Yuanzheng

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Yuanzheng
ManufacturerCALT
Country of originChina
Used onLong March rocket family
(2C · 2D · 3B · 3C · 5 · 7)
Associated stages
ComparableFregat
Launch history
StatusActive
Total launches16
Successes
(stage only)
16
Failed0
Lower stage
failed
0
First flight30 March 2015
BeiDou I1-S
Last flight29 December 2018
Hongyan 1
Engine details
Engines1 × YF-50D[1]
Thrust6.5 kN (1,500 lbf)[2]
Specific impulse315.5 seconds[2]
FuelN
2
O
4
/ UDMH

Yuanzheng (Chinese: 远征; pinyin: Yuǎn Zhēng; literally: 'Expedition') is a restartable upper stage developed by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) for the Long March rocket family.

The Yuanzheng stage enables the Chinese launch vehicles to deploy payloads directly to high-energy orbits such as medium Earth orbit (MEO) and geosyncronous orbit (GSO). Since the Long March third stage cannot restart, it cannot circularize a GSO or GEO orbit from a geosyncronous transfer orbit (GTO). With its restart capability, Yuanzheng has enabled the deployment of satellite pairs for the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System in MEO and communications satellites in GSO. This eliminates the need for the spacecraft to include a liquid apogee engine or an apogee kick motor.[3]

Yuanzheng has a thrust of 6.5 kN (1,500 lbf) with a specific impulse of 315.5 seconds. It uses the storable hypergolic propellants unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and dinitrogen tetroxide (N
2
O
4
), and can perform at least two burns within its rated life of 6.5 hours, sufficient to reach the transfer orbit apogee, and perform the circularization burn from there.[4]

Operational variants are designated YZ-1 for Long March 3B and 3C, YZ-1A for Long March 7, YZ-1S for Long March 2C, YZ-2 for Long March 5, and YZ-3 for Long March 2D.

History[edit]

Yuanzheng was presented in a 2013 paper[3] and performed its first mission on 30 May 2015. The debut flight of the Long March 7 in 2016 included an improved version called Yuanzheng-1A that can flexibly deploy multiple payloads into various target orbits.[5] Further variants were later deployed for Long March 5 (YZ-2) in 2016, Long March 2C (YZ-1S) and Long March 2D (YZ-3) in 2018.

Date (UTC) Carrier Rocket Stage Model Launch site Mission Result
01 2015-03-30
13:52
Long March 3C YZ-1 Xichang BDS I1-S Success
02 2015-07-25
12:29
Long March 3B YZ-1 Xichang BDS M1-S / BDS M2-S Success
03 2016-02-01
07:29
Long March 3C YZ-1 Xichang BDS M3-S Success
04 2016-06-25
12:00
Long March 7 YZ-1A Wenchang Inaugural Mission Success
05 2016-11-3
12:43
Long March 5 YZ-2 Wenchang Inaugural Mission Success
06 2017-11-5
11:45
Long March 3B YZ-1 Xichang BDS-3 M1
BDS-3 M2
Success
07 2018-01-11
23:18
Long March 3B YZ-1 Xichang BDS-3 M7
BDS-3 M8
Success
08 2018-02-12
05:03
Long March 3B YZ-1 Xichang BDS-3 M3
BDS-3 M4
Success
09 2018-03-29
17:56
Long March 3B YZ-1 Xichang BDS-3 M9
BDS-3 M10
Success
10 2018-07-29
01:48
Long March 3B YZ-1 Xichang BDS-3 M5
BDS-3 M6
Success
11 2018-08-24
23:52
Long March 3B YZ-1 Xichang BDS-3 M11
BDS-3 M12
Success
12 2018-09-19
14:07
Long March 3B YZ-1 Xichang BDS-3 M13
BDS-3 M14
Success
13 2018-10-09
02:43
Long March 2C YZ-1S Jiuquan Yaogan 32A, 32B Success
14 2018-10-15
04:23
Long March 3B YZ-1 Xichang BDS-3 M15
BDS-3 M16
Success
15 2018-11-18
18:00
Long March 3B YZ-1 Xichang BDS-3 M17
BDS-3 M18
Success
16 2018-12-29
08:00
Long March 2D YZ-3 Jiuquan Yunhai-2 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06
Hongyan-1
Success

