Forza Italia (2013)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Youth for Freedom (Italy))
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Forza Italia
President Silvio Berlusconi
Vice President Antonio Tajani
Founded 16 November 2013 (2013-11-16)
Preceded by The People of Freedom
Headquarters Piazza San Lorenzo in Lucina 4, Rome
Youth wing Forza Giovani
Membership (2015) 106,000[1]
Ideology Liberal conservatism[2]
Christian democracy[2]
Liberalism[3]
Populism[4][5]
Political position Centre-right[6]
National affiliation Centre-right coalition
European affiliation European People's Party
European Parliament group European People's Party
Colors      Azure
Chamber of Deputies[7]
105 / 630
Senate[8]
61 / 315
European Parliament
12 / 73
Regional Presidents
2 / 20
Regional
Councils
91 / 897
Website
www.forzaitalia.it

Forza Italia[nb 1] (translated to "Forward Italy"[2][9][10][11][12][13] or "Let's Go Italy",[14][15][16][17] known also by its acronym FI) is a centre-right political party in Italy whose ideology includes elements of liberal conservatism, Christian democracy, and liberalism. Its leader is Silvio Berlusconi, former Prime Minister of Italy (1994–1995, 2001–2006, 2008–2011).

The party, formed out of the former People of Freedom (PdL), is a revival of the defunct Forza Italia (FI), active from 1994 to 2009, when it was merged with National Alliance (AN) and several minor parties to form the PdL. Forza Italia's leading members include Antonio Tajani (President of the European Parliament), Elisabetta Casellati (President of the Senate), Giovanni Toti (President of Liguria), Donato Toma (President of Molise), Renato Brunetta, Paolo Romani, Mariastella Gelmini, Anna Maria Bernini, Elisabetta Gardini, Maurizio Gasparri, Renato Schifani, Mara Carfagna and Stefania Prestigiacomo.

On 11 September 2014 FI was admitted into the European People's Party (EPP), inheriting the PdL's membership.[18]

FI is a much smaller party than the original FI and the early PdL, due to the splits of Future and Freedom (2010), the Brothers of Italy (2012), the New Centre-Right (2013), the Conservative and Reformists (2015) and the Liberal Popular Alliance (2015).[19] In the 2018 general election FI was overtaken by Lega Nord as the largest party of the centre-right coalition.

History[edit]

Background and foundation[edit]

FI's founder and leader Silvio Berlusconi.

The new FI, announced in June 2013,[20][21] was launched on 18 September[22][23][24][25] and the PdL was formally dissolved into the party on 16 November.[26] The day before a group of dissidents (mainly Christian democrats), led by Berlusconi's former protégé Angelino Alfano, had broken away by announcing the foundation of the alternative New Centre-Right (NCD).[27] Another group of PdL members, led by former mayor of Rome Gianni Alemanno, had left the party earlier in order to form Italy First (they would later join the Brothers of Italy, FdI).[28] According to Berlusconi, the PdL would become a coalition of centre-right parties, including the new FI, Lega Nord (LN), the NCD, the FdI, etc.[29]

Among the supporters of the return to FI, the so-called "hawks"[30] and self-proclaimed "loyalists",[31] a leading role was played by Raffaele Fitto, who, despite the common Christian-democratic background, was a long-time rival of Alfano. Loyalists included Antonio Martino, Renato Brunetta, Denis Verdini, Mariastella Gelmini, Mara Carfagna, Daniela Santanchè, Niccolò Ghedini and Daniele Capezzone, while Maurizio Gasparri, Altero Matteoli and Paolo Romani tried to mediate, but finally joined the new FI.[32][33] The symbol of FI made its return in the 2013 Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol provincial elections, although in a regional fashion: "Forza Trentino"[34] and "Forza Alto Adige" (in list with Lega Nord Alto Adige – Südtirol).[35]

On 27 November the Senate approved Berlusconi's expulsion,[36] following the leader's conviction for tax evasion in August, when Berlusconi was sentenced to four years of imprisonment, the last three being automatically pardoned.[37] The day before FI had joined the opposition to Enrico Letta's government,[38] which was still supported by Alfano's NCD instead. The latter voted against Berlusconi's expulsion,[39][40] but since then completely parted ways from FI.

