Yukio Ishizuka

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Yukio Ishizuka
Born (1938-06-14) June 14, 1938 (age 80)
Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan
Alma mater Keio Medical School, Residency Harvard Medical School Massachusetts Mental Health Center
Occupation Psychiatrist
Known for New Paradigm of Health, Lifetrack Therapy, The Three Spheres (Personality Model), Hierarchy of Defense, Five Alternatives at the Threshold of Stress, Four Stages of Human Personality Transformation
Notable work Self Actualization, Kodansha, Tokyo.
Spouse(s) Colette Ducassé Ishizuka
Awards Keio International Medical Student Association Dr. Yukio Ishizuka founded received the coveted Health Culture Award at the Japanese Imperial Palace

Yukio Ishizuka (born June 14, 1938, in Hakodate, Japan) is a psychiatrist who grew up in Japan and graduated from Keio Medical School.[1] He completed his internship at Jefferson Medical College Hospital in Philadelphia and his residency in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School's Massachusetts Mental Health Center[2] in 1969. Ishizuka was a clinical assistant Professor of Psychiatry at NYU Medical Center.[1] In 2007, the Japanese International Medical Student Association Ishizuka founded as a medical student received the coveted Health Culture Award at the Japanese Imperial Palace.[3] He is the author of the Japanese book, Self-Actualization[4] and has been a full-time practicing psychiatrist in New York since 1976.

In 1969, when Ishizuka completed his residency in Boston, psychoanalysis was at its zenith in American psychiatry, with many professors having undergone psychoanalytical training. Harvard Professor David Riesman encouraged Ishizuka to undergo further training in psychoanalysis under Erich Fromm.[5] Impressed by Fromm’s initial definition of health,[6] but questioning that psycho-analytic psychology with its emphasis on one’s past was clinically effective, Ishizuka hesitated. Not convinced that undergoing seven years of psychoanalysis could help him better understand health or happiness,[7] he left psychiatry.[5] His French wife, Colette, who later inspired much of his work on intimacy and the role a spouse or comparable intimate partner plays in it,[8] supported his decision to follow his intuition. In 1969 he joined McKinsey and Company, an international consulting firm, as an associate in Paris. In 1972, he left consulting to become President and Co-founder of a subsidiary of Mitsubishi International Corp for mergers and acquisitions. During his fourth year in M&A, a business colleague sought his advice on how to overcome depression. Dr. Ishizuka’s rewarding experience helping his friend led him to return to the field of psychiatry in 1976. Ishizuka returned to medicine with a desire to understand what it meant to be well.

Influences[edit]

Ishizuka draws from the principles of both Zen Buddhism and quantum mechanics in his method of treatment. While the latter emphasizes the interconnectedness of the entire universe, the former believes that a solution to human suffering lies in being one with the universe. The process becoming one with the universe begins with being better related to, and experiencing a higher level of intimacy with, one's partner or wife and requires the latter's active participation.»[9][10] and training in the West[11] helped him develop a model of health across different cultures.[12][13][14][15][16]

Ishizuka, who graduated from Keio Medical School in Tokyo,[1] and completed his residency in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School's Massachusetts Mental Health Center in 1969,[2] has been a full-time practicing psychiatrist in New York since 1976. He is the author of the Japanese book, Self-Actualization.[4]

Since 1976, Ishizuka’s main contribution has been the development of a new paradigm of health including:

  • a full personality model[4][17][18][19][20][21][22] that withstands the demanding criteria for mental health models set forth by Marie Jahoda[23]
  • a hierarchy of defense which is mobilized when one's past experience and current capability to cope are exceeded by life challenges [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]
  • a clinical approach that focuses on ‘closeness’ with a spouse or comparable partner for fundamental personality change [21][31][32][33][34][35]
  • the use of crisis as an opportunity to transform self, intimacy and achievement far beyond a previous best level of experience [4][31][36]
  • a method of therapy[37] Lifetrack, that defines,[38] measures[39][40][41][42] and enhances well-being as the central objective[21][38][43][44][45]
  • clinical insights [46] on self-actualization and fear,[47] breakthrough intimacy,[32][48][49] and stages of personality transformation under crisis[50]

