Yuki men at the Nome Cult Farm, ca. 1858
|2010: 569 alone and in combination|
|Regions with significant populations|
|United States ( California)|
|English, formerly Yuki language|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Yuki (also known as Yukiah) are an indigenous people of California, whose traditional territory is around Round Valley, Mendocino County. Today they are enrolled members of the Round Valley Indian Tribes of the Round Valley Reservation.
As European-American settlers began to flock to Northern California in the early 1850s, they drove the Yuki from their lands. The Indians suffered deaths in raids by the local ranchers and the authorities, and captives were taken into slavery.
In 1856, the US government established the Indian reservation of Nome Cult Farm (later to become Round Valley Indian Reservation) at Round Valley. It forced thousands of Yuki and other local tribes on to these lands, often without sufficient support for the transition. These events and tensions led to the Mendocino War (1859), where US forces killed hundreds of Yuki and took others by force to Nome Cult Farm.
The Yuki language is no longer spoken. It is related to the Wappo language, and both are Penutian languages. The Yuki people had a quaternary (4-based) counting system, based on counting the spaces between the fingers, rather than the fingers themselves.
Scholarly estimates have varied substantially for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California, as historians and anthropologists have tried to evaluate early documentation. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the 1770 population of the Yuki proper, Huchnom, and Coast Yuki as 2,000, 500, and 500, respectively, or 3,000 in all. Sherburne F. Cook initially raised this total slightly to 3,500. Subsequently, he proposed a higher estimate of 9,730 Yuki.
In the 2010 census, 569 people claimed Yuki ancestry. 255 of them were full-blooded.
- "2010 Census CPH-T-6. American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes in the United States and Puerto Rico: 2010" (PDF). www.census.gov. Retrieved 2015.
- "Yuki." Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "California Indians and Their Reservations: Yuki Indians." San Diego State University Library and Information. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- Harrison, p.173
- Kroeber, p.883
- Cook, 1976 p.172
- Cook, 1956 pp.106, 108
- Cook, Sherburne F. 1956. "The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California", Anthropological Records, 16:81-130. University of California, Berkeley.
- Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. University of California Press, Berkeley.
- Harrison, K. David 2007. When Languages Die. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D.C.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yuki.|
- Four Directions Institute
- Round Valley history
- "Central California culture", Four Directions Institute