Yukio Mishima

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Yukio Mishima
三島由紀夫
Yukio Mishima cropped.jpg
Mishima in 1956
Born
Kimitake Hiraoka

(1925-01-14)January 14, 1925
Nagasumi-cho 2-chome, Yotsuya-ku, Tokyo City, Tokyo Prefecture, Empire of Japan
(Current: Yotsuya 4-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan)
DiedNovember 25, 1970(1970-11-25) (aged 45)
JGSDF Camp Ichigaya, Ministry of Defense
Ichigaya-honmuracho, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan
Cause of deathSuicide by seppuku
Resting placeTama Cemetery, Tokyo
Alma materFaculty of Law, University of Tokyo
Occupation
  • Novelist
  • playwright
  • poet
  • short-story writer
  • essayist
  • critic
Japanese name
Kanji三島 由紀夫
Hiraganaみしま ゆきお
Katakanaミシマ ユキオ
Japanese name
Kanji平岡 公威
Hiraganaひらおか きみたけ
Katakanaヒラオカ キミタケ
Signature
Yukio Mishima signature.png

Yukio Mishima[a] (三島 由紀夫, Mishima Yukio, January 14, 1925 – November 25, 1970), real name Kimitake Hiraoka (平岡 公威, Hiraoka Kimitake) was a Japanese author, poet, playwright, actor, model, film director, imperialist, Shintoist, nationalist, and founder of the Tatenokai (楯の会, "Shield Society"). Mishima is considered one of the most important Japanese authors of the 20th century. He was considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1968, but the award went to his countryman and benefactor Yasunari Kawabata.[5] His works include the novels Confessions of a Mask (仮面の告白, Kamen no kokuhaku) and The Temple of the Golden Pavilion (金閣寺, Kinkakuji) as well as the autobiographical essay "Sun and Steel" (太陽と鉄, Taiyo to tetsu). Mishima's work is characterized by "its luxurious vocabulary and decadent metaphors, its fusion of traditional Japanese and modern Western literary styles, and its obsessive assertions of the unity of beauty, eroticism and death."[6]

Mishima's political activities were controversial, and he remains a controversial figure in modern Japan.[7][8][9][10] Ideologically, Mishima was a right-winger who praised the traditional culture and spirit of Japan. He opposed Japan's postwar democracy, globalism, and communism, worrying that by embracing these ideas the Japanese people would lose their "national essence" (kokutai) and their distinctive cultural heritage (Shinto and Yamato-damashii) to become a "rootless" people.[11][12][13][14] Mishima formed the Tatenokai, an unarmed civilian militia, for the avowed purpose of restoring sacredness and dignity to the Japanese Emperor.[12][13][14] On November 25, 1970, Mishima and four members of his militia entered a military base in central Tokyo, took the commandant hostage, and attempted to inspire the Japan Self-Defense Forces to rise up and overthrow Japan's 1947 Constitution, which he called "a constitution of defeat."[14][11] When this was unsuccessful, Mishima committed seppuku.

Life and work[edit]

Early life[edit]

Mishima in his childhood (April 1931, at the age of 6)

Kimitake Hiraoka (平岡公威, Hiraoka Kimitake), who was later known as Yukio Mishima (三島由紀夫, Mishima Yukio), was born in the Nagasumi-cho, Yotsuya-ku of Tokyo City (now part of Yotsuya, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo). His father was Azusa Hiraoka (平岡梓), a government official, and his mother, Shizue (倭文重), was the daughter of the 5th principal of the Kaisei Academy. Shizue's father, Kenzō Hashi (橋健三), was a scholar of the Chinese classics, and the Hashi family had served the Maeda clan for generations in Kaga Domain. Mishima's paternal grandparents were Sadatarō Hiraoka (平岡定太郎) and Natsuko (なつ) (family register name: Natsu). Mishima's real name Kimitake (公威) (also read Kōi as on-yomi (音読み, "Chinese reading of kanji") style) was named after Furuichi Kōi (古市公威) who was a benefactor of Sadatarō.[15] He had a younger sister, Mitsuko (美津子), who died of typhus in 1945 at the age of 17, and a younger brother, Chiyuki (千之).[16][17]

