The Younger Dryas, which occurred circa 12,900 to 11,700 years BP, was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which lasted from circa 27,000 to 20,000 years BP. The Younger Dryas was the last stage of the Pleistocene epoch that spanned from 2,580,000 to 11,700 years BP and it preceded the current, warmer Holocene epoch. The Younger Dryas was the most severe and longest lasting of several interruptions to the warming of the Earth's climate, and it was preceded by the Late Glacial Interstadial, an interval of relative warmth that lasted from 14,670 to 12,900 BP.
The change was relatively sudden, taking place in decades, and it resulted in a decline of temperatures in Greenland by 4~10 °C (7.2~18 °F), and advances of glaciers and drier conditions over much of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. A number of theories have been put forward about the cause, and the most widely supported by scientists is that the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which transports warm water from the Equator towards the North Pole, was interrupted by an influx of fresh, cold water from North America into the Atlantic.
The Younger Dryas did not affect the climate equally worldwide, although the average worldwide temperature changed drastically. For example, in the Southern Hemisphere and some areas of the Northern Hemisphere, such as southeastern North America, a slight warming occurred.
The Younger Dryas is named after an indicator genus, the alpine-tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, as its leaves are occasionally abundant in late glacial, often minerogenic-rich sediments, such as the lake sediments of Scandinavia.
General description and context
The presence of a distinct cold period at the end of the LGM interval has been known for a long time. Paleobotanical and lithostratigraphic studies of Swedish and Danish bog and lake sites, as in the Allerød clay pit in Denmark, first recognized and described the Younger Dryas.
The Younger Dryas is the youngest and longest of three stadials, which resulted from typically abrupt climatic changes that took place over the last 16,000 years. Within the Blytt–Sernander classification of north European climatic phases, the prefix "Younger" refers to the recognition that this original "Dryas" period was preceded by a warmer stage, the Allerød oscillation, which, in turn, was preceded by the Older Dryas, around 14,000 calibrated years BP. That is not securely dated, and estimates vary by 400 years, but it is generally accepted to have lasted around 200 years. In northern Scotland, the glaciers were thicker and more extensive than during the Younger Dryas. The Older Dryas, in turn, was preceded by another warmer stage, the Bølling oscillation, that separated it from a third and even older stadial, often known as the Oldest Dryas. The Oldest Dryas occurred about 1,770 calibrated years before the Younger Dryas and lasted about 400 calibrated years. According to the GISP2 ice core from Greenland, the Oldest Dryas occurred between about 15,070 and 14,670 calibrated years BP.
In Ireland, the Younger Dryas has also been known as the Nahanagan Stadial, and in Great Britain it has been called the Loch Lomond Stadial. In the Greenland Summit ice core chronology, the Younger Dryas corresponds to Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1). The preceding Allerød warm period (interstadial) is subdivided into three events: Greenland Interstadial-1c to 1a (GI-1c to GI-1a).
Abrupt climate change
Since 1916 and the onset and the subsequent refinement of pollen analytical techniques and a steadily-growing number of pollen diagrams, palynologists have concluded that the Younger Dryas was a distinct period of vegetational change in large parts of Europe during which vegetation of a warmer climate was replaced by that of a generally cold climate, a glacial plant succession that often contained Dryas octopetala. The drastic change in vegetation is typically interpreted to be an effect of a sudden decrease in (annual) temperature, unfavorable for the forest vegetation that had been spreading northward rapidly. The cooling not only favored the expansion of cold-tolerant, light-demanding plants and associated steppe fauna, but also led to regional glacial advances in Scandinavia and a lowering of the regional snow line.
The change to glacial conditions at the onset of the Younger Dryas in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, between 12,900 and 11,500 calibrated years BP, has been argued to have been quite abrupt. It is in sharp contrast to the warming of the preceding Older Dryas interstadial. Its end has been inferred to have occurred over a period of a decade or so, but the onset may have even been faster. Thermally fractionated nitrogen and argon isotope data from Greenland ice core GISP2 indicate that its summit was around 15 °C (27 °F) colder during the Younger Dryas than today.
In Great Britain, beetle fossil evidence suggests that the mean annual temperature dropped to −5 °C (23 °F), and periglacial conditions prevailed in lowland areas, and icefields and glaciers formed in upland areas. Nothing of the period's size, extent, or rapidity of abrupt climate change has been experienced since its end.
In addition to the Younger, Older, and Oldest Dryases, a century-long period of colder climate, similar to the Younger Dryas in abruptness, has occurred within both the Bølling oscillation and the Allerød oscillation interstadials. The cold period that occurred within the Bølling oscillation is known as the intra-Bølling cold period, and the cold period that occurred within the Allerød oscillation is known as the intra-Allerød cold period. Both cold periods are comparable in duration and intensity with the Older Dryas and began and ended quite abruptly. The cold periods have been recognized in sequence and relative magnitude in paleoclimatic records from Greenland ice cores, European lacustrine sediments, Atlantic Ocean sediments, and the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela.
Examples of older Younger Dryas-like events have been reported from the ends (called terminations)[a]
of older glacial periods. Temperature-sensitive lipids, long chain alkenones, found in lake and marine sediments, are well-regarded as a powerful paleothermometer for the quantitative reconstruction of past continental climates.[page needed] The application of alkenone paleothermometers to high-resolution paleotemperature reconstructions of older glacial terminations have found that very similar, Younger Dryas-like paleoclimatic oscillations occurred during Terminations II and IV.[a] If so, the Younger Dryas is not the unique paleoclimatic event, in terms of size, extent, and rapidity, as it is often regarded to be. Furthermore, paleoclimatologists and Quaternary geologists reported finding what they characterized as well-expressed Younger Dryas events in the Chinese δ18
O records of Termination III[a] in stalagmites from high-altitude caves in Shennongjia area, Hubei Province, China. Various paleoclimatic records from ice cores, deep-sea sediments, speleothems, continental paleobotanical data, and loesses show similar abrupt climate events, which are consistent with Younger Dryas events, during the terminations of the last four glacial periods (see Dansgaard–Oeschger event). They argue that Younger Dryas events might be an intrinsic feature of deglaciations that occur at the end of glacial periods.
Analyses of stable isotopes from Greenland ice cores provide estimates for the start and end of the Younger Dryas. The analysis of Greenland Summit ice cores, as part of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 and Greenland Icecore Project, estimated that the Younger Dryas started about 12,800 ice (calibrated) years BP. Depending on the specific ice core analysis consulted, the Younger Dryas is estimated to have lasted 1,150~1,300 years. Measurements of oxygen isotopes from the GISP2 ice core suggest the ending of the Younger Dryas took place over just 40~50 years in three discrete steps, each lasting five years. Other proxy data, such as dust concentration and snow accumulation, suggest an even more rapid transition, which would require about 7 °C (13 °F) of warming in just a few years. Total warming in Greenland was 10 ± 4 °C (18 ± 7 °F).
The end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to around 11,550 years ago, occurring at 10,000 BP (uncalibrated radiocarbon year), a "radiocarbon plateau" by a variety of methods, mostly with consistent results:
Years ago Place 11500 ± 50 GRIP ice core, Greenland 11530 + 40
Krakenes Lake, western Norway 11570 Cariaco Basin core, Venezuela 11570 German oak and pine dendrochronology 11640 ± 280 GISP2 ice core, Greenland
The International Commission on Stratigraphy put the start of the Greenlandian stage, and implicitly the end of the Younger Dryas, at 11,700 years before 2000.