Positive mental health[edit]

In 1976, while many psychiatrists continued to be preoccupied with the definition of psychological illnesses (Diagnostic Statistical Manuals),[51] Ishizuka turned to a monograph by M. Jahoda published in 1958 entitled « Current Concepts of Positive Mental Health.» [20][52][53] Jahoda offered six conditions for developing and evaluating future models of Positive Mental Health.[54] In doing so, she pointed out the limits of the ‘disease’ model and set guidelines to define models of health applicable both in wellness and disease.[55] Concluding that the ‘medical’ or ‘disease model’ used in psychiatry was not fit to understand healthy human beings or to assist them in ‘normal’ or optimal functioning, Ishizuka began to build such a model. His exposure to the East,[56][57] and training in the West[58] helped him develop a model of health across different cultures.[12][13][14][15] Focusing almost entirely on the experience of his diverse patients, he challenged what he knew to define a model of health and personality applicable both in extreme distress and optimal health.

The three spheres: basic psychological needs and self-actualization[edit]

In 1975, Dr. Ishizuka hypothesized that three basic psychological needs or spheres determine psychological health and self-actualization across cultures:[16] the search for self, the need for intimacy, and the quest for achievement. The three spheres, also referred to as the "triad of psychological adjustment"[59] or "tripod of happiness"[60] are subjective, dynamic, and broad enough to encompass all psychological events.[61] These three interconnected spheres characterize a person’s personality. A prolonged imbalance or a crisis in any one of these three key interconnected spheres of mental health influences the others and can trigger defensive symptoms such as anxiety, anger, physical symptoms, depression or, in some cases, psychosis.[62]

Lifetrack Therapy: a personality model and therapy based on health[edit]

To better understand and track psychological well-being, Ishizuka broke down the self, intimacy and achievement spheres into three dimensions with nine elements each. Using simple definitions and a subjective 10 point rating scale, he encouraged patients to take five to ten minutes daily to track the three spheres, as well as positive peaks of well-being (peace, friendliness, physical-health, happiness, mastery), negative peaks (anxiety, anger, physical symptoms, depression, psychosis), physical health, and proper use of food, beverage, or other substances.[63] This tripod model of mental health is the basis for Lifetrack Therapy, a clinical approach drawing on the experience and insights accumulated by the daily self-rating data of more than 1,200 patients throughout their treatment on 41 parameters of mental health through periods of crisis to optimal health.[64] The central goal for both the ‘distressed” and the “well” in Lifetrack Therapy is the same: health and well-being in the primary three spheres of life.[65] Therapy sessions are focused on using crisis as an opportunity to transform the three spheres far beyond a previous best level of experience.

Personal life[edit]

Dr. Yukio Ishizuka has been happily married since 1966 to Colette Ducassé Ishizuka. He has three children, lives in New York, and is a member of Salmagundi Club of N.Y. as a resident artist since 1974.

Publications[edit]

Ishizuka, Yukio (1981). Self Actualization, Kodansha, Tokyo. ISBN 4-06-145662-8 C0211 P600E(4)

Ishizuka, Yukio (2004). Breakthrough Intimacy – Sad to Happy through Closeness, Lifetrack, ISBN 0-9726551-1-5

Ishizuka, Yukio. (2006). Breakthrough Intimacy – Conquering Depression, Lifetrack, ISBN 0-9726551-3-1

Further reading[edit]

Erich Fromm, The Art of Loving, Bantom Books, 1963.

Erich Fromm, D.T. Suzuki, Richard De Martino, Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis, Harper Collins, 1970.

