2010). "Cricket: IPL goes global with live online deal". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
- "YouTube redesigns website to keep viewers captivated". AFP. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
- Parr, Ben (May 17, 2010). "YouTube Surpasses Two Billion Video Views Daily". Mashable. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Kincaid, Jason (May 16, 2010). "Five Years In, YouTube Is Now Streaming Two Billion Views Per Day". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Barnett, Emma (May 17, 2010). "YouTube hits two billion views a day". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- O'Neill, Megan (May 25, 2011). "YouTube Celebrates Its 6th Birthday With 3 Billion Daily Views". Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Bryant, Martin (May 25, 2011). "YouTube hits 3 Billion views per day, 2 DAYS worth of video uploaded every minute". The Next Web. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "YouTube moves past 3 billion views a day". CNET. CBS Interactive. May 25, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Perez, Sarah (January 23, 2012). "YouTube Reaches 4 Billion Views Per Day". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- McCormick, Rich (February 27, 2017). "Humans watch a billion hours of YouTube every single day". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Lumb, David (February 27, 2017). "One billion hours of YouTube are watched every day". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Broussard, Mitchel (February 28, 2017). "YouTube Users Watch More Than 1 Billion Hours of Video a Day, Will Soon Outpace U.S. TV". MacRumors. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Hurley stepping down as YouTube chief executive". AFP. October 29, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- Whitelaw, Ben (April 20, 2011). "Almost all YouTube views come from just 30% of films". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Whitney, Lance (November 4, 2011). "Google+ now connects with YouTube, Chrome". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "YouTube's website redesign puts the focus on channels". BBC. December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- Cashmore, Pete (October 26, 2006). "YouTube Gets New Logo, Facelift and Trackbacks – Growing Fast!". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- "YouTube launches pay-to-watch subscription channels". BBC News. May 9, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Nakaso, Dan (May 7, 2013). "YouTube providers could begin charging fees this week". Mercury News. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- Perez, Sarah (February 23, 2015). "Hands On With "YouTube Kids," Google's Newly Launched, Child-Friendly YouTube App". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Dredge, Stuart (August 26, 2015). "Google launches YouTube Gaming to challenge Amazon-owned Twitch". The Guardian. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
- Reader, Ruth. "Google wants you to pay $9.99 per month for ad-free YouTube". Venturebeat. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- Hern, Alex (August 11, 2015). "Why Google is restructuring, why the name Alphabet and how it affects you". The Guardian. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Avalos, George (January 20, 2016). "YouTube expansion in San Bruno signals big push by video site". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
- Fildes, Jonathan (October 5, 2009). "Flash moves on to smart phones". BBC. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "YouTube HTML5 Video Player". YouTube. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
- "Watch this YouTube Video without the Flash Player". Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "HTML5 YouTube viewer: close, but not quite there". Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "YouTube HTML5 Video Player". Retrieved January 21, 2010.
- Shankland, Stephen (May 19, 2010). "Google tries freeing Web video with WebM". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Amadeo, Ron (January 28, 2015). "YouTube says HTML5 video ready for primetime, makes it default". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Rajeev Tiwari (January 3, 2013). "Streaming Media and RTOS: MPEG-DASH Support in Youtube". Streamingcodecs.blogspot.hu. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- on YouTube
- Video length for uploading YouTube Help. Retrieved April 17, 2012.
- Fisher, Ken (March 29, 2006). "YouTube caps video lengths to reduce infringement". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "Account Types: Longer videos". YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- Lowensohn, Josh (July 29, 2010). "YouTube bumps video limit to 15 minutes". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "Upload videos longer than 15 minutes". YouTube. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- "Video Formats: File formats". YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- "Getting Started: File formats". YouTube. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- Kokaram, Anil; Foucu, Thierry; Hu, Yang (April 20, 2016). "A look into YouTube's video file anatomy". YouTube Engineering and Developers Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Tinic Uro (August 13, 2005). "The quest for a new video codec in Flash 8". Retrieved January 27, 2011.
We went this route before with Sorenson Spark which is an incomplete implementation of H.263 and it bit us badly when trying to implement certain solutions.