Although the start of the Younger Dryas is regarded to be synchronous across the North Atlantic region, recent research concluded that the start of the Younger Dryas might be time-transgressive even within there. After an examination of laminated varve sequences, Muschitiello and Wohlfarth found that the environmental changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas are diachronous in their time of occurrence according to latitude. According to the changes, the Younger Dryas occurred as early as around 12,900~13,100 calibrated years ago along latitude 56–54°N. Further north, they found that the changes occurred at roughly 12,600–12,750 calibrated years ago.
According to the analyses of varved sediments from Lake Suigetsu, Japan, and other paleoenvironmental records from Asia, a substantial delay occurred in the onset and the end of the Younger Dryas between Asia and the North Atlantic. For example, paleoenvironmental analysis of sediment cores from Lake Suigetsu in Japan found the Younger Dryas temperature decline of 2–4 °C between 12,300 and 11,250 varve (calibrated) years BP, instead of about 12,900 calibrated years BP in the North Atlantic region.
In contrast, the abrupt shift in the radiocarbon signal from apparent radiocarbon dates of 11,000 radiocarbon years to radiocarbon dates of 10,700–10,600 radiocarbon years BP in terrestrial macrofossils and tree rings in Europe over a 50-year period occurred at the same time in the varved sediments of Lake Suigetsu. However, this same shift in the radiocarbon signal antedates the start of Younger Dryas at Lake Suigetsu by a few hundred years. Interpretations of data from Chinese also confirm that the Younger Dryas East Asia lags the North Atlantic Younger Dryas cooling by at least 200~300 years. Although the interpretation of the data is more murky and ambiguous, the end of the Younger Dryas and the start of Holocene warming likely were similarly delayed in Japan and in other parts of East Asia.
Similarly, an analysis of a stalagmite growing from a cave in Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park, Palawan, the Philippines, found that the onset of the Younger Dryas was also delayed there. Proxy data recorded in the stalagmite indicate that more than 550 calibrated years were needed for Younger Dryas drought conditions to reach their full extent in the region and about 450 calibrated years to return to pre-Younger Dryas levels after it ended.
In Western Europe and Greenland, the Younger Dryas is a well-defined synchronous cool period. Cooling in the tropical North Atlantic may, however, have preceded it by a few hundred years; South America shows a less well-defined initiation but a sharp termination. The Antarctic Cold Reversal appears to have started a thousand years before the Younger Dryas and has no clearly defined start or end; Peter Huybers has argued that there is a fair confidence in the absence of the Younger Dryas in Antarctica, New Zealand and parts of Oceania. Timing of the tropical counterpart to the Younger Dryas, the Deglaciation Climate Reversal (DCR), is difficult to establish as low latitude ice core records generally lack independent dating over the interval. An example of this is the Sajama ice core (Bolivia), for which the timing of the DCR has been pinned to that of the GISP2 ice core record (central Greenland). Climatic change in the central Andes during the DCR, however, was significant and was characterized by a shift to much wetter and likely colder conditions. The magnitude and abruptness of the changes would suggest that low latitude climate did not respond passively during the YD/DCR.
Effects of the Younger Dryas were of varying intensity throughout North America. In western North America, its effects were less intense than in Europe or northeast North America; however, evidence of a glacial re-advance indicates that Younger Dryas cooling occurred in the Pacific Northwest. Speleothems from the Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve in southern Oregon's Klamath Mountains yield evidence of climatic cooling contemporaneous to the Younger Dryas.
Other features include the following:
- Replacement of forest in Scandinavia with glacial tundra (which is the habitat of the plant Dryas octopetala)
- Glaciation or increased snow in mountain ranges around the world
- Formation of solifluction layers and loess deposits in Northern Europe
- More dust in the atmosphere, originating from deserts in Asia
- A decline in evidence for Natufian hunter gatherer permanent settlements in the Levant, suggesting a reversion to a more mobile way of life
- The Huelmo–Mascardi Cold Reversal in the Southern Hemisphere ended at the same time
- Decline of the Clovis culture; while no definitive cause for the extinction of many species in North America such as the Columbian mammoth, as well as the Dire wolf, Camelops, and other Rancholabrean megafauna during the Younger Dryas has been determined, climate change and human hunting activities have been suggested as contributing factors. Recently, it has been found that these megafauna populations collapsed 1000 years earlier.
The Younger Dryas is a period significant to the study of the response of biota to abrupt climate change and to the study of how humans coped with such rapid changes. The effects of sudden cooling in the North Atlantic had strong regional effects in North America, with some areas experiencing more abrupt changes than others. A cooling and ice advance accompanying the transition into the Younger Dryas between 13,300 and 13,000 cal years BP has been confirmed with many radiocarbon dates from four sites in western New York State. The advance is similar in age to the Two Creeks forest bed in Wisconsin.
The effects of the Younger Dryas cooling affected the area that is now New England and parts of maritime Canada more rapidly than the rest of the present day United States at the beginning and the end of the Younger Dryas chronozone. Proxy indicators show that summer temperature conditions in Maine decreased by up to 7.5 °C. Cool summers, combined with cold winters and low precipitation, resulted in a treeless tundra up to the onset of the Holocene, when the boreal forests shifted north.
Vegetation in the central Appalachian Mountains east towards the Atlantic Ocean was dominated by spruce (Picea spp.) and tamarack (Larix laricina) boreal forests that later changed rapidly to temperate, more broad-leaf tree forest conditions at the end of the Younger Dryas period. Conversely, pollen and macrofossil evidence from near Lake Ontario indicates that cool, boreal forests persisted into the early Holocene. West of the Appalachians, in the Ohio River Valley and south to Florida rapid, no-analog vegetation responses seem to have been the result of rapid climate changes, but the area remained generally cool, with hardwood forest dominating. During the Younger Dryas, the Southeastern United States was warmer and wetter than the region had been during the Pleistocene because of trapped heat from the Caribbean within the North Atlantic Gyre caused by a weakened Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC).
Also, a gradient of changing effects occurred from the Great Lakes region south to Texas and Louisiana. Climatic forcing moved cold air into the northern portion of the American interior, much as it did the Northeast. Although there was not as abrupt a delineation as seen on the Eastern Seaboard, the Midwest was significantly colder in the northern interior than it was south, towards the warmer climatic influence of the Gulf of Mexico. In the north, the Laurentide Ice Sheet re-advanced during the Younger Dryas, depositing a moraine from west Lake Superior to southeast Quebec. Along the southern margins of the Great Lakes, spruce dropped rapidly, while pine increased, and herbaceous prairie vegetation decreased in abundance, but increased west of the region.
Effects in the Rocky Mountain region were varied. In the northern Rockies, a significant increase in pines and firs suggests warmer conditions than before and a shift to subalpine parkland in places. That is hypothesized to be the result of a northward shift in the jet stream, combined with an increase in summer insolation as well as a winter snow pack that was higher than today, with prolonged and wetter spring seasons. There were minor re-advancements of glaciers in place, particularly in the northern ranges, but several sites in the Rocky Mountain ranges show little to no changes in vegetation during the Younger Dryas. Evidence also indicates an increase in precipitation in New Mexico because of the same Gulf conditions that were influencing Texas.