Homes TH, Rahe RH. The social readjustment rating scale. J Psychosom Res 2 : 213, 1967.

Ishizuka, Yukio (1988). ‘Lifetrack Therapy,’ Psychiatric Journal University Ottawa, Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 197–207.

Ishizuka, Y., « Divorce : Can and Should It Be Prevented ? » Family Therapy, Vol. IX, Number 1, 1982, 69-90.

Ishizuka, Y., (1981). Self Actualization, Kodansha, Tokyo. ISBN 4-06-145662-8 C0211 P600E(4)

Ishizuka, Y., « Intimacy and Stress : Effective Therapeutic Intervention, » Psychiatric Ann. 1981, 11(7), 259-265.

Ishizuka, Y., « Conjoint Therapy for Marital Problems, Psychiatric Ann. 9 : 6, June 1979.

Ishizuka, Y., « Causes of Anxiety and Depression in Marriage, » Psychiatric Ann. 9 :6, June 1979 : 302-309.

Ishizuka, N., “The Psychological Make or Buy Decision: Psychology and Transaction Cost Economics,” paper presented at the Academy of Management, Boston, August 1997.

Ishizuka, N., “Lifetrack Assumptions about Conflict Resolution and Third Party Intervention: A Case Study of Kissinger in the Middle East,” Working Paper, Harvard Law Program on Negotiation, July 1995

Jahoda, M. (1958), Current Concept of Positive Mental Health, Basic Books.

Jahoda, M. Toward a social psychology of mental health, In : Symposium on the Healthy Personality. Senn MJE, (ed), New York : Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, pp. 221, 219, 220, 1953.

Maslow AH. Self-Actualizing People. A study of psychological health. Personality Symposia 1 : 16, 1950.

Maslow AH. Motivation and Personality. Harper and Row, 1954.

Menninger KA. What is a healthy mind ?. In : The Healthy-Minded Child. Crawford NA, Menninger KA (eds.), NY : Coward-McCann, pp 3–17, 1930

Menninger, W.C (1947), The Role of psychiatry in the world today, Am J Psychiatry,104: 155-163

Riesman D. Glazer N, Denny R., The Lonely Crowd, Yale Univ Press, 1950.

Shiroyama, S., The Conditions for Survival. Kodansha: Tokyo (Japan), 1991.

Presentations of Lifetrack at APA and World Congresses[edit]

Ishizuka, Y., "Breakthrough Intimacy - Treating Personality" APA (American Psychiatric Association) Annual Meeting San Diego, May 2007.

Ishizuka, Y., "Breakthrough Intimacy - Transforming Borderline Personality" Xth ISSPD (International Society for Study of Personality Disorders) Congress, Hague, September 2007

Ishizuka, Y., "Lifetrack Therapy - Treating Personality with Breakthrough Intimacy" Presentation to Private Practice Committee Meeting, American Psychiatric Association, Westchester Division, 2006

Ishizuka, Y., five 2-hour workshops presented at IV World Congress for Psychotherapy Buenos Aires, 2005 : (1) Breakthrough Intimacy – Treating Personality, (2) How to Cure Depression without Drugs, (3) Borderline Personality Disorder can be cured in 6 Months, (4) Why Couple therapy is the Gold mine of Therapeutic Productivity, (5) Psychotherapy with Single Diagnosis, Five Symptoms, and the Same Treatment.

Ishizuka, Y., and Ishizuka N. « ‘Fear of Closeness’ Underlies Interpersonal as well as International Conflicts, » Proceedings of World Congress of Psychiatry, Spain, 1996.

Ishizuka, Y., « Couple Therapy as the Standard Mode of Intervention, » Proceedings of the World Congress of Psychiatry, Spain, 1996.

Ishizuka, Y., « Patients’ Self-rating for ‘Incremental Thinking, » Proceedings of the World Congress of Psychiatry, Spain, 1996.