Internal struggles and Toti's rise[edit]

As of the end of December 2013, Berlusconi was set to appoint two vice-presidents: Antonio Tajani (European Commissioner and vice-president of the European People's Party) and Giovanni Toti (former editor of Studio Aperto and TG4,[41] two news programs of Berlusconi's Mediaset).[42] As a result of the resentement by the party's old guard, notably including Fitto, on the alleged appointment of Toti also as coordinator-at-large, Berlusconi appointed him merely "political counselor" to the party.[43][44]

In the 2014 European Parliament election FI obtained 16.8% of the vote and 13 MEPs elected, including Toti in the North-West, Tajani (who had first been elected to the European Parliament in 1994) in the Centre and, most notably, Fitto (who garnered more than 180,000 votes in his native Apulia alone) in the South.[45]

Fitto, the strongest backer of Berlusconi's leadership in late 2013, became his main internal challenger by mid 2014. After months of bickering with Berlusconi over the so-called "Nazareno pact" with Matteo Renzi, leader of the Democratic Party and Prime Minister, in February 2015 Fitto launched his own faction, named "Rebuilders".[46] Fitto's supporters included Capezzone, Maurizio Bianconi, Rocco Palese, Saverio Romano, Cinzia Bonfrisco, Augusto Minzolini and most Apulian MPs.[47]

2015 regional elections and splits[edit]

In the run-up of the 2015 regional elections the party was riven in internal disputes and was divided mainly in three groups: Berlusconi's loyalists, Fitto's "Rebuilders" and nostalgics of the "Nazareno pact".[48][49] The latter were led by Verdini and some of them, notably including Bondi, were openly pro-Renzi.[50][51] Bondi, a former Berlusconi loyalist, and his partner Manuela Repetti left the party in March,[52][53] while other disgruntled Verdiniani propped up the government from time to time. Berlusconi chose Toti as candidate for President in Liguria, confirmed incumbent Stefano Caldoro as the party's standard-bearer in Campania and renewed their support of LN's Luca Zaia in Veneto.[54] However, Berlusconi and Fitto did not find an agreement on the composition of the slates in Apulia, where the two wings of the party fielded two opposing candidates for president,[55][56][57] and similar problems arose in Tuscany,[58] Verdini's (and Renzi's) home region and stronghold.

Two weeks before the regional election, Fitto left the European People's Party Group in the European Parliament in order to join the European Conservatives and Reformists.[59] He also left FI altogether and launched his own party, named Conservatives and Reformists (CR) too.[60] By mid July, when CR was formally established as a party, nine deputies, ten senators and another MEP had left FI in order to follow Fitto.[61][62][63][64][65][65]

In the elections the party lost many votes, mainly to the LN, and gained more than 10% only in three regions out seven (including Apulia, where the party's candidate did worse than Fitto's one, while, in Veneto, a former stronghold, FI barely reached 6%), but, thanks to the LN's strong showing, Toti was elected President of Liguria.

Another split occurred in late July, when Verdini led his group out of the party and launched the Liberal Popular Alliance (ALA).[66]

Toward a new centre-right coalition[edit]

In the 2016 Milan municipal election FI found a strong candidate for mayor in Stefano Parisi, a former director-general of Confindustria and CEO of Fastweb, who pulled the party to 20.2% (virtually double than the LN's score), but however narrowly lost to his Democratic opponent in the run-off, Giuseppe Sala. After the election, FI was basically divided in two camps: one led by Parisi, who did not officially joined the party and proposed a more traditional centre-right "liberal-popular" path, and the other led by Toti, who had formed a strong partnership with Roberto Maroni and Luca Zaia, the LN's Presidents of Lombardy and Veneto, and was supportive of a full-scale alliance with LN and, possibly, of its leader Matteo Salvini's bid to become the leader of the centre-right coalition.[67][68][69] In November, when it was clear that Parisi would not come to terms with Salvini, Berlusconi disowned Parisi,[70][71] who responded by launching his own Energies for Italy (EpI) party.[72][73][74]