The Pacific Northwest region experienced 2 to 3 °C of cooling and an increase in precipitation. Glacial re-advancement has been recorded in British Columbia as well as in the Cascade Range. An increase of pine pollen indicates cooler winters within the central Cascades. On the Olympic Peninsula, a mid-elevation site recorded a decrease in fire, though forest persisted and erosion increased during the Younger Dryas, suggesting cool and wet conditions. Speleothem records indicate an increase in precipitation in southern Oregon, the timing of which coincides with increased sizes of pluvial lakes in the northern Great Basin. Pollen record from the Siskiyou Mountains suggests a lag in timing of the Younger Dryas, indicating a greater influence of warmer Pacific conditions on that range, but the pollen record is less chronologically constrained than the aforementioned speleothem record. The Southwest appears to have seen an increase in precipitation, as well, also with an average 2 °C of cooling.
Effects on agriculture
The Younger Dryas is often linked to the Neolithic Revolution, with the adoption of agriculture in the Levant. The cold and dry Younger Dryas arguably lowered the carrying capacity of the area and forced the sedentary early Natufian population into a more mobile subsistence pattern. Further climatic deterioration is thought to have brought about cereal cultivation. While relative consensus exists regarding the role of the Younger Dryas in the changing subsistence patterns during the Natufian, its connection to the beginning of agriculture at the end of the period is still being debated.
Based upon solid geological evidence, consisting largely of the analysis of numerous deep cores from coral reefs, variations in the rates of sea level rise have been reconstructed for the postglacial period. For the early part of the sea level rise that is associated with deglaciation, three major periods of accelerated sea level rise, called meltwater pulses, occurred. They are commonly called
- meltwater pulse 1A0 for the pulse between 19,000~19,500 calibrated years ago;
- meltwater pulse 1A for the pulse between 14,600~14,300 calibrated years ago;
- meltwater pulse 1B for the pulse between 11,400~11,100 calibrated years ago.
The Younger Dryas occurred after meltwater pulse 1A, a 13.5 m rise over about 290 years, centered at about 14,200 calibrated years ago, and before meltwater pulse 1B, a 7.5 m rise over about 160 years, centered at about 11,000 calibrated years ago. Finally, not only did the Younger Dryas postdate both all of meltwater pulse 1A and predate all of meltwater pulse 1B, it was a period of significantly-reduced rate of sea level rise relative to the periods of time immediately before and after it.
Possible evidence of short-term sea level changes has been reported for the beginning of the Younger Dryas. First, the plotting of data by Bard and others suggests a small drop, less than 6 m, in sea level near the onset of the Younger Dryas. There is a possible corresponding change in the rate of change of sea level rise seen in the data from both Barbados and Tahiti. Given that this change is "within the overall uncertainty of the approach," it was concluded that a relatively smooth sea-level rise, with no significant accelerations, occurred then. Finally, research by Lohe and others in western Norway has reported a sea-level low-stand at 13,640 calibrated years ago and a subsequent Younger Dryas transgression starting at 13,080 calibrated years ago. They concluded that the timing of the Allerød low-stand and the subsequent transgression were the result of increased regional loading of the crust, and geoid changes were caused by an expanding ice sheet, which started growing and advancing in the early Allerød about 13,600 calibrated years ago, well before the start of the Younger Dryas.
The Younger Dryas is thought to have been caused primarily by significant reduction or shutdown of the North Atlantic "Conveyor" – which circulates warm tropical waters northward – as the consequence of deglaciation in North America and a sudden influx of fresh water from Lake Agassiz. The precise mechanism for the rapid melting is still the subject of active research. The lack of geological evidence for such an event, stimulated further exploration that has now identified a pathway along the Mackenzie River that would have spilled fresh water into the Arctic and thence into the Atlantic. The global climate would then have become locked into the new state until freezing removed the fresh water "lid" from the North Atlantic. However, simulations indicated that a one-time-flood could not likely cause the new state to be locked for 1,000 years. Once the flood ceased, the AMOC would recover and the Younger Dryas would stop in less than 100 years. Therefore, continuous freshwater input was necessary to maintain a weak AMOC for more than 1,000 years. Recent study proposed that the snowfall could be a source of continuous freshwater resulting in a prolonged weakened state of the AMOC.
There is now compelling evidence for repeated, but highly variable, discharges of meltwater with contemporaneous changes in Atlantic circulation during the last glacial cycle. The latest research, supported by general circulation model simulations, suggests that AMOC variations also depend on other factors and nonlinear forcings such as internal variability and changes in the carbon cycle, but that freshwater forcing is dominant. It is often noted that the Younger Dryas is merely the last of 25 or 26 such major episodes (Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events) over the past 120 thousand years. These episodes are characterized by abrupt beginnings and endings (with changes taking place on timescales of decades or centuries). The Younger Dryas is best known and best understood because it is the most recent. Because it is only one of many such events, mainstream scientists have not attempted to attribute it to a unique cause and the basic AMOC/abrupt climate-change (AMOC/ACC) hypothesis continues to be supported by current work on this subject.
There are several hypotheses for the cause of the increased flux of meltwater that led to the Younger Dryas onset. One suggestion is that the jet stream shifted northward in response to the changing topographic forcing of the melting North American ice sheet, which brought more rain to the North Atlantic, which freshened the ocean surface enough to slow the thermohaline circulation. Another idea is that a solar flare may have been responsible for the megafaunal extinction, but that cannot explain the apparent variability in the extinction across all continents. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis attributes the cooling to the impact of a disintegrating comet or asteroid, but this idea is rejected by most experts. The Laacher See volcanic eruption hypothesis has likewise been ruled out because precise dating demonstrates that it erupted more than 200 years before the Younger Dryas onset.[b]
End of the Younger Dryas
The end of the Younger Dryas was caused by an increase in carbon dioxide levels and a shift in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Evidence suggests that most of the increase in temperature between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene took place in the immediate aftermath of the Oldest Dryas and Younger Dryas, with there being comparatively little variations in global temperature within the Oldest and Younger Dryas periods and within the Bølling–Allerød warming.
- 8.2 kiloyear climate event – Rapid global cooling around 8,200 years ago
- Preboreal oscillation - Cooling episode within the preboreal
- Heinrich event – Large groups of icebergs traverse the North Atlantic.
- Huelmo–Mascardi Cold Reversal
- Little Ice Age – Climatic cooling after the Medieval Warm Period (16th – 19th century)
- Medieval Warm Period – Time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region lasting from c. 950 to c. 1250
- Meltwater pulse 1B
- Older Dryas – Geological period of the Earth
- Oldest Dryas – Abrupt climatic cooling event during the last glacial retreat
- Atlantic meridional overturning circulation – System of currents in the Atlantic Ocean
- Timeline of glaciation – Chronology of the major ice ages of the Earth
- Timeline of environmental history
- Beaufort Gyre reversal
- ^ a b c The relatively rapid changes from cold conditions to warm interglacials are called terminations). They are numbered from the most recent termination as I and with increasing value (II, III, and so forth) into the past. Termination I is the end Marine Isotope Stage 2 (Last Glacial Maximum); Termination II is the end of the Marine Isotope Stage 6 (c. 130,000 years BP); Termination III is the end of Marine Isotope Stage 8 (c. 243,000 years BP); Termination IV is the end of Marine Isotope Stage 10 (337,000 years BP).