Ishizuka, Y., « Personality Transformation is Therapy Objective, » Proceedings of the World Congress of Psychiatry, Spain, 1996.

Ishizuka, Y., « Overcoming Defense Against Closeness, » Proceedings of the World Congress of Psychiatry, Greece, 1989.

Ishizuka, Y., « Lifetrack Therapy : A New Approach, » Proceedings of World Congress of Psychiatry, Greece, 1989.

Ishizuka, Y., « Three Dimensions of Intimacy, » Proceedings of the World Congress of Psychiatry, Vienna, 1984.

Ishizuka, Y., « Hierarchy and Matrix of Defense, » Proceedings of the 10th World Congress (1983) of Social Psychiatry, Intergroup, 1984.

Ishizuka, Y., « Daily Subjective Rating of Adjustment by Patients, » Proceedings of the 10th World Congress (1983) of Social Psychiatry, Intergroup, 1984.

Ishizuka, Y., « Psycho-Physiology and Positive Mental Health, » Proceedings of the 10th World Congress (1983) of Social Psychiatry, Intergroup, 1984.

Ishizuka, Y., « Reinventing the Wheel of Therapeutic Process, » Proceedings of the 8th World Congress of Social Psychiatry (1981), Plenum, 1984.

Ishizuka, Y., « Towards Integrative Concept of Therapeutic Objectives, » Proceedings of the 8th World Congress (1981) of Social Psychiatry, Plenum, 1984.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Berger, M., « A Japanese Psychiatrist’s Answer to Executive Stress, » International Management, McGraw-Hill, March 1987.
  2. ^ a b Donna Greene, « U.S. and Japan : A Marriage Born of Need », The New York Times, Sunday March 29, 1992.
  3. ^ Ken, Marc, Nathalie, Ishizuka, The Rye Chronicle, Vol 103, No. 48, Friday November 30, 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d Ishizuka, Yukio (1981). Self Actualization, Kodansha, Tokyo. ISBN 4-06-145662-8 C0211 P600E(4)
  5. ^ a b Takeda, Katsuhiko (November 1985). ‘Scholars with two homelands,’ Chishiki (Knowledge) Magazine, 316-324.
  6. ^ Hiranmay Karlekar, The Pioneer, www.dailypioneer.com, 6/4/06, writes about Yukio Ishizuka and Erich Fromm.
  7. ^ Michael Berger, "A Japanese psychiatrist's answer to executive stress," International Management, March 1987, 50: "[Ishizuka] believes that traditional Freudian approaches to treating executive stress are worse than ineffective; they may intensify the problem. "Looking at stress as though it is a mental disease is no way to help people," he says, "so I began to analyse and quantify my case history data."
  8. ^ "About Dr. Ishizuka". Lifetrack. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference about Ishizuka was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Dr. Yukio Ishizuka has no religious affiliation, he is agnostic. He is open to the idea of God, without wishing to name God nor a religion. He is not a disciple of Zen Buddhism, but mentions two meetings, one briefly with Gyokusen Hosaka, head of Zen University Komazawa University who wanted Ishizuka to become a practitioner (yet Ishizuka was attracted to studies in the West), and with Horyu Ishiguro, who had collaborated with the Department of Psychiatry of Tokyo University on the study of brain waves for the first time. Ishizuka spent two weeks one on one with Horyu Ishiguro during his medical training at Keio Medical School. Ishizuka quotes H. Ishiguro's The Scientific Truth of Zen in his article on Intimacy and Stress: Effective Therapeutic Intervention.
  11. ^ Dr. Ishizuka did his residency in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School's Massachusetts Mental Health Center. Quoted in his references in Lifetrack Therapy are Abraham Maslow, Karl Menninger, Marie Jahoda, David Riesman amongst others.