Since then, the party has strengthened its position in parliament, thanks to an influx of MPs from other parties, including several returning after years of dissent. In August 2016 the party was re-joined by two senators, including Renato Schifani from the NCD and another from the ALA. In November came Mario Mauro and his Populars for Italy (PpI).[75] Since June 2017 the party was joined by three deputies and one senator from Popular Alternative (AP, ex-NCD), one deputy and one senator from the Mixed Group (ex-Five Star Movement, M5S), one deputy from Direction Italy (DI, ex-CR), one from Solidary Democracy (Demo.S), one from Act! (F!, ex-LN) and two senators from the ALA.[76][75] Particularly, Enrico Costa left AP and resigned from minister of Regional Affairs in Paolo Gentiloni's centre-left government,[77] aiming at forming a "liberal centre" with FI.[78] In the context of a more united centre-right, Costa might form the "fourth leg" of the coalition, after the LN, FI and the FdI, by uniting other AP splinters, DI, F!, Identity and Action (IdeA), the Italian Liberal Party (PLI), the Union of the Centre (UdC), and the Pensioners' Party (PP),[79][80][81] all variously affiliated with FI and the centre-right. Not all FI members were happy with all that, in fact two senators and one deputy, Daniela Santanchè, switched to the FdI.[82]

In January 2017 Antonio Tajani was elected President of the European Parliament, the first Italian since Emilio Colombo (1977–1979).

2018 general election[edit]

In the 2018 general election FI obtained 14.0% of the vote and was overtaken by the LN for the first time as the largest party of the centre-right. After the election, long-time FI senator Elisabetta Casellati, was appointed President of the Senate, with centre-right's and M5S' support. After months of negotiations, the centre-right fragmented as the LN chose to team up with the M5S and formed a yellow-green government, also dubbed as Government of Change, under Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte.

In July Berlusconi appointed Tajani, who had been previously tipped as candidate for Prime Minister in the run-up of the 2018 general election,[83] vice president and Adriano Galliani coordinator of departments,[84][85][86] in an effort to restructure the party, which was shrinking in opinion polls.

Ideology and factions[edit]

Berlusconi with FI's leaders in the Parliament, Mariastella Gelmini and Anna Maria Bernini.

FI's ideology is similar to that of its predecessor, The People of Freedom (PdL), a big tent centre-right party including Christian democrats, liberals, conservatives and social democrats. Indeed, FI presents itself as a "liberal", "Catholic", "reformist" and "moderate" alternative to the left in alliance with the right,[87][88][89] but not rightist itself.[90]

The PdL's break-up and the exit of the New Centre-Right (NCD) left FI with a more liberal base. Generally speaking, with the long-prepared return to FI, Berlusconi aimed at returning to the party's "liberal roots": in doing that, he reinforced his ties with those liberals, like Antonio Martino, who had been marginalised in the PdL,[91] while losing many of its Christian democrats and conservatives to the NCD. However, after NCD's internal struggles, its transformation into Popular Alternative (AP) and several splits, some NCD conservatives have returned to FI. Moreover, in 2015 FI lost several liberal MPs, who formed the Liberal Popular Alliance in support to Matteo Renzi's cabinet.

On social issues, most FI politicians are conservative, even though a minority of them can be considered liberal. According to an article from Corriere della Sera, on the so-called "ethical issues" (abortion, LGBT rights, etc.), the party aimed at returning to its 1994's original values (including "liberalism, the socialist roots, even the radical component"), respected its MPs' "freedom of conscience" and was open to civil unions while NCD's positions were "closer to those of the European traditionalist right".[92] In October 2014 Berlusconi personally endorsed Renzi's proposals on civil unions for gays and a quicker path to citizenship to Italian-born children of immigrants.[93] However, recent developments proved the party more socially conservative. FI clarified that it considers marriage solely as the union between a man and a woman.[94] The majority of its members voted against civil unions, whereas the NCD voted in favour.[95][96] Moreover, the party is critical of teaching gender studies in schools.[97] Party members are generally pro-life and therefore seek to limit abortion[98] and euthanasia.[99] The party has criticized illegal immigration and the way it has been managed by centre-left coalition governments.[100] It has also declared itself against the introduction of jus soli in Italy.[101] In addition, the party is opposed to drug liberalization, which it considers potentially negative for health and not useful for solving criminal matters.[102] When FI's predecessors were in power, they restricted the legislation on the matter, with the Fini-Giovanardi law.[103] Finally, FI considers Italy as a country with a Christian civilization and, thus, favours displaying Christian symbols in public places.[104]