- ^ [Measurements] firmly date the [Laacher See eruption] to 13,006 ± 9 calibrated years before present (BP; taken as AD 1950), which is more than a century earlier than previously accepted. ... thereby dating the onset of the Younger Dryas to 12,807 ± 12 calibrated years BP, which is around 130 years earlier than thought.
- ^ Zalloua, Pierre A.; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth (6 January 2017). "Mapping Post-Glacial expansions: The Peopling of Southwest Asia". Scientific Reports. 7: 40338. Bibcode:2017NatSR...740338P. doi:10.1038/srep40338. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5216412. PMID 28059138.
- ^ Rasmussen, S. O.; Andersen, K. K.; Svensson, A. M.; Steffensen, J. P.; Vinther, B. M.; Clausen, H. B.; Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L.; Johnsen, S. J.; Larsen, L. B.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Bigler, M. (2006). "A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 111 (D6): D06102. Bibcode:2006JGRD..111.6102R. doi:10.1029/2005JD006079. ISSN 0148-0227.
- ^ Clement, Amy C.; Peterson, Larry C. (3 October 2008). "Mechanisms of abrupt climate change of the last glacial period". Reviews of Geophysics. 46 (4): 1–39. doi:10.1029/2006RG000204. S2CID 7828663. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
- ^ Buizert, C.; Gkinis, V.; Severinghaus, J.P.; He, F.; Lecavalier, B.S.; Kindler, P.; et al. (5 September 2014). "Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the last deglaciation". Science. 345 (6201): 1177–1180. Bibcode:2014Sci...345.1177B. doi:10.1126/science.1254961. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 25190795. S2CID 206558186.
- ^ Meissner, K.J. (2007). "Younger Dryas: A data to model comparison to constrain the strength of the overturning circulation". Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (21): L21705. Bibcode:2007GeoRL..3421705M. doi:10.1029/2007GL031304.
- ^ Carlson, A.E. (2013). "The Younger Dryas Climate Event" (PDF). Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Vol. 3. Elsevier. pp. 126–134. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2020.
- ^ a b c Björck, S. (2007) Younger Dryas oscillation, global evidence. In S. A. Elias, (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, Volume 3, pp. 1987–1994. Elsevier B.V., Oxford.
- ^ a b Bjorck, S.; Kromer, B.; Johnsen, S.; Bennike, O.; Hammarlund, D.; Lemdahl, G.; Possnert, G.; Rasmussen, T.L.; Wohlfarth, B.; Hammer, C.U.; Spurk, M. (15 November 1996). "Synchronized terrestrial-atmospheric deglacial records around the North Atlantic". Science. 274 (5290): 1155–1160. Bibcode:1996Sci...274.1155B. doi:10.1126/science.274.5290.1155. PMID 8895457. S2CID 45121979.
- ^ Andersson, Gunnar (1896). Svenska växtvärldens historia [Swedish history of the plant world] (in Swedish). Stockholm: P.A. Norstedt & Söner.
- ^ Hartz, N.; Milthers, V. (1901). "Det senglacie ler i Allerød tegelværksgrav" [The late glacial clay of the clay-pit at Alleröd]. Meddelelser Dansk Geologisk Foreningen (Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark) (in Danish). 2 (8): 31–60.
- ^ Mangerud, Jan; Andersen, Svend T.; Berglund, Björn E.; Donner, Joakim J. (16 January 2008). "Quaternary stratigraphy of Norden, a proposal for terminology and classification". Boreas. 3 (3): 109–126. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3885.1974.tb00669.x.
- ^ Pettit, Paul; White, Mark (2012). The British Palaeolithic: Human Societies at the Edge of the Pleistocene World. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 477. ISBN 978-0-415-67455-3.
- ^ Stuiver, Minze; Grootes, Pieter M.; Braziunas, Thomas F. (November 1995). "The GISP2 δ18
O Climate Record of the Past 16,500 Years and the Role of the Sun, Ocean, and Volcanoes". Quaternary Research. 44 (3): 341–354. Bibcode:1995QuRes..44..341S. doi:10.1006/qres.1995.1079. S2CID 128688449.
- ^ Seppä, H.; Birks, H.H.; Birks, H.J.B. (2002). "Rapid climatic changes during the Greenland stadial 1 (Younger Dryas) to early Holocene transition on the Norwegian Barents Sea coast". Boreas. 31 (3): 215–225. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3885.2002.tb01068.x. S2CID 129434790.
- ^ Walker, M.J.C. (2004). "A Lateglacial pollen record from Hallsenna Moor, near Seascale, Cumbria, NW England, with evidence for arid conditions during the Loch Lomond (Younger Dryas) Stadial and early Holocene". Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society. 55: 33–42. doi:10.1144/pygs.55.1.33.
- ^ Björck, Svante; Walker, Michael J.C.; Cwynar, Les C.; Johnsen, Sigfus; Knudsen, Karen-Luise; Lowe, J. John; Wohlfarth, Barbara (July 1998). "An event stratigraphy for the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region based on the Greenland ice-core record: a proposal by the INTIMATE group". Journal of Quaternary Science. 13 (4): 283–292. Bibcode:1998JQS....13..283B. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1417(199807/08)13:4<283::AID-JQS386>3.0.CO;2-A.
- ^ a b c d Alley, Richard B. (2000). "The Younger Dryas cold interval as viewed from central Greenland". Quaternary Science Reviews. 19 (1): 213–226. Bibcode:2000QSRv...19..213A. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00062-1.
- ^ a b Alley, Richard B.; Meese, D.A.; Shuman, C.A.; Gow, A.J.; Taylor, K.C.; Grootes, P.M.; et al. (1993). "Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event". Nature. 362 (6420): 527–529. Bibcode:1993Natur.362..527A. doi:10.1038/362527a0. hdl:11603/24307. S2CID 4325976.
- ^ Choi, Charles Q. (2 December 2009). "Big freeze: Earth could plunge into sudden ice age". Live Science. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- ^ a b Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; et al. (1998). "Timing of abrupt climate change at the end of the Younger Dryas interval from thermally fractionated gases in polar ice". Nature. 391 (6663): 141–146. Bibcode:1998Natur.391..141S. doi:10.1038/34346. S2CID 4426618.
- ^ Atkinson, T.C.; Briffa, K.R.; Coope, G.R. (1987). "Seasonal temperatures in Britain during the past 22,000 years, reconstructed using beetle remains". Nature. 325 (6105): 587–592. Bibcode:1987Natur.325..587A. doi:10.1038/325587a0. S2CID 4306228.
- ^ Yu, Z.; Eicher, U. (2001). "Three amphi-Atlantic century-scale cold events during the Bølling-Allerød warm period". Géographie Physique et Quaternaire. 55 (2): 171–179. doi:10.7202/008301ar.
- ^ Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Raymo, Maureen E. (2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records". Paleoceanography. 20 (1): n/a. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071. hdl:2027.42/149224. S2CID 12788441.
- ^ Schulz, K.G.; Zeebe, R.E. (2006). "Pleistocene glacial terminations triggered by synchronous changes in Southern and Northern Hemisphere insolation: The insolation canon hypothesis" (PDF). Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 249 (3–4): 326–336. Bibcode:2006E&PSL.249..326S. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.07.004 – via U. Hawaii.