  12. ^ a b Shiroyama, S., The Conditions for Survival. Kodansha: Tokyo (Japan), 1991. The book consists of in-depth interviews with eleven individuals from diverse fields. Dr. Ishizuka was interviewed along with the economist Milton Friedman, Andrew Night, editor-in-chief of The Economist, and golfer Jack Nicolas.
  13. ^ a b Hiranmay Karlekar, The Pioneer (India), www.dailypioneer.com, 6/4/06, « Dr. Yukio Ishizuka, a leading New York psychiatrist of Japanese origin...»
  14. ^ a b French Prime Time News: Interview on the Japanese by Ms. Ockrent (Antenne 2).
  15. ^ a b Trade War: Interviewed as an Expert (NBC program): April 12, 1987.
  16. ^ a b Ishizuka, Y., « Causes of Anxiety and Depression in Marriage, » Psychiatric Ann. 9 :6, June 1979 : (p.305)« Dr. Ishizuka has worked as a management consultant with Arthur D. Little, Inc., and McKinsey & Co. In Europe, North America, and Japan, treating effects of stress in executives and professional men and women in both their occupations and their family lives. »
  17. ^ Hiranmay Karlekar, The Pioneer, www.dailypioneer.com, 6/4/06: « For personality, as Dr. Yukio Ishizuka, a leading New York psychiatrist of Japanese origin, points, comprises the "way one thinks, feels and acts in three principles spheres of life—self, intimacy, and achievement. »
  18. ^ Peter Costa, Gannett Westchester Newspapers, Health/Science C Section, Wed, September 11, 1985: "Ishizuka said he believes there are three 'spheres' that control and affect our mental health: self, intimacy and achievement.
  19. ^ Samuels, R. Ph.D., "Computer Software Review," Psychotherapy in Private Practice, Spring 1986: 87-88: "As the result of many years of research, Dr. Ishizuka has developed a theory which he refers to as the "triad of psychological adjustment."
  20. ^ a b Ishizuka, Yukio (1988). ‘Lifetrack Therapy,’ Psychiatric Journal University Ottawa, Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 197-207.
  21. ^ a b c Ishizuka, Y., « Intimacy and Stress : Effective Therapeutic Intervention, » Psychiatric Ann. 1981, 11(7), 259-265.
  22. ^ Ishizuka, Y., « Divorce : Can and Should It Be Prevented ? » Family Therapy, Vol. IX, Number 1, 1982, 69-90.
  23. ^ Ishizuka, Yukio (1988). ‘Lifetrack Therapy,’ Psychiatric Journal University Ottawa, Vol. 13 No. 4 : 205. « While there have been various contributions in the literature on the concept of Positive Mental Health and Wellness, as described in the introductory portion of this paper, this paper presents a direct and systematic application of this concept in therapy in a way that satisfies most, or all, of the 6 conditions of Positive Mental Health suggested by Jahoda in 1958. »
  24. ^ Ishizuka, Y., « Hierarchy and Matrix of Defense, » Proceedings of the 10th World Congress (1983) of Social Psychiatry, Intergroup, 1984.
  25. ^ Hiranmay Karlekar, The Pioneer, ww.dailypioneer.com, 6/4/06, « Identifying five symptoms of stress-anxiety, anger, psychosomatic disorders, depression and psychosis, which he regards as consequences of one's failure to cope with life and its challenges, he seeks to find a permanent solution by reinforcing the patient's personality to make him or her better able to cope and identifying happiness as the ultimate goal. »
  26. ^ "Stress is Your Friend," Asahi Shinbun International, August 27, 1992.
  27. ^ "Stress," Live Magazine, Volume 5, 1996.
  28. ^ "Japanese Executives Under Stress," Yomiuri Shinbun, January 12, 1986.
  29. ^ "International Front, Japanese Middle Management under Stress," Nippon Keizai Shinbun, 1985.
  30. ^ Yogata, M., "Personal Setback and Growth," Marubeni, December 1985.
  31. ^ a b c Ishizuka, Y., « Divorce—can and should it be prevented ? » Family Therapy, Volume IX, Number 1, 1982 : 69-90.
  32. ^ a b Ishizuka, Y., « Conjoint Therapy for Marital Problems, Psychiatric Ann. 9 : 6, June 1979.
