Yttrium(III) chloride

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Yttrium(III) chloride
Yttrium(III) chloride
Part of a layer in the crystal structure of YCl3[1]
Layer packing
IUPAC names
Yttrium(III) chloride
Yttrium trichloride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.030.716 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • hexahydrate:: 233-801-0
RTECS number
  • ZG3150000
  • InChI=1S/3ClH.Y/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3 checkY
  • InChI=1/3ClH.Y/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3
  • hexahydrate:: InChI=1S/3ClH.6H2O.Y/h3*1H;6*1H2;/q;;;;;;;;;+3/p-3
  • Cl[Y](Cl)Cl
  • hexahydrate:: O.O.O.O.O.O.Cl[Y](Cl)Cl
Molar mass 195.265 g/mol[2]
Appearance white solid
Density 2.61 g/cm3[2]
Melting point 721 °C (1,330 °F; 994 K)[2]
Boiling point 1,482 °C (2,700 °F; 1,755 K)[2]
751 g/L (20 °C)[2]
Solubility 601 g/L ethanol (15 °C)
606 g/L pyridine (15 °C)[3]
Monoclinic, mS16
C2/m, No. 12
a = 0.692 nm, b = 1.194 nm, c = 0.644 nm
α = 90°, β = 111°, γ = 90°
GHS labelling:
GHS07: Exclamation mark
H315, H319, H335
P261, P264, P271, P280, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P312, P332+P313, P337+P313, P362
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g. turpentineFlammability 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
Safety data sheet (SDS) External MSDS
Related compounds
Other anions
Yttrium(III) fluoride
Yttrium(III) bromide
Yttrium(III) iodide
Other cations
Scandium(III) chloride
Lutetium(III) chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Yttrium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound of yttrium and chloride. It exists in two forms, the hydrate (YCl3(H2O)6) and an anhydrous form (YCl3). Both are colourless salts that are highly soluble in water and deliquescent.


Solid YCl3 adopts a cubic[citation needed] structure with close-packed chloride ions and yttrium ions filling one third of the octahedral holes and the resulting YCl6 octahedra sharing three edges with adjacent octahedra, giving it a layered structure.[5][1] This structure is shared by a range of compounds, notably AlCl3.

Preparation and reactions[edit]

YCl3 is often prepared by the "ammonium chloride route," starting from either Y2O3 or hydrated chloride or oxychloride.[6][7] or YCl3·6H2O.[8] These methods produce (NH4)2[YCl5]:

10 NH4Cl + Y2O3 → 2 (NH4)2[YCl5] + 6 NH3 + 3 H2O
YCl3·6H2O + 2 NH4Cl → (NH4)2[YCl5] + 6 H2O

The pentachloride decomposes thermally according to the following equation:

(NH4)2[YCl5] → 2 NH4Cl + YCl3

The thermolysis reaction proceeds via the intermediacy of (NH4)[Y2Cl7].

Treating Y2O3 with aqueous HCl produces the hydrated chloride (YCl3·6H2O). When heated, this salt yields yttrium oxychloride rather than reverting to the anhydrous form.


  1. ^ a b Templeton, D. H.; Carter, Giles F. (1954). "The Crystal Structures of Yttrium Trichloride and Similar Compounds". J. Phys. Chem. 58 (11): 940–944. doi:10.1021/j150521a002.
  2. ^ a b c d e Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.99. ISBN 978-1439855119.
  3. ^ Spencer, James F. (1919), The Metals of the Rare Earths, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co, p. 135
  4. ^ Templeton, D. H.; Carter, Giles F. (1954). "The Crystal Structures of Yttrium Trichloride and Similar Compounds". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 58 (11): 940–944. doi:10.1021/j150521a002.
  5. ^ Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6
  6. ^ Meyer, G. (1989). "The Ammonium Chloride Route to Anhydrous Rare Earth Chlorides—The Example of Ycl 3". The Ammonium Chloride Route to Anhydrous Rare Earth Chlorides-The Example of YCl3. Inorganic Syntheses. Vol. 25. pp. 146–150. doi:10.1002/9780470132562.ch35. ISBN 978-0-470-13256-2.
  7. ^ Edelmann, F. T.; Poremba, P. (1997). Herrmann, W. A. (ed.). Synthetic Methods of Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry. Vol. VI. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag. ISBN 978-3-13-103021-4.
  8. ^ Taylor, M.D.; Carter, C.P. (1962). "Preparation of anhydrous lanthanide halides, especially iodides". Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry. 24 (4): 387–391. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(62)80034-7.