- ^ Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Raymo, Maureen E. (2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records". Paleoceanography. 20 (1): n/a. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071. hdl:2027.42/149224. S2CID 12788441.
- ^ a b Bradley, R. (2015). Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (3rd ed.). Kidlington, Oxford, UK: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-386913-5.
- ^ Eglinton, G., A.B. Stuart, A. Rosell, M. Sarnthein, U. Pflaumann, and R. Tiedeman (1992) Molecular record of secular sea surface temperature changes on 100-year timescales for glacial terminations I, II and IV. Nature. 356:423–426.
- ^ a b Chen, S.; Wang, Y.; Kong, X.; Liu, D.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.L. (2006). "A possible Younger Dryas-type event during Asian monsoonal Termination 3". Science China Earth Sciences. 49 (9): 982–990. Bibcode:2006ScChD..49..982C. doi:10.1007/s11430-006-0982-4. S2CID 129007340.
- ^ Sima, A.; Paul, A.; Schulz, M. (2004). "The Younger Dryas — an intrinsic feature of late Pleistocene climate change at millennial timescales". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 222 (3–4): 741–750. Bibcode:2004E&PSL.222..741S. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.03.026.
- ^ Xiaodong, D.; Liwei, Z.; Shuji, K. (2014). "A review on the Younger Dryas event". Advances in Earth Science. 29 (10): 1095–1109.
- ^ a b Sissons, J.B. (1979). "The Loch Lomond stadial in the British Isles". Nature. 280 (5719): 199–203. Bibcode:1979Natur.280..199S. doi:10.1038/280199a0. S2CID 4342230.
- ^ Dansgaard, W.; White, J.W.C.; Johnsen, S.J. (1989). "The abrupt termination of the Younger Dryas climate event". Nature. 339 (6225): 532–534. Bibcode:1989Natur.339..532D. doi:10.1038/339532a0. S2CID 4239314.
- ^ Kobashia, Takuro; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Barnola, Jean-Marc (2008). "4 ± 1.5 °C abrupt warming 11,270 years ago identified from trapped air in Greenland ice". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 268 (3–4): 397–407. Bibcode:2008E&PSL.268..397K. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.01.032.
- ^ Taylor, K.C. (1997). "The Holocene-Younger Dryas transition recorded at Summit, Greenland" (PDF). Science. 278 (5339): 825–827. Bibcode:1997Sci...278..825T. doi:10.1126/science.278.5339.825.
- ^ Spurk, M. (1998). "Revisions and extension of the Hohenheim oak and pine chronologies: New evidence about the timing of the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition". Radiocarbon. 40 (3): 1107–1116. doi:10.1017/S0033822200019159.
- ^ Gulliksen, Steinar; Birks, H.H.; Possnert, G.; Mangerud, J. (1998). "A calendar age estimate of the Younger Dryas-Holocene boundary at Krakenes, western Norway". Holocene. 8 (3): 249–259. Bibcode:1998Holoc...8..249G. doi:10.1191/095968398672301347. S2CID 129916026.
- ^ Hughen, K.A.; Southon, J.R.; Lehman, S.J.; Overpeck, J.T. (2000). "Synchronous radiocarbon and climate shifts during the last deglaciation". Science. 290 (5498): 1951–1954. Bibcode:2000Sci...290.1951H. doi:10.1126/science.290.5498.1951. PMID 11110659.
- ^ Walker, Mike; et al. (3 October 2008). "Formal definition and dating of the GSSP, etc" (PDF). Journal of Quaternary Science. 24 (1): 3–17. Bibcode:2009JQS....24....3W. doi:10.1002/jqs.1227. S2CID 40380068. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- ^ Muschitiello, F.; Wohlfarth, B. (2015). "Time-transgressive environmental shifts across Northern Europe at the onset of the Younger Dryas". Quaternary Science Reviews. 109: 49–56. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.11.015.
- ^ Nakagawa, T; Kitagawa, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Tarasov, P.E.; Nishida, K.; Gotanda, K.; Sawai, Y.; et al. (Yangtze River Civilization Program Members) (2003). "Asynchronous climate changes in the North Atlantic and Japan during the last termination". Science. 299 (5607): 688–691. Bibcode:2003Sci...299..688N. doi:10.1126/science.1078235. PMID 12560547. S2CID 350762.
- ^ Partin, J.W., T.M. Quinn, C.-C. Shen, Y. Okumura, M.B. Cardenas, F.P. Siringan, J.L. Banner, K. Lin, H.-M. Hu, and F.W Taylor (2014) Gradual onset and recovery of the Younger Dryas abrupt climate event in the tropics. Nature Communications. Received 10 October 2014 | Accepted 13 July 2015 | Published 2 September 2015
- ^ "Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis". Grida.no. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- ^ "New clue to how last ice age ended". ScienceDaily. Archived from the original on 11 September 2010.
- ^ Thompson, L.G.; et al. (2000). "Ice-core palaeoclimate records in tropical South America since the Last Glacial Maximum". Journal of Quaternary Science. 15 (4): 377–394. Bibcode:2000JQS....15..377T. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.561.2609. doi:10.1002/1099-1417(200005)15:4<377::AID-JQS542>3.0.CO;2-L.
- ^ Elias, Scott A.; Mock, Cary J. (1 January 2013). Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Elsevier. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-0-444-53642-6. OCLC 846470730.
- ^ Denniston, R.F.; Gonzalez, L.A.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V.; Reagan, M.K.; Saltzman, M.R. (25 December 2001). "A high-resolution speleothem record of climatic variability at the Allerød–Younger Dryas transition in Missouri, central United States". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 176 (1–4): 147–155. Bibcode:2001PPP...176..147D. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.556.3998. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00334-0.
- ^ Friele, P.A.; Clague, J.J. (2002). "Younger Dryas readvance in Squamish river valley, southern Coast mountains, British Columbia". Quaternary Science Reviews. 21 (18–19): 1925–1933. Bibcode:2002QSRv...21.1925F. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(02)00081-1.
- ^ Vacco, David A.; Clark, Peter U.; Mix, Alan C.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence (1 September 2005). "A speleothem record of Younger Dryas cooling, Klamath Mountains, Oregon, USA". Quaternary Research. 64 (2): 249–256. Bibcode:2005QuRes..64..249V. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2005.06.008. ISSN 0033-5894. S2CID 1633393.
- ^ Hassett, Brenna (2017). Built on Bones: 15,000 years of urban life and death. London, UK: Bloomsbury Sigma. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-4729-2294-6.
- ^ Brakenridge, G. Robert. 2011. Core-Collapse Supernovae and the Younger Dryas/Terminal Rancholabrean Extinctions. Elsevier, Retrieved 23 September 2018
- ^ Gill, J.L.; Williams, J.W.; Jackson, S.T.; Lininger, K.B.; Robinson, G.S. (19 November 2009). "Pleistocene megafaunal collapse, novel plant communities, and enhanced fire regimes in North America" (PDF). Science. 326 (5956): 1100–1103. Bibcode:2009Sci...326.1100G. doi:10.1126/science.1179504. PMID 19965426. S2CID 206522597.