  33. ^ Ishizuka, Y., « Causes of Anxiety and Depression in Marriage, » Psychiatric Ann. 9 :6, June 1979 : 302-309.
  34. ^ "Do You Have Someone You Can Count On?" Gennai, April 1992.
  35. ^ Barbara Woller, "When Work is Your World," Gannett Westchester Newspapers, C section, Tuesday, February 2, 1988: "The real disease, [Ishizuka] says, is the inability to get close to yourself and others."
  36. ^ "Stress," Nikkei Business, September 7, 1992.
  37. ^ Ishizuka, Yukio (1981). Self Actualization, Kodansha, Tokyo. ISBN 4-06-145662-8 C0211 P600E(4).
  38. ^ a b Ishizuka, Yukio (1988). ‘Lifetrack Therapy,’ Psychiatric Journal University Ottawa, Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 197-207.
  39. ^ Richard Samuels, "Computer Software Review," Psychotherapy in Private Practice, Bol 4(1), Spring 1986: "The LIFE TRACK program was developed by Yukio Ishizuka, MD. This unique program allows the therapist to graphically display on either a color or monochrome monitor, the changing self reported condition of a patient on more than 40 parameters which are derived from three "interconnected life spheres" of self,intimacy and achievement."
  40. ^ Casey, E., "A New Computer Tool," Wall Street Micro News, October 1985.
  41. ^ Kishi, N., "A Man Who Dares: A Psychiatrist who Quantifies the Human Mind," Bunshu Weekly, November 4, 1993.
  42. ^ Wadier, M., "Psychiatric Software Moves Ahead," American Business, Winter 1986.
  43. ^ Hiranmay Karlekar, The Pioneer, www.dailypioneer.com, 6/4/06, « He (Ishizuka) seeks to find a permanent solution by reinforcing the patient's personality to make him or her better able to cope and identifying [happiness] as the ultimate goal. »
  44. ^ Michael Berger, "A Japanese psychiatrist's answer to executive stress," International Management, March 1987: 50: "..reduce your anxiety and stress levels, since you become fully aware of all the factors involved in your sense of well-being or unhappiness."
  45. ^ Peter Costa, "Psychiatrist uses computer as tool to fight depression," Gannett Westchester Newspapers, Health/Science, C Section, Wednesday, September 11, 1985: "Dr. Yukio Ishizuka of Rye believes he can help an executive stabilize his world and thus improve his mental well-being."
  46. ^ Ishizuka, Y., (2007), Lifetrack Therapy, Summary from an APA presentation Annual Meeting, San Diego, May 2007
  47. ^ Ishizuka, Y., (1981). Self Actualization, Kodansha, Tokyo. ISBN 4-06-145662-8 C0211 P600E(4)
  48. ^ Ishizuka, Y., « Causes of Anxiety and Depression in Marriage, » Psychiatric Ann. 9 :6, June 1979.
  49. ^ Ishizuka, Y., « Intimacy and Stress : Effective Therapeutic Intervention, » Psychiatric Ann. 1981, 11(7), 259-265
  50. ^ Ishizuka, Y., "Breakthrough Intimacy - Treating Personality" APA (American Psychiatric Association) Annual Meeting San Diego, May 2007.
  51. ^ Ishizuka, Yukio (1988). ‘Lifetrack Therapy,’ Psychiatric Journal University Ottawa, Vol. 13 No. 4 : 199. « Twenty years later, H. R. Spiro, in 1980, in his review of the evolution of the concept of Positive Mental Health, observed that regrettably little investigations followed Jahoda’s work during the ensuing decades, citing only several related contributions : »
  52. ^ For more see, Jahoda, M. (1958), Current Concept of Positive Mental Health, Basic Books.
  53. ^ For more see, Jahoda, M. (1953), Toward a social psychology of mental health, In : Symposioum on the Healthy Personality. Senn MJE, (ed), New York : Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, pp 211, 219, 220.
  54. ^ Ishizuka, Yukio (1988). ‘Lifetrack Therapy,’ Psychiatric Journal University Ottawa, Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 199.