On economic issues, FI is more supportive of the private rather than the public sector. It aims at representing business owners' interests. Therefore, it has often advocated for a reduction of taxation, red tape and public expenditure. One of its latest proposals is the introduction of a flat tax. The party is also favorable to the liberalization of the labour market. In addition, FI is more supportive of free trade agreements rather than protectionism.[105]

On foreign policy, the party supports the European Union (EU), despite elements of criticism, NATO, and a close relationship with the United States. FI also seeks good relations with Russia, especially in defence of the interests of Italian companies that export to the Russian market.[106] The party is a member of the Europeanist, centre-right European People's Party (EPP). Whereas most of its members are supportive of the European Union (EU), the most notable example being Antonio Tajani (President of the European Parliament since 2017), others are slightly Eurosceptic and have criticised the Euro and Germany's role in the EU.[107][108][109] The party refuses the "Eurosceptic" label, while supporting a reform of the EU.[110] In 2017 Berlusconi reconciled with Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany and one of the EPP leaders, after years of hostility, re-affirming his support to the European integration and his hostility towards populism.[111][112][113]

FI is a very diverse party, including several factions and ideological trends. A list of FI's organised factions and associate parties is available in the following template:

The party's leading faction has however been not an organised one. Named the "magic circle" by journalists (a reference to a defunct faction within Lega Nord), it is composed of Berlusconi's closest allies, notably including Giovanni Toti, Mariarosaria Rossi, Deborah Bergamini and Francesca Pascale (Berlusconi's partner);[114] Since being elected President of Liguria in 2015, Toti has become more autonomous from Berlusconi and a strong supporter of closer ties with Lega Nord.[115][116]

Electoral results[edit]

Italian Parliament[edit]

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2018 4,596,956 (#4) 14.00
106 / 630
Silvio Berlusconi
Senate of the Republic
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2018 4,358,004 (#4) 14.43
58 / 315
Silvio Berlusconi

European Parliament[edit]

Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2014 4,614,364 (#3) 16.81
13 / 73
Silvio Berlusconi

Regional Councils[edit]

Region Latest election # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/–
Aosta Valley 2018 1,862 (#10) (with FdI) 2.9 (with FdI)
0 / 35
Piedmont 2014 302,743 (#3) 15.6
7 / 50
Decrease 6
Lombardy 2018 750,628 (#4) 14.3
14 / 80
Decrease 5
South Tyrol 2013 7,118 (#6) (with LN) 2.5 (with LN)
1 / 35
Decrease 2
Trentino 2013 10,493 (#7) 4.4
1 / 35
Decrease 4
Veneto 2015 110,573 (#5) 6.0
3 / 51
Decrease 14
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 2018 50,908 (#3) 12.1
5 / 49
Decrease 3
Emilia-Romagna 2014 100,478 (#4) 8.4
2 / 50
Decrease 8
Liguria 2015 68,283 (#4) 12.7
3 / 31
Decrease 7
Tuscany 2015 112,658 (#4) 8.5
2 / 41
Decrease 14
Marche 2015 49,884 (#4) 9.4
2 / 31
Decrease 10
Umbria 2015 30,017 (#4) 8.5
2 / 20
Decrease 6
Lazio 2018 371,155 (#3) 14.6
6 / 50
Decrease 3
Abruzzo 2014 112,215 (#3) 16.7
5 / 31
Decrease 10
Molise 2018 13,627 (#2) 9.4
4 / 21
Increase 2
Campania 2015 405,550 (#2) 17.8
7 / 51
Decrease 14
Apulia 2015 181,896 (#3) 10.8
6 / 51
Decrease 15
Basilicata 2013 29,022 (#3) (as PdL) 12.3 (as PdL)
2 / 21
Decrease 5
Calabria 2014 95,979 (#3) 12.2
5 / 30
Decrease 10
Sardinia 2014 126,327 (#2) 18.5
11 / 60
Decrease 14
Sicily 2017 315,056 (#2) 16.4
14 / 70
Increase 2

Leadership[edit]

Symbols[edit]

