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Yuanlingshan (圓領衫) is a form of traditional Chinese attire. It is a formal attire worn by men. It is also the most common form of attire for (both male and female) officials and nobles during the Ming Dynasty. The difference between civilian's and officials'/nobles' yuanlingshan is that officials'/nobles' yuanlingshan has a mandarin square (補子) on it. The sleeves of the yuanlingshan are mostly curved with a narrow sleeve cuff (琵琶袖, pipa sleeve). It has round collar and side slits. Men's yuanlingshan (regardless of civilian's/officials') have side panels (暗擺) at the side slits to conceal the undergarments. The collar is secured with a button, and a crossed-collar undergarment must be worn. However, yuanlingshan is not worn alone. Underneath the Yuanlingshan is worn the Da Hu (褡護, sleeveless or half sleeve vest with side panels) and the Tie Li (貼裏，men's inner dress, sometimes replaced with the Zhi Shen). According to the Ming's Government letter against Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the Ming Government bestowed on him a set of Chang Fu (常服羅) containing a red yuanlingshan with kirin mandarin square(大紅織金胷背麒麟圓領), dark blue Da Hu (青褡護) , and green Tie Li (綠貼裏).
During an Imperial Funeral, Ming officers wore a grey blue Yuanlingshan (without Mandarin Square), buffalo horn panel belt (烏角帶) and wushamao. This set was known as 'Qing Su Fu' (青素服).
Officials'/nobles' yuanlingshan are also wedding attire for commoners. The groom wears a wusha hat (烏紗帽) and the yuanlingshan of a 9th rank official robe. The bride wears the phoenix crown (鳳冠) and a red yuanlingshan with the xiapei (霞帔) of a noblewoman.
Ming Dynasty portrait of a noblewoman wearing yuanlingshan, phoenix crown and xiapei
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