- Adobe Systems Incorporated (2010). "Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification Version 10.1" (PDF). p. 72. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
- "Market Demand for Sorenson Media's Sorenson Spark Video Decoder Expands Sharply". Sorenson Media. June 2, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- "YouTube Mobile goes live". June 17, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- "YouTube Videos in High Quality". Official YouTube Blog. Google. March 14, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Lowensohn, Josh (November 20, 2008). "YouTube videos go HD with a simple hack". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Sarukkai, Ramesh (July 9, 2010). "What's bigger than 1080p? 4K video comes to YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Lowensohn, Josh (July 9, 2010). "YouTube now supports 4k-resolution videos". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Schroeder, Stan (June 10, 2015). "You can watch an 8K video on YouTube – in theory". MashableUK. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- Robertson, Steven; Verma, Sanjeev (November 7, 2016). "True colors: adding support for HDR videos on YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "Upload High Dynamic Range (HDR) videos". YouTube Help. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Glotzbach, Matthew; Heckmann, Oliver (June 26, 2014). "Look ahead: creator features coming to YouTube". YouTube Creators Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Stuart, Keith (June 27, 2014). "Battlefield Hardline ushers in era of smooth YouTube trailers". The Guardian. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- Kumparak, Greg (October 29, 2014). "YouTube Can Now Play Videos At A Buttery 60 Frames Per Second". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Deploying VP9 at YouTube: a postmortem – Steven Robertson". October 16, 2014. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
- Macall, Fred (2010). "YTCrack v0.24b". Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- McFarland, Patrick (May 24, 2010). "Approximate YouTube Bitrates". Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- "Bigger and Better: Encoding for YouTube 720p HD". December 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- Greenfield, Trevor (November 22, 2009). "YouTube's 1080p – Failure Depends on How You Look At It". Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- Biggs, Billy (November 12, 2009). "1080p HD Is Coming to YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "YouTube in 3D". YouTube. July 21, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Marquit, Miranda (July 23, 2009). "YouTube in 3D?". Physorg. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Dsouza, Keith (July 20, 2009). "YouTube 3D Videos". Techie Buzz. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Sobti, Kshitij (July 21, 2009). "YouTube adds a dimension, 3D goggles not included". thinkdigit. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Smith, Ryan (May 26, 2011). "YouTube Adds Stereoscopic 3D Video Support (And 3D Vision Support, Too)". AnandTech. Purch Group. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Bonnington, Christina (March 13, 2015). "You Can Now Watch and Upload 360-Degree Videos on YouTube". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Perez, Sarah (September 13, 2016). "YouTube gets its own social network with the launch of YouTube Community". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- McEvoy, Kiley (September 13, 2016). "YouTube Community goes beyond video". YouTube Creators Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "YouTube embedded video guide".
- "So long, video responses... Next up: better ways to connect". YouTube Creators Blog. Google. August 27, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- YouTube. "Control comments and video responses". Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Lowensohn, Josh (January 16, 2009). "(Some) YouTube videos get download option". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Milian, Mark (February 19, 2009). "YouTube looks out for content owners, disables video ripping". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 21, 2009.
- Rao, Leena (February 12, 2009). "YouTube Hopes To Boost Revenue With Video Downloads". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Torrentfreak (June 19, 2012). "Google Threatens To Sue Huge YouTube MP3 Conversion Site". Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- Zamzar (June 12, 2012). "Downloading YouTube videos – no longer supported". Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- Casserly, Cathy (July 25, 2012). "Here's your invite to reuse and remix the 4 million Creative Commons-licensed videos on YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "YouTube Mobile".
- Chitu, Alex (June 15, 2007). "Mobile YouTube". Unofficial Google Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "YouTube Live on Apple TV Today; Coming to iPhone on June 29". Apple. June 20, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- Zibreg, Christian (July 8, 2010). "Goodbye Flash: YouTube mobile goes HTML5 on iPhone and Android". Retrieved January 9, 2012.
- Kincaid, Jason (July 7, 2010). "YouTube Mobile Goes HTML5, Video Quality Beats Native Apps Hands Down". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "YouTube 2.1 App Now Available on Android Market". December 8, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2012.