Anthem[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The name is not usually translated into English: forza is the second-person singular imperative of forzare, in this case translating to "to compel" or "to press", and so means something like "Forward, Italy", "Come on, Italy" or "Go, Italy!". Forza Italia! was used as a sport slogan, and was also the slogan of Christian Democracy in the 1987 general election (see Giovanni Baccarin, Che fine ha fatto la DC?, Gregoriana, Padova 2000). See Forza Italia for details.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paola Di Caro (May 17, 2015). "Forza Italia, i tormenti di un partito". il Corriere della Sera. 
  2. ^ a b c Nordsieck, Wolfram (2018). "Italy". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 18 May 2018. 
  3. ^ Carlo Taormina (28 November 2013). Il Tempo, ed. "Silvio rialza la bandiera liberale e liberista". 
  4. ^ Woods, Dwayne (2014). The Many Faces of Populism in Italy: The Northern League and Berlusconism. The Many Faces of Populism: Current Perspectives. Emerald Group. pp. 28, 41–44. 
  5. ^ Pietro Ignazi (30 August 2015). "Chi sono i populisti? Lega e Forza Italia. M5s difende le regole". il Fatto Quotidiano. 
  6. ^ Nicolò Conti (2015). "No Longer Pro-European? Politicisation and contestation of Europe and Italy". In Andrea Mammone; Ercole Giap Parini; Giuseppe Veltri. The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Italy: History, Politics, Society. Routledge. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-317-48755-5. 
  7. ^ Including the single deputies of Christian Revolution, the New Italian Socialist Party, the Pensioners' Party, Renaissance and Veneto for Autonomy.
  8. ^ Including three senators of the Union of the Centre, one senator of the Fassa Association, one of Identity and Action and one of the Union of Democrats for Europe.
  9. ^ Michael J. Romano (4 October 2010). CliffsNotes AP European History with CD-ROM. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 231–. ISBN 978-0-470-55100-4. 
  10. ^ Bertrand Badie; Dirk Berg-Schlosser; Leonardo Morlino (7 September 2011). International Encyclopedia of Political Science. SAGE Publications. pp. 1796–. ISBN 978-1-4522-6649-7. 
  11. ^ Thomas Jansen; Steven Van Hecke (2011). At Europe's Service: The Origins and Evolution of the European People's Party. Springer. p. 63–65. ISBN 978-3-642-19414-6. 
  12. ^ Tom Lansford (24 March 2015). Political Handbook of the World 2015. SAGE Publications. pp. 3066–. ISBN 978-1-4833-7155-9. 
  13. ^ Donatella M. Viola (14 August 2015). Routledge Handbook of European Elections. Routledge. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-1-317-50363-7. 
  14. ^ Stephen Gundle; Simon Parker (1 November 2002). The New Italian Republic: From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to Berlusconi. Routledge. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-1-134-80791-8. 
  15. ^ Peter Mair; Wolfgang C Müller; Fritz Plasser (9 June 2004). Political Parties and Electoral Change: Party Responses to Electoral Markets. SAGE Publications. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-0-7619-4719-6. 
  16. ^ Stephen P. Koff (7 March 2013). Italy: From the 1st to the 2nd Republic. Routledge. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-1-134-64369-1. 
  17. ^ J. Colomer (5 January 2016). The Handbook of Electoral System Choice. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 244–. ISBN 978-0-230-52274-9. 
  18. ^ "Forza Italia membro d'ufficio Ppe come erede del Pdl". Ansa.it (in Italian). September 19, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Italian politics: Not so forza any more". The Economist. 2015-08-13. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  20. ^ "Berlusconi al Tg1: torna Forza Italia e sarò io a guidarla" (in Italian). Il Sole 24 Ore. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  21. ^ "Berlusconi annuncia ritorno di Forza Italia. "Temo che sarò ancora il numero uno"" (in Italian). la Repubblica. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  22. ^ "Berlusconi Revives Forza Italia in Plea for Help Against Trials". Bloomberg News. 18 September 2013. 