- ^ Miller, D. Shane; Gingerich, Joseph A.M. (March 2013). "Regional variation in the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene radiocarbon record of eastern North America". Quaternary Research. 79 (2): 175–188. Bibcode:2013QuRes..79..175M. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2012.12.003. ISSN 0033-5894. S2CID 129095089.
- ^ a b c Meltzer, David J.; Holliday, Vance T. (1 March 2010). "Would North American Paleoindians have noticed Younger Dryas age climate changes?". Journal of World Prehistory. 23 (1): 1–41. doi:10.1007/s10963-009-9032-4. ISSN 0892-7537. S2CID 3086333.
- ^ Young, Richard A.; Gordon, Lee M.; Owen, Lewis A.; Huot, Sebastien; Zerfas, Timothy D. (17 November 2020). "Evidence for a late glacial advance near the beginning of the Younger Dryas in western New York State: An event postdating the record for local Laurentide ice sheet recession". Geosphere. 17 (1): 271–305. doi:10.1130/ges02257.1. ISSN 1553-040X. S2CID 228885304.
- ^ Peteet, D. (1 January 1995). "Global Younger Dryas?". Quaternary International. 28: 93–104. Bibcode:1995QuInt..28...93P. doi:10.1016/1040-6182(95)00049-o.
- ^ Shuman, Bryan; Bartlein, Patrick; Logar, Nathaniel; Newby, Paige; Webb, Thompson, III (September 2002). "Parallel climate and vegetation responses to the early Holocene collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet". Quaternary Science Reviews. 21 (16–17): 1793–1805. Bibcode:2002QSRv...21.1793S. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.580.8423. doi:10.1016/s0277-3791(02)00025-2.
- ^ Dorale, J.A.; Wozniak, L.A.; Bettis, E.A.; Carpenter, S.J.; Mandel, R.D.; Hajic, E.R.; Lopinot, N.H.; Ray, J.H. (2010). "Isotopic evidence for Younger Dryas aridity in the North American midcontinent". Geology. 38 (6): 519–522. Bibcode:2010Geo....38..519D. doi:10.1130/g30781.1.
- ^ Williams, John W.; Post, David M.; Cwynar, Les C.; Lotter, André F.; Levesque, André J. (1 November 2002). "Rapid and widespread vegetation responses to past climate change in the North Atlantic region". Geology. 30 (11): 971–974. Bibcode:2002Geo....30..971W. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0971:rawvrt>2.0.co;2. hdl:1874/19644. ISSN 0091-7613. S2CID 130800017.
- ^ Dieffenbacher-Krall, Ann C.; Borns, Harold W.; Nurse, Andrea M.; Langley, Geneva E.C.; Birkel, Sean; Cwynar, Les C.; Doner, Lisa A.; Dorion, Christopher C.; Fastook, James (1 March 2016). "Younger Dryas paleoenvironments and ice dynamics in northern Maine: A multi-proxy, case history". Northeastern Naturalist. 23 (1): 67–87. doi:10.1656/045.023.0105. ISSN 1092-6194. S2CID 87182583.
- ^ a b Liu, Yao; Andersen, Jennifer J.; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T. (March 2012). "Vegetation history in central Kentucky and Tennessee (USA) during the last glacial and deglacial periods". Quaternary Research. 79 (2): 189–198. Bibcode:2013QuRes..79..189L. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2012.12.005. ISSN 0033-5894. S2CID 55704048.
- ^ a b c Griggs, Carol; Peteet, Dorothy; Kromer, Bernd; Grote, Todd; Southon, John (1 April 2017). "A tree-ring chronology and paleoclimate record for the Younger Dryas–Early Holocene transition from northeastern North America". Journal of Quaternary Science. 32 (3): 341–346. Bibcode:2017JQS....32..341G. doi:10.1002/jqs.2940. ISSN 1099-1417. S2CID 133557318.
- ^ a b Elias, Scott A.; Mock, Cary J. (2013). Encyclopedia of quaternary science. Elsevier. pp. 126–132. ISBN 978-0-444-53642-6. OCLC 846470730.
- ^ Grimm, Eric C.; Watts, William A.; Jacobson, George L. Jr.; Hansen, Barbara C.S.; Almquist, Heather R.; Dieffenbacher-Krall, Ann C. (September 2006). "Evidence for warm wet Heinrich events in Florida". Quaternary Science Reviews. 25 (17–18): 2197–2211. Bibcode:2006QSRv...25.2197G. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.04.008.
- ^ Yu, Zicheng; Eicher, Ulrich (1998). "Abrupt climate oscillations during the last deglaciation in central North America". Science. 282 (5397): 2235–2238. Bibcode:1998Sci...282.2235Y. doi:10.1126/science.282.5397.2235. JSTOR 2897126. PMID 9856941.
- ^ a b Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Shea, John J.; Lieberman, Daniel (2009). Transitions in prehistory: Essays in honor of Ofer Bar-Yosef. American School of Prehistoric Research. Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-84217-340-4. OCLC 276334680.
- ^ Nordt, Lee C.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Jacob, John S.; Mandel, Rolfe D. (1 September 2002). "C4 Plant productivity and climate – CO2 variations in south-central Texas during the late Quaternary". Quaternary Research. 58 (2): 182–188. Bibcode:2002QuRes..58..182N. doi:10.1006/qres.2002.2344. S2CID 129027867.
- ^ Lowell, Thomas V.; Larson, Graham J.; Hughes, John D.; Denton, George H. (25 March 1999). "Age verification of the Lake Gribben forest bed and the Younger Dryas advance of the Laurentide ice sheet". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 36 (3): 383–393. Bibcode:1999CaJES..36..383L. doi:10.1139/e98-095. ISSN 0008-4077.
- ^ Williams, John W.; Shuman, Bryan N.; Webb, Thompson (1 December 2001). "Dissimilarity analyses of late-Quaternary vegetation and climate in eastern North America". Ecology. 82 (12): 3346–3362. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2001)082[3346:daolqv]2.0.co;2. ISSN 1939-9170.
- ^ Erin, Metin I. (2013). Hunter-gatherer behavior: Human response during the Younger Dryas. ISBN 978-1-59874-603-7. OCLC 907959421.
- ^ MacLeod, David Matthew; Osborn, Gerald; Spooner, Ian (1 April 2006). "A record of post-glacial moraine deposition and tephra stratigraphy from Otokomi Lake, Rose Basin, Glacier National Park, Montana". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 43 (4): 447–460. Bibcode:2006CaJES..43..447M. doi:10.1139/e06-001. ISSN 0008-4077. S2CID 55554570.
- ^ a b Mumma, Stephanie Ann; Whitlock, Cathy; Pierce, Kenneth (1 April 2012). "A 28,000 year history of vegetation and climate from Lower Red Rock Lake, Centennial Valley, southwestern Montana, USA". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 326: 30–41. Bibcode:2012PPP...326...30M. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.01.036.
- ^ a b Brunelle, Andrea; Whitlock, Cathy (July 2003). "Postglacial fire, vegetation, and climate history in the Clearwater Range, northern Idaho, USA". Quaternary Research. 60 (3): 307–318. Bibcode:2003QuRes..60..307B. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2003.07.009. ISSN 0033-5894. S2CID 129531002.