- Dredge, Stuart (September 11, 2012). "New YouTube iPhone app preempts iOS6 demotion". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- Smith, Cooper (September 5, 2013). "Google+ Is The Fourth Most-Used Smartphone App". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "TiVo Getting YouTube Streaming Today". Gizmodo. July 17, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- "YouTube video comes to Wii and PlayStation 3 game consoles". Los Angeles Times. January 15, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- "Coming Up Next... YouTube on Your TV". YouTube Blog. January 15, 2009. Archived from the original on June 22, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- "Experience YouTube XL on the Big Screen". YouTube Blog. YouTube. June 2, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- "Xbox Live Getting Live TV, YouTube & Bing Voice Search". Mashable. June 6, 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- "YouTube app wanders onto Nintendo Wii days before Wii U launch". Techradar.com. November 15, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- Ali, Sarah (November 22, 2012). "Just for U: YouTube arrives on Wii U". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Spangler, Todd (December 17, 2013). "YouTube Channel Now Playing on Roku". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- O'Grady, Richard (October 28, 2014). "Pwn, share, repeat with YouTube on PlayStation 4". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Sayer, Peter (June 19, 2007). "Google launches YouTube France News". PC Advisor. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- See YouTube localisation list on the bottom of YouTube website.
- "Presentan hoy YouTube México" [YouTube México launched today] (in Spanish). El Universal. October 11, 2007. Archived from the original on May 16, 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- "中文上線 – YouTube 香港中文版登場！". Stanley5. October 17, 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
- "YouTube台灣網站上線 手機版再等等". ZDNet. October 18, 2007. Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
- Nicole, Kristen (October 22, 2007). "YouTube Launches in Australia & New Zealand". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Nicole, Kristen (November 6, 2007). "YouTube Canada Now Live". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Ostrow, Adam (November 8, 2007). "YouTube Germany Launches". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- "YouTube перевелся на русский" (in Russian). Kommersant Moscow. November 14, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- Williams, Martyn (January 23, 2008). "YouTube Launches Korean Site". PC World. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- Joshi, Sandeep (May 8, 2008). "YouTube now has an Indian incarnation". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Bokuvka, Petr (October 12, 2008). "Czech version of YouTube launched. And it's crap. It sucks". The Czech Daily Word. Wordpress.com. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Launch video unavailable when YouTube opens up in Sweden October 23, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- "YouTube launches in Argentina". September 9, 2010. Archived from the original on September 9, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- "YouTube Launches Local Version For Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and Yemen". ArabCrunch. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- Jidenma, Nmachi (September 1, 2011). "Google launches YouTube in Kenya". The Next Web. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- Nod, Tam (October 13, 2011). "YouTube launches 'The Philippines'". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "YouTube Launches Singapore Site". Archived from the original on October 21, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
- YouTube launches localized website for Colombia December 1, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- Google Launches YouTube Uganda December 2, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- Google to Launch YouTube Nigeria Today December 7, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- Google launches YouTube Chile March 19, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. Archived March 25, 2012, on Wayback Machine.
- Google Launches Hungarian YouTube March 12, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. Archived January 17, 2013, on Wayback Machine.
- YouTube Launches Local Domain For Malaysia March 22, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- YouTube Peru Launched, Expansion continues March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- Bindu Suresh Rai (April 2, 2012). "UAE version of YouTube launched". Emirates 247. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- "YouTube Launches Indonesian Version", June 15, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "Google launches YouTube in Ghana", June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "YouTube launches local portal in Senegal", Jubr> ^  itag 120 is for live streaming and has metadata referring to "Elemental Technologies Live".July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- "YouTube's Turkish version goes into service", October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Tarasova, Maryna (December 13, 2012). "YouTube приходить в Україну! (YouTube comes in Ukraine!)" (in Ukrainian). Ukraine: Google Ukraine Blog.