  23. ^ "Silvio Berlusconi Relaunches Forza Italia on Senate Ousting Vote". International Business Times. 18 September 2013. 
  24. ^ "Berlusconi Vows to Stay in Politics if Ousted From Senate". The Wall Street Journal. 18 September 2013. 
  25. ^ "Berlusconi Stakes a Claim for Relevance, but Avoids Threats". The New York Times. 18 September 2013. 
  26. ^ "Berlusconi breaks away from Italian government after party splits". Reuters. 16 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  27. ^ "È rottura tra Berlusconi e Alfano Il vicepremier annuncia i nuovi gruppi" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 16 November 2013. 
  28. ^ "Alemanno lancia "Prima l'Italia": "La priorità è portare il Paese fuori dalla crisi"" (in Italian). Il Messaggero. 13 October 2013. 
  29. ^ "L'addio al Pdl (in frantumi), rinasce Forza Italia" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 16 November 2013. 
  30. ^ "Nel Pdl colombe pronte alla battaglia E il partito ora rischia la scissione". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  31. ^ "Fitto: noi lealisti non vogliamo posti Azzerare tutto e poi congresso". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  32. ^ "Pdl, tanti no all?ipotesi del congresso". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  33. ^ "Il Pdl e la sfida sugli incarichi Si affacciano i mediatori". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  34. ^ "Nasce Forza Trentino: ultimo pressing su Mosna" (in Italian). Trentino. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  35. ^ "Biancofiore candida l'Artioli capolista" (in Italian). Alto Adige. 14 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  36. ^ "Alle 17.42 l'annuncio dopo il voto palese L'ira di Forza Italia sui Cinquestelle" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 28 November 2013. 
  37. ^ "Confermata la condanna Berlusconi sconterà 1 anno". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  38. ^ "Forza Italia esce dalla maggioranza Alfano: "Un errore sabotare Letta"" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 26 November 2013. 
  39. ^ "Berlusconi, Alfano: no alla decadenza. Grasso: nessun rinvio sul voto". Ilmessaggero.it. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  40. ^ "Decadenza Berlusconi, Alfano: una brutta giornata per la democrazia". Avvenire.it. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  41. ^ "Mediaset, cambio ai vertici Al posto di Giovanni Toti arrivano Giordano e Broggiato" (in Italian). il Giornale. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  42. ^ ""Forza Italia via dai palazzi romani" Si riparte da Milano (e dalla Brianza)" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 29 November 2013. 
  43. ^ "Forza Italia - Responsabili Uffici e Dipartimenti nazionali". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  44. ^ "Berlusconi taps newsman as party advisor". Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  45. ^ "::: Ministero dell'Interno ::: Archivio Storico delle Elezioni - Europee del 25 Maggio 2014". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  46. ^ "Fi, Fitto lancia i "ricostruttori" "Stiamo e saremo nel partito"". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  47. ^ "Dall?ex tesoriere ai pugliesi: chi sta con Fitto E Verdini prova ad assottigliare la pattuglia". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  48. ^ "Lotte intestine e mosse del governo Berlusconi ora si sente sotto assedio". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  49. ^ "Forza Italia, la mappa del partito: nomi e cognomi, ecco tutte le correnti e i loro obiettivi". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  50. ^ "Italicum, oggi voto finale. Letta: Mattarella non firmi - Pagina Nazionale - il Tirreno". Iltirreno.gelocal.it. 2015-05-04. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  51. ^ "il manifesto". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  52. ^ "Bondi e Repetti, ora l?addio è definitivo Nel partito è guerra generazionale". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  53. ^ "Berlusconi a tutto campo. Lite con Bondi E in Puglia il candidato va con Fitto". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  54. ^ "Chiuso l?accordo Lega-Forza Italia con Zaia in Veneto e Toti in Liguria". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  55. ^ "Berlusconi-Alfano, intesa in Campania È rottura con Fitto". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  56. ^ "In Puglia Berlusconi lancia Poli Bortone: è caos". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  57. ^ ""Poli Bortone dice sì". Toti: ora Fitto si allinei". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  58. ^ "Berlusconi fa le liste. E c?è il caso Toscana". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  59. ^ archiviostorico.corriere.it/2015/maggio/18/addio_Fitto_Pronto_gruppo_Senato_co_0_20150518_53b05284-fd1e-11e4-b125-7cf77d869e07.shtml[full citation needed]
  60. ^ "Fitto, nasce associazione Conservatori e Riformisti". ANSA.it. Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  61. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-07. Retrieved 2015-08-18. [full citation needed]
  62. ^ http://www.adnkronos.com/fatti/politica/2015/07/08/gruppo-camera-conti-ipotesi-scissione-fitto-vale-milione-euro_KimbXZnpqXn0toS3FPqz8M.html?refresh_ce[full citation needed]
  63. ^ http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2015/maggio/27/Fitto_prende_senatori_Presto_gruppo_co_0_20150527_f3d45ea2-0432-11e5-ba59-df59057958a4.shtml[full citation needed]
  64. ^ http://www.affaritaliani.it/politica/fitto-dodici-senatori-368571.html[full citation needed]
  65. ^ a b http://ecrgroup.eu/news/remo-sernagiotto-mep-joins-the-ecr-group/[full citation needed]
  66. ^ http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2015/luglio/30/debutto_dei_verdiniani_Ala_per_co_0_20150730_21791b56-367c-11e5-8bc5-e14460b66c32.shtml[full citation needed]
  67. ^ "Una poltrona per due: Salvini e Parisi in guerra per la leadership". Il Sole 24 ORE. 2016-11-14. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  68. ^ Pubblicato: 12/11/2016 20:43 CET. "Donald Trump esalta e divide il centrodestra. Salvini contro Parisi, trumpisti contro moderati. Berlusconi fa la sua scelta". Huffingtonpost.it. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  69. ^ Altri articoli dalla categoria ». "Salvini a Firenze: "Pronto a fare il leader del centrodestra" - Repubblica.it". Firenze.repubblica.it. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  70. ^ Redazione ANSA (2016-11-15). "Centrodestra: Berlusconi scarica Parisi, non può avere un ruolo se in contrasto con Salvini - Politica". ANSA.it. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  71. ^ Valentina Santarpia (2016-11-15). "Berlusconi scarica Parisi: «No a ruoli per lui se resta contrasto con Salvini» La replica di Parisi: «Io vado avanti". Corriere.it. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  72. ^ Redazione ANSA (2016-11-18). "Parisi launches new center-right party - English". ANSA.it. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  73. ^ Raffaella Cagnazzo (2016-11-18). "Centrodestra, Parisi lancia il nuovo movimento 'Energie per l'Italia': «Rinnovamento radicale dal basso". Corriere.it. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  74. ^ "Parisi lancia ŤEnergie per l'Italiať: alternativi a Renzi e Grillo". Il Sole 24 ORE. 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2017-03-17. 
  75. ^ a b "senato.it - Senato della Repubblica senato.it - Variazioni nei Gruppi parlamentari". www.senato.it. 
  76. ^ "Camera.it - XVII Legislatura - Deputati e Organi Parlamentari - Composizione gruppi Parlamentari". www.camera.it. 
  77. ^ "Governo, si è dimesso ministro Enrico Costa: "Niente ambiguità"". 19 July 2017. 
  78. ^ "Costa lascia il governo Via al partito centrista che nasce contro Alfano". 
  79. ^ "Berlusconi accoglie i centristi. Pronto il nome: "Italia Civica"". 
  80. ^ "E Berlusconi ordinò: "Fermate l'esodo o cade l'esecutivo" - Il Fatto Quotidiano". 