- ^ "Precise cosmogenic 10Be measurements in western North America: Support for a global Younger Dryas cooling event". ResearchGate. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- ^ Reasoner, Mel A.; Osborn, Gerald; Rutter, N. W. (1 May 1994). "Age of the Crowfoot advance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains: A glacial event coeval with the Younger Dryas oscillation". Geology. 22 (5): 439–442. Bibcode:1994Geo....22..439R. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<0439:AOTCAI>2.3.CO;2. ISSN 0091-7613.
- ^ Reasoner, Mel A.; Jodry, Margret A. (1 January 2000). "Rapid response of alpine timberline vegetation to the Younger Dryas climate oscillation in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA". Geology. 28 (1): 51–54. Bibcode:2000Geo....28...51R. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<51:RROATV>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0091-7613.
- ^ Briles, Christy E.; Whitlock, Cathy; Meltzer, David J. (January 2012). "Last glacial–interglacial environments in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA and implications for Younger Dryas-age human occupation". Quaternary Research. 77 (1): 96–103. Bibcode:2012QuRes..77...96B. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2011.10.002. ISSN 0033-5894. S2CID 9377272.
- ^ Davis, P. Thompson; Menounos, Brian; Osborn, Gerald (1 October 2009). "Holocene and latest Pleistocene alpine glacier fluctuations: a global perspective". Quaternary Science Reviews. Holocene and Latest Pleistocene Alpine Glacier Fluctuations: A Global Perspective. 28 (21): 2021–2033. Bibcode:2009QSRv...28.2021D. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.05.020.
- ^ Osborn, Gerald; Gerloff, Lisa (1 January 1997). "Latest pleistocene and early Holocene fluctuations of glaciers in the Canadian and northern American Rockies". Quaternary International. 38: 7–19. Bibcode:1997QuInt..38....7O. doi:10.1016/s1040-6182(96)00026-2.
- ^ Feng, Weimin; Hardt, Benjamin F.; Banner, Jay L.; Meyer, Kevin J.; James, Eric W.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Min, Angela (1 September 2014). "Changing amounts and sources of moisture in the U.S. southwest since the Last Glacial Maximum in response to global climate change". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 401: 47–56. Bibcode:2014E&PSL.401...47F. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.046.
- ^ Barron, John A.; Heusser, Linda; Herbert, Timothy; Lyle, Mitch (1 March 2003). "High-resolution climatic evolution of coastal northern California during the past 16,000 years". Paleoceanography. 18 (1): 1020. Bibcode:2003PalOc..18.1020B. doi:10.1029/2002pa000768. ISSN 1944-9186.
- ^ Kienast, Stephanie S.; McKay, Jennifer L. (15 April 2001). "Sea surface temperatures in the subarctic northeast Pacific reflect millennial-scale climate oscillations during the last 16 kyrs". Geophysical Research Letters. 28 (8): 1563–1566. Bibcode:2001GeoRL..28.1563K. doi:10.1029/2000gl012543. ISSN 1944-8007.
- ^ Mathewes, Rolf W. (1 January 1993). "Evidence for Younger Dryas-age cooling on the North Pacific coast of America". Quaternary Science Reviews. 12 (5): 321–331. Bibcode:1993QSRv...12..321M. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(93)90040-s.
- ^ a b Vacco, David A.; Clark, Peter U.; Mix, Alan C.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence (September 2005). "A speleothem record of Younger Dryas cooling, Klamath Mountains, Oregon, USA". Quaternary Research. 64 (2): 249–256. Bibcode:2005QuRes..64..249V. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2005.06.008. ISSN 0033-5894. S2CID 1633393.
- ^ Chase, Marianne; Bleskie, Christina; Walker, Ian R.; Gavin, Daniel G.; Hu, Feng Sheng (January 2008). "Midge-inferred Holocene summer temperatures in southeastern British Columbia, Canada". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 257 (1–2): 244–259. Bibcode:2008PPP...257..244C. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.10.020.
- ^ Friele, Pierre A.; Clague, John J. (1 October 2002). "Younger Dryas re‑advance in Squamish river valley, southern Coast mountains, British Columbia". Quaternary Science Reviews. 21 (18): 1925–1933. Bibcode:2002QSRv...21.1925F. doi:10.1016/s0277-3791(02)00081-1.
- ^ Kovanen, Dori J. (1 June 2002). "Morphologic and stratigraphic evidence for Allerød and Younger Dryas age glacier fluctuations of the Cordilleran ice sheet, British Columbia, Canada, and northwest Washington, U.S.A". Boreas. 31 (2): 163–184. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3885.2002.tb01064.x. ISSN 1502-3885. S2CID 129896627.
- ^ Heine, Jan T. (1 December 1998). "Extent, timing, and climatic implications of glacier advances Mount Rainier, Washington, U.S.A., at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition". Quaternary Science Reviews. 17 (12): 1139–1148. Bibcode:1998QSRv...17.1139H. doi:10.1016/s0277-3791(97)00077-2.
- ^ Grigg, Laurie D.; Whitlock, Cathy (May 1998). "Late-glacial vegetation and climate change in western Oregon". Quaternary Research. 49 (3): 287–298. Bibcode:1998QuRes..49..287G. doi:10.1006/qres.1998.1966. ISSN 0033-5894. S2CID 129306849.
- ^ Gavin, Daniel G.; Brubaker, Linda B.; Greenwald, D. Noah (November 2013). "Post-glacial climate and fire-mediated vegetation change on the western Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA". Ecological Monographs. 83 (4): 471–489. doi:10.1890/12-1742.1. ISSN 0012-9615.
- ^ Grigg, Laurie D.; Whitlock, Cathy; Dean, Walter E. (July 2001). "Evidence for millennial-scale climate change during Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 at Little Lake, western Oregon, USA". Quaternary Research. 56 (1): 10–22. Bibcode:2001QuRes..56...10G. doi:10.1006/qres.2001.2246. ISSN 0033-5894. S2CID 5850258.
- ^ Hershler, Robert; Madsen, D.B.; Currey, D.R. (11 December 2002). "Great Basin aquatic systems history". Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences. 33 (33): 1–405. Bibcode:2002SCoES..33.....H. doi:10.5479/si.00810274.33.1. ISSN 0081-0274. S2CID 129249661.
- ^ Briles, Christy E.; Whitlock, Cathy; Bartlein, Patrick J. (July 2005). "Postglacial vegetation, fire, and climate history of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon, USA". Quaternary Research. 64 (1): 44–56. Bibcode:2005QuRes..64...44B. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2005.03.001. ISSN 0033-5894. S2CID 17330671.
- ^ Cole, Kenneth L.; Arundel, Samantha T. (2005). "Carbon isotopes from fossil packrat pellets and elevational movements of Utah agave plants reveal the Younger Dryas cold period in Grand Canyon, Arizona". Geology. 33 (9): 713. Bibcode:2005Geo....33..713C. doi:10.1130/g21769.1. S2CID 55309102.
- ^ Bar-Yosef, O.; Belfer-Cohen, A. (31 December 2002) . "Facing environmental crisis. Societal and cultural changes at the transition from the Younger Dryas to the Holocene in the Levant". In Cappers, R.T.J.; Bottema, S. (eds.). The Dawn of Farming in the Near East. Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment. Vol. 6. Berlin, DE: Ex Oriente. pp. 55–66. ISBN 3-9804241-5-4, ISBN 978-398042415-8.
- ^ Mithen, Steven J. (2003). After the Ice: A global human history, 20,000–5000 BC (paperback ed.). Harvard University Press. pp. 46–55.