  55. ^ Other visionaries such as A. Gregg, and W. Menninger, and more recently M. Seligman has also suggested the limits to the ‘disease’ model. For more on vision see Menninger, W.C (1947), The Role of psychiatry in the world today, Am J Psychiatry,104: 155-163.
  56. ^ Hiranmay Karlekar, The Pioneer, 6/4/06, www.dailypioneer.com; « He draws from the principles of both Zen Buddhism and modern post-particle physics in his method of treatment. While the latter emphasises the interconnectedness of the entire universe, the former believes that a solution to human suffering lies in being one with the universe. The process becoming one with the universe begins with being better related to, and experiencing a higher level of intimacy with, one's partner or wife and requires the latter's active participation.»
  57. ^ Dr. Yukio Ishizuka has no religious affiliation, he is agnostic. As far as the influence of Zen Buddhism, he mentions two meetings, one briefly with Gyokusen Hosaka, head of Zen University Komazawa University who wanted Ishizuka to become a practitioner (yet Ishizuka was attracted to studies in the West), and with Horyu Ishiguro, who had collaborated with the Department of Psychiatry of Tokyo University on the study of brain waves for the first time. Ishizuka spent two weeks one on one with Horyu Ishiguro during his medical training at Keio Medical School. Ishizuka quotes H. Ishiguro's The Scientific Truth of Zen in his article on Intimacy and Stress: Effective Therapeutic Intervention.
  58. ^ Dr. Ishizuka did his residency in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School's Massachusetts Mental Health Center. Quoted in his references in Lifetrack Therapy are Abraham Maslow, Karl Menninger, Marie Jahoda, David Riesman amongst others.
  59. ^ Samuels, R. Ph.D., "Computer Software Review," Psychotherapy in Private Practice, Spring 1986: 87.
  60. ^ Peter Costa, Gannett Westchester Newspapers, Health/Science C Section, Wed, September 11, 1985
  61. ^ Ishizuka, Y., « Causes of Anxiety and Depression in Marriage, » Psychiatric Ann. 9 :6, June 1979 : p. 303 « These three spheres can be visualized as converging circles, each representing a distinct area of importance but also interacting with the others (Figure 1). Sphere 1 depicts life with one’s self – being in touch with one’s feelings and at peace with one’s self. Sphere 2 covers life with important others – the intimate relationships of marriage that we are discussing here, but also with one’s parents, children, and close friends. The third sphere concerns life in the world – one’s work, career, etc. »
  62. ^ Peter Costa, "Psychiatrist uses computer as tool to fight depression," Gannett Westchester Newspapers, Health/Science C Section, Wednesday, September 11, 1985: "In his so-called "tripod of happiness" model, the three spheres converge and intersect. When they are of approximately equal size, most people are happy; when one leg of this life tripod dominates, the individual can suffer imbalance and (in crisis) may topple into depression or anxiety or develop other defensive reactions like physical symptoms, he said."
  63. ^ Costa, P., « Psychiatrist uses computer as tool to fight depression, » Gannett Westchester Newspapers, September 11, 1985, : « In the Lifetrack program, people display on a computer screen that represent 41 categories or emotional conditions, which they monitor each day. » (C1)
  64. ^ Ishizuka, Y., (2007), Lifetrack Therapy, Summary from an APA presentation Annual Meeting, San Diego, May 2007
  65. ^ Ishizuka, Y., « Personality Transformation is Therapy Objective, » Proceedings of the World Congress of Psychiatry, Spain, 1996.

External links[edit]