  81. ^ "TRA QUARTE GAMBE E BAD COMPANY, VIAGGIO NELLA GALASSIA CENTRISTA IMPLOSA PER L'ANSIA DA SEGGIO". 20 July 2017. 
  82. ^ http://www.corriere.it/politica/17_dicembre_03/fratelli-d-italia-via-an-msi-simbolo-entra-santanche-tornata-casa-mia-f3f3ad3c-d81c-11e7-83d0-5335217d8231.shtml
  83. ^ https://www.corriere.it/elezioni-2018/notizie/chi-antonio-tajani-candidato-premier-scelto-berlusconi-9cfd3134-1de9-11e8-af9a-2daa4c2d1bbb.shtml
  84. ^ http://www.repubblica.it/politica/2018/07/05/news/forza_italia_tajani_galliani-200966666
  85. ^ http://www.ilgiornale.it/news/politica/svolta-forza-italia-tajani-vice-berlusconi-1549495.html
  86. ^ https://www.liberoquotidiano.it/news/politica/13357608/silvio-berlusconi-forza-italia-antonio-tajani-vicepresidente-adriano-galliani-capo-dipartimenti-malumori-nel-partito.html
  87. ^ Silvio Berlusconi (25 April 2016). "Silvio Berlusconi: "Ecco dove va Forza Italia"". il Giornale. 
  88. ^ unknown (9 September 2017). "Berlusconi candida Fi alla guida del centrodestra: "Dobbiamo tornare a governare"". la Repubblica. 
  89. ^ Askanews (2 May 2017). "Berlusconi:ora progetto governo liberal-riformatore centrodestra". Tiscali. 
  90. ^ Editorial Staff (25 April 2016). "Berlusconi chiarisce: «Noi non siamo di destra. Ecco dove va Forza Italia»". Secolo d'Italia. 
  91. ^ "Berlusconi seeks return to liberal roots". Financial Times. 22 July 2012. 
  92. ^ "Pd-azzurri: asse sui diritti (senza Ncd)" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 4 January 2014. 
  93. ^ ""Dico sì a unioni gay e ius soli" Un altro asse Berlusconi-premier". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  94. ^ "Unioni civili, confronto in Forza Italia". 
  95. ^ "Unioni civili e adozioni, Pd diviso Berlusconi: «No al ddl Cirinnà»". 
  96. ^ "Unioni civili sono legge: M5s si astiene. Lega e Fdi contro. Renzi: "E' un giorno di festa". Le destre: "Referendum" - Il Fatto Quotidiano". 11 May 2016. 
  97. ^ "Forza Italia rilancia". 
  98. ^ "Aborto e nozze gay, ecco come hanno votato gli italiani a Strasburgo". www.lanuovabq.it. 
  99. ^ "La Camera approva la legge sul biotestamento. I deputati cattolici: "E' eutanasia"". 
  100. ^ "Migranti, Berlusconi: "Un accordo con la Libia è l'unica soluzione"". 
  101. ^ "Ius soli, Berlusconi: "La cittadinanza va meritata"". 
  102. ^ Italia, Movimento Forza. "Forza Italia - Gasparri: Il professor Veronesi sbaglia, liberalizzare la droga non indebolisce la mafia". www.forzaitalia.it. 
  103. ^ http://www.cesdop.it/public/Scheda%20droga%20e%20legge.PDF
  104. ^ "Esporre il crocifisso nelle aule consiliari, la mozione di Forza Italia - gonews.it". 3 July 2017. 
  105. ^ "Berlusconi: «No a patrimoniali e aumenti Iva, flat tax al 23%»". 
  106. ^ "Fi, Berlusconi sul palco di Fiuggi. Coro dalla platea: "Un presidente, c'è solo un presidente"". 17 September 2017. 
  107. ^ "Quegli economisti euroscettici (proprio come Berlusconi)" (in Italian). Il Foglio. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  108. ^ "Can Berlusconi make a eurosceptic comeback?". la Repubblica/The Guardian. Presseurop. 26 June 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  109. ^ "Berlusconi turns Eurosceptic in bid to return to power". City A.M. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  110. ^ Paola Tavola (28 June 2017). "Tajani: "Centrodestra vince se guida Forza Italia. Europa da cambiare, ma non in discussione"". Euronews. 
  111. ^ Goffredo De Marchis (18 August 2017). ""Silvio, pensaci tu". Merkel e Berlusconi, l'asse anti-populisti". la Repubblica. 
  112. ^ Flavia Perina (5 August 2017). "Berlusconi abbraccia la Merkel e l'europeismo, ed era ora". Linkiesta. 
  113. ^ Marco Damilano (31 August 2017). "Coalizione alla tedesca: la Merkel "riabilita" Berlusconi per un governo Pd-Forza Italia". l'Espresso. 
  114. ^ Serenus Zeitblom (April 11, 2015). "Berlusconi e il cerchio magico... scelto da lui". 
  115. ^ "Un doloroso retroscena. Berlusconi contro Toti, così è finita malissimo". 
  116. ^ "Sconcerto da Tajani e Cav, Toti sceglie Salvini. Occhio, perché lui corre da solo. Sotto sotto..." 

External links[edit]