- ^ Munro, N.D. (2003). "Small game, the younger dryas, and the transition to agriculture in the southern levant" (PDF). Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Urgeschichte. 12: 47–64. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2005.
- ^ Balter, Michael (2010). "Archaeology: The tangled roots of agriculture". Science. 327 (5964): 404–406. doi:10.1126/science.327.5964.404. PMID 20093449.
- ^ a b Blanchon, P. (2011a). "Meltwater pulses". In Hopley, D. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs: Structure, form and process. Springer-Verlag Earth Science. pp. 683–690. ISBN 978-90-481-2638-5.
- ^ Blanchon, P. (2011b). "Backstepping". In Hopley, D. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs: Structure, form and process. Springer-Verlag Earth Science Series. pp. 77–84. ISBN 978-90-481-2638-5.
- ^ Blanchon, P.; Shaw, J. (1995). "Reef drowning during the last deglaciation: Evidence for catastrophic sea-level rise and ice-sheet collapse". Geology. 23 (1): 4–8. Bibcode:1995Geo....23....4B. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0004:RDDTLD>2.3.CO;2.
- ^ a b Bard, E.; Hamelin, B.; Delanghe-Sabatier, D. (2010). "Deglacial meltwater Pulse 1B and Younger Dryas sea levels revisited with boreholes at Tahiti". Science. 327 (5970): 1235–1237. Bibcode:2010Sci...327.1235B. doi:10.1126/science.1180557. PMID 20075212. S2CID 29689776.
- ^ Lohne, Ø.S.; Bondevik, S.; Mangeruda, J.; Svendsena, J.I. (2007). "Sea-level fluctuations imply that the Younger Dryas ice-sheet expansion in western Norway commenced during the Allerød". Quaternary Science Reviews. 26 (17–18): 2128–2151. Bibcode:2007QSRv...26.2128L. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.04.008. hdl:1956/1179.
- ^ Broecker, Wallace S. (2006). "Was the Younger Dryas triggered by a flood?". Science. 312 (5777): 1146–1148. doi:10.1126/science.1123253. PMID 16728622. S2CID 39544213.
- ^ Murton, Julian B.; Bateman, Mark D.; Dallimore, Scott R.; Teller, James T.; Yang, Zhirong (2010). "Identification of Younger Dryas outburst flood path from Lake Agassiz to the Arctic Ocean". Nature. 464 (7289): 740–743. Bibcode:2010Natur.464..740M. doi:10.1038/nature08954. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 20360738. S2CID 4425933.
- ^ Keigwin, L.D.; Klotsko, S.; Zhao, N.; Reilly, B.; Giosan, L.; Driscoll, N.W. (2018). "Deglacial floods in the Beaufort Sea preceded Younger Dryas cooling". Nature Geoscience. 11 (8): 599–604. Bibcode:2018NatGe..11..599K. doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0169-6. hdl:1912/10543. ISSN 1752-0894. S2CID 133852610.
- ^ Wang, Luo; Jiang, Wenying; Jiang, Dabang (2018). "Prolonged heavy snowfall during the Younger Dryas". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 123 (24): 137489. Bibcode:2018JGRD..12313748W. doi:10.1029/2018JD029271.
- ^ a b Lynch-Stieglitz, J (2017). "The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and abrupt climate change". Annual Review of Marine Science. 9: 83–104. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060415. PMID 27814029.
- ^ a b Menviel, L.C.; Skinner, L.C.; Tarasov, L.; Tzedakis, P.C. (2020). "An ice-climate oscillatory framework for Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles". Nature Reviews Earth & Environment. 1 (12): 677–693. doi:10.1038/s43017-020-00106-y. S2CID 226231686.
- ^ a b Capron, E.; Rasmussen, S.O.; Popp, T.J.; Erhardt, T.; Fischer, H.; Landais, A.; Pedro, J.B.; Vettoretti, G.; Grinsted, A.; Gkinis, V.; Vaughn, B.; Svensson, A.; Vinther, B.M.; White, J.W.C. (2021). "The anatomy of past abrupt warmings recorded in Greenland ice". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 2106. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-22241-w. PMC 8032679. PMID 33833238.
- ^ Dansgaard, W; Clausen, H.B.; Gundestrup, N.; Hammer, C.U.; Johnsen, S.F.; Kristinsdottir, P.M.; Reeh, N. (1982). "A new Greenland deep ice core". Science. 218 (4579): 1273–1277. doi:10.1126/science.218.4579.1273. PMID 17770148. S2CID 35224174.
- ^ Eisenman, I.; Bitz, C.M.; Tziperman, E. (2009). "Rain driven by receding ice sheets as a cause of past climate change". Paleoceanography. 24 (4): PA4209. Bibcode:2009PalOc..24.4209E. doi:10.1029/2009PA001778. S2CID 6896108.
- ^ la Violette, P.A. (2011). "Evidence for a Solar flare cause of the Pleistocene mass extinction". Radiocarbon. 53 (2): 303–323. doi:10.1017/S0033822200056575. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- ^ Staff Writers (6 June 2011). "Did a massive Solar proton event fry the Earth?". Space Daily. Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
- ^ Gramling C (26 June 2018). "Why won't this debate about an ancient cold snap die?". Science News. Archived from the original on 5 August 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
- ^ a b Reinig, Frederick; Wacker, Lukas; Jöris, Olaf; Oppenheimer, Clive; Guidobaldi, Giulia; Nievergelt, Daniel; et al. (30 June 2021). "Precise date for the Laacher See eruption synchronizes the Younger Dryas". Nature. 595 (7865): 66–69. Bibcode:2021Natur.595...66R. doi:10.1038/S41586-021-03608-X. ISSN 1476-4687. Wikidata Q107389873.
- ^ Shakun, Jeremy D.; Clark, Peter U.; He, Feng; Marcott, Shaun A.; Mix, Alan C.; Liu, Zhenyu; Oto-Bliesner, Bette; Schmittner, Andreas; Bard, Edouard (4 April 2012). "Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation". Nature. 484 (7392): 49–54. doi:10.1038/nature10915. hdl:2027.42/147130. PMID 22481357. S2CID 2152480. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
- "Study confirms mechanism for current shutdowns, European cooling" (Press release). Oregon State University. 2007. Archived from the original on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- Broecker, W.S. (1999). "What If the Conveyor Were to Shut Down?". GSA Today. 9 (1): 1–7. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- Calvin, W.H. (January 1998). "The great climate flip-flop". The Atlantic Monthly. Vol. 281. pp. 47–64. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- Tarasov, L.; Peltier, W.R. (June 2005). "Arctic freshwater forcing of the Younger Dryas cold reversal" (PDF). Nature. 435 (7042): 662–665. Bibcode:2005Natur.435..662T. doi:10.1038/nature03617. PMID 15931219. S2CID 4375841. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2015.
- Acosta; et al. (2018). "Climate change and peopling of the Neotropics during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition". Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana. 70: 1–19. doi:10.18268/BSGM2018v70n1a1.
- "Cometary debris may have destroyed Paleolithic settlement 12,800 years ago". Science News (sci-news.com) (Press release). 2 July 2020.
- When the Earth suddenly stopped warming. PBS Eons (short ed. vid.). 17 December 2020. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021 – via YouTube.