A YouTuber, also known as a YouTube personality, YouTube celebrity, or YouTube content creator, is a type of internet celebrity and videographer who has gained popularity from their videos on the video-sharing website, YouTube. Networks sometimes support YouTube celebrities. Some YouTube personalities have corporate sponsors who pay for product placement in their clips or production of online ads. As of December 2018, PewDiePie is the most-subscribed YouTuber, with over 77 million subscribers.
YouTubers have become an important source of information and entertainment for Millennials and Generation Z as well as an influential part of the internet economy, having impact on what viewers think and buy.
The Internet domain name "
www.youtube.com" was activated on February 14, 2005 by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, when they worked for PayPal. The first YouTube channel "Jawed" was created on April 23, 2005 PDT (April 24, 2005 UTC) by the YouTube co-founder of the same name. He uploaded the first YouTube video, a vlog clip entitled Me at the zoo, on the same day.
In October 2005, YouTube introduced the ability to subscribe to YouTube channels. The New York Times claims that most YouTube videos up until 2006 were focused on different forms of talent, citing back-flip stunts, lip-syncing, and other people's talents being uploaded via clips such as clips of Saturday Night Live. By June 2006, recognized Hollywood and music industry firms had begun to establish formal business ties with "homegrown" YouTube talent—the first believed to be comedian blogger Brooke "Brookers" Brodack (through Carson Daly), then singer Justin Bieber (through Usher), and physician-become-political satirist Bassem Youssef (through an Egyptian television network). In 2007 YouTube started its "Partner Program", an ad-revenue-sharing arrangement that allowed for YouTubers to make money off the videos they uploaded to YouTube.
By October 2015, there were more than 17,000 YouTube channels with more than 100,000 subscribers, and nearly 1,500 with more than a million.
According to multiple studies, YouTubers have become an important source of information and entertainment for the millennial-generation. Influential YouTubers are frequently described as microcelebrities. Since YouTube is widely conceived as a bottom-up social media video platform, microcelebrities do not appear to be involved with the established and commercial system of celebrity culture but rather appear self-governed and independent. This appearance in turn leads to YouTubers being seen as more relatable and authentic, also fostered by the direct connection between artist and viewer using the medium of YouTube. However, youtubers these days are more and more promoting consumerism.
In a 2014 survey conducted by the University of Southern California among 13-18 year-olds in the United States on whether 10 YouTube celebrities or 10 traditional celebrities were more influential, YouTube personalities took the first five spots of the ranking, with Smosh ranking as most influential. When repeated in 2015, the survey found six YouTubers on the first ranks, with KSI ranked as most influential.
Several prominent YouTubers and their influence were subjects for scientific studies, such as Zoella and PewDiePie. Because of this level of influence, Robert Hovden argued for the creation of a new index similar to the g-index and h-index to evaluate a persons output and impact on YouTube.
Different categories of YouTubers have increasingly been defined such as Beauty Bloggers, Gamers, Vloggers, ASMRists, Mukbangers and Fashion Bloggers.
The success of their YouTube videos has made YouTubers the target of corporate sponsors who pay to be included in the videos. In 2015, Forbes reported that Felix Kjellberg, known on YouTube as PewDiePie, had earned $12 million in 2014, more than some popular actors such as Cameron Diaz or Gwyneth Paltrow. In August 2018, Walmart, Nordstrom, and others also seek YouTube stars for the ambassadorship.
On average the YouTuber earns $7.60 USD per 1000 views or $2000 USD every million views from their videos being monetised from ads. YouTubers can also earn more when companies sponsor them, most popular ones being Seat Geek, Dollar Shave Club and Best Fiends.
At the end of every year since 2010, YouTube releases a YouTube Rewind video featuring the most popular YouTubers for the given year. The video features the year's most popular videos, people, music, movies, memes, and moments on YouTube and elsewhere.
- List of YouTubers
- List of most-subscribed YouTube channels
- List of most-viewed YouTube channels
- Social impact of YouTube
- Internet meme
- "Top 100 YouTubers sorted by Subscribers - Socialblade YouTube Stats | YouTube Statistics". socialblade.com. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Jerslev, Anne (2016-10-14). "In the Time of the Microcelebrity: Celebrification and the YouTuber Zoella". International Journal of Communication. 10 (2016): 5233–5251. ISSN 1932-8036.
- Graham, Jefferson (November 21, 2005). "Video websites pop up, invite postings". USA Today. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- "jawed". YouTube. Retrieved 2018-06-02.
- "Extract Meta Data". citizenevidence.amnestyusa.org. Retrieved 2018-06-02.
- "YouTube created a FOMO viewing culture over the past 13 years". Polygon. April 23, 2018.
- "Official YouTube Blog". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved 2018-06-10.
- Carney, John (2006-04-16). "People Who Watch People: Lost in an Online Hall of Mirrors". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
- Collins, Scott (June 19, 2006). "Now she has their attention". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.
- Herrera, Monica (March 19, 2010). "Justin Bieber - The Billboard Cover Story". Billboard. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.
- Simon, Bob (March 16, 2014). "Meet the "Jon Stewart of Egypt": Bassem Youssef". CBS News (60 Minutes transcript). Archived from the original on March 17, 2014.
- "Youssef: 'Important to have other opinions'". Deutsche Welle. February 7, 2014. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014.
- John Seabrook (January 16, 2012). "Streaming Dreams". www.newyorker.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 2018-06-06.
- Dredge, Stuart (2016-02-03). "Why are YouTube stars so popular?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
- Ault, Susanne (2015-07-23). "Digital Star Popularity Grows Versus Mainstream Celebrities". Variety. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
- Beers Fägersten, Kristy (2017-08-01). "The role of swearing in creating an online persona: The case of YouTuber PewDiePie". Discourse, Context & Media. 18: 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.dcm.2017.04.002. ISSN 2211-6958.
- Hovden, Robert (2013-09-12). "Bibliometrics for Internet media: Applying theh-index to YouTube". Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64 (11): 2326–2331. arXiv:1303.0766. doi:10.1002/asi.22936. ISSN 1532-2882.
- Mandle, Chris (2015-10-15). "Forbes names PewDiePie as highest-earning YouTuber with annual income reaching $12m". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
- Jones, Charisse (2018-08-06). "Walmart, Nordstrom and others look to YouTube stars to woo millennials and Gen Z". CNBC. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
- Angela Watercutter (December 9, 2015). "YouTube 'Rewind' Video Proves Nothing Is Mainstream Anymore". WIRED. Retrieved 2018-06-02.
- YouTube Spotlight (2010-12-13), YouTube Rewind 2010: Year in Review, retrieved 2018-06-02