Versions[edit]

Currently, there is known to be five versions:

  • Yuanzheng-1 (AKA YZ-1) (Chinese: 远征一号; pinyin: Yuǎn Zhēng Yī Hào; literally: 'Expedition One'): Initial version used with the Long March 3. It could perform missions of 6.5 hours, make two ignitions, perform one spacecraft deployment operation.[6][7]
  • Yuanzheng-1A (AKA YZ-1A) (Chinese: 远征一号甲; pinyin: Yuǎn Zhēng Yī Hào Jiǎ; literally: 'Expedition One A'): Improved version used with the Long March 7. Improved version with mission life extended to 48hs, capability to perform at least 9 ignitions and ability to do 7 different separation events. It also includes improved thermal control system, guidance algorithms and orbit planning for multiple payload deployment missions. It will be used as the base system for future deep space propulsion stages, space tugs and orbital servicing and debris removal spacecraft.[6][8]
  • Yuanzheng-1S (AKA YZ-1S) (Chinese: 远征一号商业型; pinyin: Yuǎn Zhēng Yī Hào Shāng Yè Xíng; literally: 'Expedition One Commercial Version'): Improved version used with the Long March 2C.
  • Yuanzheng-2 (AKA YZ-2) (Chinese: 远征二号; pinyin: Yuǎn Zhēng Èr Hào; literally: 'Expedition Two'): New version used with the 5.2 m (17 ft) Long March 5 upper stage.[9]
  • Yuanzheng-3 (AKA YZ-3) (Chinese: 远征三号; pinyin: Yuǎn Zhēng Sān Hào; literally: 'Expedition Three'): New version used with the Long March 2D.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "New Launch". www.casc11.com (in Chinese). Xi'an Aerospace Propulsion Institute. 2015-07-26. Retrieved 2015-08-02.
  2. ^ a b Norbert Bgügge. "Photo Gallery CZ-3CE". B14643.DE. Retrieved 2015-07-25.
  3. ^ a b Kun, Ma; Wu, Guo; Song, Guan; Zhibin, Ma; Tongyu, Li (2013). "上面级发展现状及趋势分析" [Development Status and Trend Analysis of Upper Stages]. MISSILES AND SPACE VEHICLES (in Chinese). No.6 2013 (329): 24–28. doi:10.7654/j.issn.1004-7182.20130606.
  4. ^ Norbert Bgügge. "YZ-1 space tug". B14643.DE. Retrieved 2015-07-25.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ "长征七号首飞成功 空间实验室任务大幕拉开" [Successful maiden flight of the Long March 7 mission Damulakai]. www.spacechina.com (in Chinese). 2016-06-25. Archived from the original on 28 June 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-25.
  6. ^ a b "升级版的中国"太空摆渡车"将带来什么?" [What will enable the upgraded space bus?]. www.chinanews.com (in Chinese). 2016-06-25. Retrieved 2016-06-27.
  7. ^ "远征一号上面级" [Yuanzheng-1 Upper Stage]. www.chinaspaceflight.com (in Chinese). 2016-06-07. Retrieved 2016-06-30.
  8. ^ "远征一号甲上面级(YZ-1A)" [Yuanzheng-1A Upper Stage (YZ-1)]. www.chinaspaceflight.com (in Chinese). 2016-06-26. Retrieved 2016-06-30.
  9. ^ "远征二号上面级:今年发射的"长征五号"火箭将启用新研制上面级"远征二号"" [Yuanzheng-2 upper stage: this year's launch of the Long March 5 rocket upper stage will enable the development of new "Yuanzheng-2"]. www.chinaspaceflight.com (in Chinese). 2016-03-30. Retrieved 2016-06-30.