- "YouTube lanceres i Danmark". Denmark: iProspect. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Sormunen, Vilja (February 6, 2013). "YouTube Launches in the Nordics". Nordic: KLOK. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- "YOUTUBE LAUNCHED IN NORWAY". Norway: TONO. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "YouTube goes Swiss". Swiss: swissinfo. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "YouTube.at since Thursday online". Austria: Wiener Zeitung. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Youtube România se lansează într-o săptămână". Romania: ZF.ro. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- "Google lança versão lusa do YouTube". Portugal: Luso Noticias. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- tš (May 21, 2013). "Slováci už môžu oficiálne zarábať na tvorbe videí pre YouTube" (in Slovak). Vat Pravda. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Nick Rego (September 16, 2013). "YouTube expands monetization and partnership in GCC". tbreak Media. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Ивелина Атанасова (March 18, 2014). "YouTube рекламата става достъпна и за България" (in Bulgarian). New Trend. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- "Oglašavanje na video platformi YouTube od sad dostupno i u Hrvatskoj" (in Croatian). Lider. March 19, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- Siiri Oden (March 19, 2014). "Youtube reklaamid – uued võimalused nüüd ka Eestis!" (in Estonian). Meedium. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- Marta (March 18, 2014). "Tagad reklāmas iespējas Youtube kanālā iespējams izmantot arī Latvijā" (in Latvian). Marketing. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- STA (March 18, 2014). "Na Youtube prihajajo tudi slovenski video oglasi" (in Slovenian). Dnevnik. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- Asina Pornwasin (April 3, 2014). "YouTube introduces homepage especially". The Nation. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
- Stephen Hall (October 12, 2015). "YouTube continues global expansion w/ versions of its site in 7 new locales". 9to5 Google. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- "YouTube launches Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka-specific homepages". The Himalayan Times. January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
- "YouTube launches country-specific homepage for Pakistan". The Express Tribune. January 12, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
- "Learn More: Video not available in my country". google.com. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- "YouTube language versions". Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- "Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube". BBC News. October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Danforth, Nick (July 31, 2009). "Turks censor YouTube censorship". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- Kerr, Dara (October 2, 2012). "YouTube cedes to Turkey and uses local Web domain". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Barnett, Emma (September 3, 2009). "Music videos back on YouTube in multi-million pound PRS deal". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Now YouTube stops the music in Germany". The Guardian. London. April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
- "YouTube Red".
- Trew, James (November 12, 2014). "YouTube unveils Music Key subscription service, here's what you need to know". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Newton, Casey (November 12, 2014). "YouTube announces plans for a subscription music service". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Spangler, Todd (November 12, 2014). "YouTube Launches 'Music Key' Subscription Service with More Than 30 Million Songs". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Spangler, Todd (October 21, 2015). "YouTube Red Unveiled: Ad-Free Streaming Service Priced Same as Netflix". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Amadeo, Ron (October 21, 2015). ""YouTube Red" offers premium YouTube for $9.99 a month, $12.99 for iOS users". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Popper, Ben (October 21, 2015). "A first look at the ad-free YouTube Red subscription service". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Roberts, Hannah (November 3, 2016). "YouTube's ad-free paid subscription service looks like it is struggling to take off". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "YouTube TV launches today. It has some cool features and some big drawbacks". Los Angeles Times. Tronc. Associated Press. April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- Christina Warren (April 5, 2017). "YouTube Is Officially in the Live TV Game Now". Gizmodo. Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- Dave Lee (March 1, 2017). "YouTube takes on cable with new TV service". BBC. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Tom Huddleston, Jr. (March 1, 2017). "Meet YouTube TV: Google's Live TV Subscription Service". Fortune. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Bruno, Antony (February 25, 2007). "YouTube stars don't always welcome record deals". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.
- Tufnell, Nicholas (November 27, 2013). "The rise and fall of YouTube's celebrity pioneers". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Seabrook, John (January 16, 2012). "Streaming Dreams / YouTube turns pro". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012.
- Berg, Madeline (November 2015). "The World's Top-Earning YouTube Stars 2015". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 13, 2015. • Berg, Madeline (November 2015). "The World's Top-Earning YouTube Stars 2015 / 1. PewDiePie: $12 million". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 13, 2015.
- "Gangnam Style hits one billion views on YouTube". BBC News. December 21, 2012. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014.
- Thayer, Katheryn (October 29, 2013). "The Youtube Music Awards: Why Artists Should Care". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013.
- "2013: Year in Rewind (report title) / Mapping the Landscape (specific section title)". Next Big Sound. January 2014. Archived from the original on January 20, 2014. "Developing" artists 6.9%; "Undiscovered" artists 2.8%.
- Billboard staff (February 20, 2013). "Hot 100 News: Billboard and Nielsen Add YouTube Video Streaming to Platforms". Billboard. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014.
- Anderson, Chris (July 2010). "How web video powers global innovation". TED. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. (click on "Show transcript" tab) • Corresponding YouTube video from official TED channel was titled "How YouTube is driving innovation."
- Noer, Michael (November 2, 2012). "One Man, One Computer, 10 Million Students: How Khan Academy Is Reinventing Education". Forbes. Archived from the original on December 29, 2013.
- YouTube.com (award profile), "Winner 2008", peabodyawards.com, May 2009. (Archived January 14, 2016, on Wayback Machine. from the original on January 14, 2016).
- Poniewozik, James (April 1, 2009). "Nonprofit Press Release Theater: Peabody Awards Announced". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Tsukayama, Haley (April 20, 2012). "In online video, minorities find an audience". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). "PEJ: YouTube & News: A New Kind of Visual Journalism Is Developing, but Ethics of Attribution Have Yet to Emerge". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013.
- Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). "YouTube and News: A New Kind of Visual News". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013.
- Q. Seelye, Katharine (June 13, 2007). "New Presidential Debate Site? Clearly, YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Howard, Philip N. (February 23, 2011). "The Arab Spring's Cascading Effects". Pacific Standard. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014.
- Wong, Scott (March 22, 2012). "Joseph Kony captures Congress' attention". Politico. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014.
- Cohen, Joshua (March 2, 2014). "Obama Meets With YouTube Advisors On How To Reach Online Audiences". Tubefilter. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014.
- Jenkins, Brad L. (March 6, 2014). "YouTube Stars Talk Health Care (and Make History) at the White House". Washington, D.C.: WhiteHouse.gov. Archived from the original on March 7, 2014.
- Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). "YouTube Video Creation–A Shared Process". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013.
- Reston, Maeve (December 12, 2013). "Round 2: Obamacare and Hollywood open new social media campaign". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2013.
- McMorris-Santoro, Evan (March 2, 2014). "Obama Enlisted YouTube Personalities For Final Health Care Enrollment Push Last Week". Buzzfeed. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014.
- CNN Wire Staff (September 14, 2012). "U.S. warns of rising threat of violence amid outrage over anti-Islam video". CNN. Archived from the original on December 29, 2013.
- Heffernan, Virginia (August 27, 2006). "Web Guitar Wizard Revealed at Last". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Chu, Jon M. (February 2010). "The LXD: In the Internet age, dance evolves". TED. Archived from the original on January 18, 2014.
- Nichols, Michelle (reporter); Simao, Paul (editor) (April 14, 2009). "YouTube orchestra prepares for Carnegie debut". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014.
- Levs, Josh (interviewer) (March 6, 2010). "CNN Newsroom". CNN. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Also CNN Saturday Morning News and CNN Sunday Morning (archives).
- Smart, Richard (May 11, 2011). "Crowdsourcing: After Quakebook, We Pray For You". The Tokyo Times. Archived from the original on May 28, 2011.
- Hartlaub, Peter (October 8, 2010). "Dan Savage overwhelmed by gay outreach's response". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014.
- "It Gets Better". WhiteHouse.gov. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014.
- "In wake of Amanda Todd suicide, MPs to debate anti-bullying motion". CTV News. October 14, 2012. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014.
- Yen, Yi-Wyn (March 25, 2008). "YouTube Looks For the Money Clip". CNN. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- Hardy, Quentin; Evan Hessel (May 22, 2008). "GooTube". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- ROLFE WINKLER (December 11, 2013). "YouTube Growing Faster Than Thought, Report Says". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "YouTube's ad revenue estimated at $5.6 billion". YAHOO. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Worstall, Tim (December 12, 2013). "Google's YouTube Ad Revenues May Hit $5.6 Billion In 2013". Forbes. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- McAllister, Neil (May 9, 2013). "YouTube launches subscriptions with 53 paid channels". The Register. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Knowledge@wharton. "Online Video: The Market Is Hot, but Business Models Are Fuzzy". Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Weber, Tim (March 2, 2007). "BBC strikes Google-YouTube deal". BBC News. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Stone, Brad; Barnes, Brooks (November 9, 2008). "MGM to Post Full Films on YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- D. Kramer, Staci (April 30, 2009). "It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Allen, Katie (November 19, 2009). "YouTube launches UK TV section with more than 60 partners". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- Helft, Miguel (January 20, 2010). "YouTube Takes a Small Step Into the Film Rental Market". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Shiels, Maggie (January 21, 2010). "YouTube turns to movie rental business". BBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- "YouTube to offer film rentals in the UK". BBC News. October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- Tsotsis, Alexia (May 9, 2011). "Google Partners With Sony Pictures, Universal And Warner Brothers For YouTube Movies". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Biggs, John (May 4, 2007). "YouTube Launches Revenue Sharing Partners Program, but no Pre-Rolls". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Carmody, Tim (March 4, 2013). "It's not TV, it's the Web: YouTube partners complain about Google ads, revenue sharing". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Statistics – YouTube Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Kaufman, Leslie (February 1, 2014). "Chasing Their Star, on YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Miller, Claire Cain (September 2, 2010). "YouTube Ads Turn Videos Into Revenue". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- MacDonald, Keza (May 16, 2013). "Nintendo enforces copyright on YouTube Let's Plays". IGN. j2 Global. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Tassi, Paul (February 6, 2015). "Nintendo Updates Their Bad YouTube Policies By Making Them Worse". Forbes. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Johnson, Eric (February 4, 2015). "Nintendo Wants YouTubers to Pretend Its Competitors' Games Don't Exist". Recode. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Hernandez, Patricia (January 29, 2015). "Nintendo's YouTube Plan Is Already Being Panned By YouTubers [Update]". Kotaku. Univision Communications. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "YouTube Community Guidelines". YouTube. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- Marsden, Rhodri (August 12, 2009). "Why did my YouTube account get closed down?". The Independent. London. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Why do I have a sanction on my account? YouTube. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- "Is YouTube's three-strike rule fair to users?". BBC News. London. May 21, 2010. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- "Viacom will sue YouTube for $1bn". BBC News. March 13, 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2008.
- "Mediaset Files EUR500 Million Suit Vs Google's YouTube". CNNMoney.com. July 30, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
- "Premier League to take action against YouTube". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. May 5, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "YouTube law fight 'threatens net'". BBC News. May 27, 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- "Google must divulge YouTube log". BBC News. BBC News. July 3, 2008.
- Helft, Miguel (July 4, 2008). "Google Told to Turn Over User Data of YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Lefkow, Chris (June 23, 2010). "US judge tosses out Viacom copyright suit against YouTube". AFP. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- "Google and Viacom: YouTube copyright lawsuit back on". BBC News. April 5, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- "Google and Viacom settle seven-year YouTube row". BBC News. March 18, 2014. Retrieved March 18, 2014.
- Egelko, Bob (August 20, 2008). "Woman can sue over YouTube clip de-posting". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- Ohio Northern District Court (July 18, 2013). "Court Docket". Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC. Docket Alarm, Inc. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- District Judge James G. Carr (June 6, 2011). "Order". Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC. United States District Court, N.D. Ohio, Western Division. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
- "YouTube loses court battle over music clips". BBC News. London. April 20, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- "YouTube's seven-year stand-off ends". BBC News. London. November 1, 2016. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- "YouTube's Deal With Universal Blocks DMCA Counter Notices". TorrentFreak. April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "Videos removed or blocked due to YouTube's contractual obligations". Google. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- Finley, Klint (November 19, 2015). "Google Pledges to Help Fight Bogus YouTube Copyright Claims—for a Few". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Delaney, Kevin J. (June 12, 2007). "YouTube to Test Software To Ease Licensing Fights". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "YouTube Content ID". YouTube. September 28, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- More about Content ID YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Press Statistics YouTube. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- Von Lohmann, Fred (April 23, 2009). "Testing YouTube's Audio Content ID System". Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Von Lohmann, Fred (February 3, 2009). "YouTube's January Fair Use Massacre". Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Content ID disputes YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Siegel, Joshua; Mayle, Doug (December 9, 2010). "Up, Up and Away - Long videos for more users". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "YouTube criticized in Germany over anti-Semitic Nazi videos". Reuters. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- "Fury as YouTube carries sick Hillsboro video insult". icLiverpool. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
- Kirkup, James; Martin, Nicole (July 31, 2008). "YouTube attacked by MPs over sex and violence footage". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Al-Awlaki's YouTube Videos Targeted by Rep. Weiner". Fox News. October 25, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- F. Burns, John; Helft, Miguel (November 4, 2010). "YouTube Withdraws Cleric's Videos". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Bennett, Brian (December 12, 2010). "YouTube is letting users decide on terrorism-related videos". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
- Robertson, Adi (September 1, 2016). "Why is YouTube being accused of censoring vloggers?". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Guynn, Jessica (September 2, 2016). "YouTubers protest 'advertiser friendly' policy". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Mulkerin, Tim (September 1, 2016). "A bunch of famous YouTubers are furious at YouTube right now — here's why". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- E. Solsman, Joan (September 1, 2016). "Pause the #YouTubeIsOverParty: YouTube isn't pulling more ads from stars' videos". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "Google Ad Crisis Spreads as Biggest Marketers Halt Spending". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "YouTube: UK government suspends ads amid extremism concerns". BBC News. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "A YouTube Star, Reddit Detectives, and the Alt-Right Call Out a Fake News Story. Turns Out It Was Real.". The Daily Beast. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- "How one little screenshot drove YouTube to the brink". Mashable. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
- "YouTube will no longer allow creators to make money until they reach 10,000 views". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- Grossman, Lev (December 25, 2006). "You — Yes, You — Are TIME's Person of the Year". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Owen, Paul (November 3, 2009). "Our top 10 funniest YouTube comments – what are yours?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Moore, Matthew (September 2, 2008). "YouTube's worst comments blocked by filter". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Rundle, Michael (April 7, 2012). "Policing Racism Online: Liam Stacey, YouTube And The Law Of Big Numbers". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- "YouTube aims to tame the trolls with changes to its comments section", Stuart Dredge, The Guardian, November 7, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- "No more links in comments?". Google product forums. 2009. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- "View and post comments". Google Support. 2013. Archived from the original on November 17, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- Hern, Alex (November 8, 2013). "YouTube co-founder hurls abuse at Google over new YouTube comments". The Guardian. London. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- on YouTube, November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- "YouTube Founder Blasts New YouTube Comments: Jawed Karim Outraged At Google Plus Requirement", Ryan W. Neal, International Business Times, November 8, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- Chase, Melvin (November 20, 2013). "YouTube comments require Google+ account, Google faces uproar". Newsday. (subscription required) Alternate link Archived December 3, 2013, on Wayback Machine..
- "Google unlinking Google+ from YouTube". BBC News. London. July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
- E. Solsman, Joan (November 3, 2016). "YouTube helps creators blast trolls from comments". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "YouTube strips Universal and Sony of 2 billion fake views". The Daily Dot. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "Two billion YouTube music video views disappear … or just migrate?". The Guardian. December 28, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- Haran, Brady (June 22, 2012). Why do YouTube views freeze at 301?. Numberphile.
- Snyder, Benjamin (August 6, 2015). "YouTube Finally Fixed This Annoying Feature". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "YouTube Censored: A Recent History", OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- Tait, Robert (November 4, 2006). "Censorship fears rise as Iran blocks access to top websites". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 17, 2006.
- "Mobile phones, Facebook, YouTube cut in Iran". American Free Press. Google. July 13, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- "Iran blocks YouTube, Google over Mohammed video". CNN.com. September 24, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- "Thailand blocks access to YouTube". BBC. April 4, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Ban on YouTube lifted after deal". The Nation. August 31, 2007.
- States still hold out on YouTube The Australian, March 6, 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- "Youku Transcends YouTube as China Becomes Center of Internet". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
- Sommerville, Quentin (March 24, 2009). "China 'blocks YouTube video site'". BBC News. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
- "YouTube遭中國封鎖？". Now News. October 19, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "China Blocks YouTube". PC World. October 18, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "YouTube site 'blocked' in Morocco". BBC News. May 29, 2007. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- "YouTube again accessible via Maroc Telecom". Reporters Without Borders. May 30, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007.[dead link]
- Rosen, Jeffrey (November 28, 2008). "Google's Gatekeepers". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Turkey goes into battle with Google". BBC News. July 2, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
- "Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube". BBC News. October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 31, 2010.
- Champion, Marc (November 2, 2010). "Turkey Reinstates YouTube Ban". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- "Turkey report", Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012.
- "Top Sites in Turkey", Alexa. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- B. Kelley, Michael (March 27, 2014). "YouTube Blocked In Turkey Amid High-Level Intelligence Leak". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "Turkey moves to block YouTube access after 'audio leak'". BBC. March 27, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Wagstaff, Keith (March 27, 2014). "YouTube Banned in Turkey". NBC News. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- "Pakistan blocks YouTube website". BBC. February 24, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Pakistan lifts YouTube ban". ABC News (Australia). AFP. February 26, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
- "Pakistan lifts the ban on YouTube". BBC. February 26, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Pakistan web users get round YouTube ban". Silicon Republic. Archived from the original on June 29, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Pakistan blocks access to YouTube in internet crackdown". BBC News. May 20, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
- "YouTube ban lifted by Pakistan authorities", Joanne McCabe, Metro (Associated Newspapers Limited, UK), May 27, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2012
- "Pakistan lifts ban on YouTube", The Times of India, May 27, 2010
- Pakistan ban on YouTube stays even after one year The Economic Times, September 17, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- "Pakistan unblocks access to YouTube". BBC News. January 18, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
- "Turkmenistan: YouTube and LiveJournal are blocked". Moscow: Ferghana News. December 25, 2009. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
- "Watchdog urges Libya to stop blocking websites". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- "Libya", Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012
- "Afghanistan to unblock YouTube – Afghanistan Times", December 1, 2012.
- "Afghanistan bans YouTube to block anti-Muslim film", Miriam Arghandiwal, Reuters (Kabul), September 12, 2012.
- "YouTube blocked in Bangladesh over Prophet Mohamed video", The Independent (AP), September 18, 2012.
- Tsukayama, Haley (September 17, 2012). "YouTube blocked in Pakistan". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Devnath, Arun (September 18, 2012). "Pakistan, Bangladesh Block YouTube Amid Islam Film Protests". Bloomberg. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- "Russian court bans anti-Islam film". The News. September 29, 2012.
- Willon, Phil; Keegan, Rebecca (September 12, 2012). "'Innocence of Muslims': Mystery shrouds film's California origins". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- "YouTube restricts video access over Libyan violence". CNN. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- Popper, Ben (June 17, 2014). "YouTube will block videos from artists who don't sign up for its paid streaming service". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "YouTube subscription music licensing strikes wrong notes with indie labels". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- "Talks with indie labels stall over YouTube music subscription service". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- "YouTube to block indie labels who don't sign up to new music service". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 7, 2013). "NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited.
- Arrington, Michael (March 31, 2008). "YouTube RickRolls Users". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Wortham, Jenna (April 1, 2008). "YouTube 'Rickrolls' Everyone". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "April fools: YouTube turns the world up-side-down". searchcowboys.com. April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Pichette, Patrick (March 31, 2010). "TEXTp saves YouTube bandwidth, money". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Richmond, Shane (April 1, 2011). "YouTube goes back to 1911 for April Fools' Day". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Carbone, Nick (April 1, 2012). "April Fools' Day 2012: The Best Pranks from Around the Web". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Quan, Kristene (April 1, 2013). "WATCH: YouTube Announces It Will Shut Down". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- YouTube Reveals Its Viral Secrets In April Fools' Day Video Kleinman, Alexis, Huffington Post, April 1, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "17 April Fools' pranks from tech brands, tech giants today". NY Daily News. April 1, 2015. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- "Snoopavision and other April Fools jokes going viral". BBC News. April 1, 2016. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- Kelsey, Todd (2010). Social Networking Spaces: From Facebook to Twitter and Everything In Between. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4302-2596-6.
- Lacy, Sarah (2008). The Stories of Facebook, YouTube and MySpace: The People, the Hype and the Deals Behind the Giants of Web 2.0. Richmond: Crimson. ISBN 978-1-85458-453-3.
- Walker, Rob (June 28, 2012). "On YouTube, Amateur Is the New Pro". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Official website (Mobile)
- YouTube on Blogger
- Press room – YouTube
- YouTube – Google Developers
- Haran, Brady; Hamilton, Ted. "Why do YouTube views freeze at 301?". Numberphile. Brady Haran.
- Dickey, Megan Rose (February 15, 2013). "The 22 Key Turning Points In The History Of YouTube". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Are Youtubers Revolutionizing Entertainment? (June 6, 2013), video produced for PBS by Off Book (web series).
- First Youtube video ever