Mishima's early childhood was dominated by the presence of his grandmother, Natsuko (Natsu), who took the boy, separating him from his immediate family for several years.[18] Natsuko was the granddaughter of Matsudaira Yoritaka (松平頼位), the daimyō of Shishido which was a branch domain of Mito Domain in Hitachi Province.[b] Also, Natsuko had been raised in the household of Prince Arisugawa Taruhito; she maintained considerable aristocratic pretensions even after marrying Sadatarō Hiraoka (Mishima's grandfather), a bureaucrat who had made his fortune in the newly opened colonial frontier in the north, and who eventually became Governor-General of Karafuto Prefecture on Sakhalin Island.[20] Through his grandmother, Mishima was a direct descendant of Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康).[21][22] Natsuko was prone to violence and morbid outbursts, which are occasionally alluded to in Mishima's works.[23] It is to Natsuko whom some biographers have traced Mishima's fascination with death.[24] Natsuko did not allow Mishima to venture into the sunlight, to engage in any kind of sport, or to play with other boys. He spent much of his time alone, or with female cousins and their dolls.[25] [23]

Mishima returned to his immediate family when he was 12. His father, Azusa, was a man with a taste for military discipline, and was worried about the soft and weak upbringing of Natsuko's method. When Mishima was an infant, Azusa employed parenting tactics such as holding his little child up to the side of a speeding train. He also raided Mishima's room for evidence of an "effeminate" interest in literature, and often ripped apart his son's manuscripts.[26] Although his authoritarian father forbade him to write any further stories, Mishima continued to write in secret, supported and protected by his mother, who was always the first to read a new story.[26]

When Mishima was 13, Natsuko took him to see Kabuki (the play of "Kanadehon Chūshingura"). It was the first time he watched Kabuki drama. Soon afterwards, he was also taken to Noh (the play of "Miwa") for the first time by his maternal grandmother Tomi Hashi (橋トミ). From these first experiences, he became addicted to both of these dramatic art forms.[27]

Schooling and early works[edit]

Mishima's self-portrait drawn in junior high school

At the age of six, Mishima enrolled in the elite Gakushūin, the Peers' School in Tokyo.[28] At twelve, Mishima began to write his first stories. He voraciously read the works of numerous classic Japanese authors as well as Raymond Radiguet, Oscar Wilde, Rainer Maria Rilke, Thomas Mann, Friedrich Nietzsche and other European authors, in translation. He studied German. After six years at school, he became the youngest member of the editorial board of its literary society. Mishima was attracted to the works of the Japanese author Shizuo Itō (伊東静雄), Haruo Satō (佐藤春夫), Michizō Tachihara (立原道造), which in turn created an appreciation for the classical Japanese poetry form of waka. Mishima's first published works included waka poetry before he turned his attention to prose.

He was invited to write a short story for the Gakushūin literary magazine Hojinkai-zasshi (輔仁会雑誌) and submitted Hanazakari no Mori (花ざかりの森, "Forest in Full Bloom") in 1941, a story in which the narrator describes the feeling that his ancestors somehow still live within him.[c] Mishima's teachers were so impressed that they recommended the story to the prestigious literary magazine Bungei-Bunka (文藝文化), which belongs to the Nihon Roman-ha (日本浪曼派, "Japanese Romantic School"). The story makes use of metaphors and aphorisms that later became his trademarks and was published in book form in 1944 in a limited edition (4,000 copies) due to the wartime shortage of paper. Mishima published this first book as if it were a posthumous book of keepsake living in this world.[31][26] To protect him from a possible backlash from his father Azusa, his teacher and Bungei-Bunka's members (Fumio Shimizu (清水文雄), Zenmei Hasuda (蓮田善明), etc.) coined the pen-name "Yukio Mishima" in 1941.[32][d] In the magazine, Zenmei Hasuda praised Mishima's genius as follows: "This juvenile author is...a heaven-sent child of eternal Japanese history. He is much younger than us, but it is the birth of one who is already mature",[34] "He is a spiritual person spoken out of national literature".[35] Mishima at age 16, wrote in his notebook an essay about his deep devotion to Shintō (神道, "Shintoism"), entitled Kannagara no michi (惟神之道, "The way of the Gods").[36] Then, the day of embarking to the Java, Singapore, Johor: the Southern Front of the Dai Tō-A Sensō (大東亜戦争, "Greater East Asia War"). In October 1943, Hasuda told Mishima the last words, "I entrusted you with the future of Japan".[37][38]

Mishima at age 19, with his sister at age 16
(on 9 September 1944)

Mishima's story "The Cigarette" (煙草, Tabako), published in 1946, describes a pale homosexual love he felt at school and being teased from members of the school's rugby union club because he belonged to the literary society. And also, "The Boy Who Wrote Poetry" (詩を書く少年, Shi o kaku shōnen) in 1954 is one of the short stories based on his memories of Gakushūin Junior High School.

On 9 September 1944, Mishima graduated first in his class from Gakushūin High school, becoming a representative of the graduates.[39][40] Emperor Hirohito was present at the graduation ceremony. Mishima later received a silver watch from the Emperor at the Imperial Household Ministry.[39][40][41][42]

Mishima received a draft notice for the Imperial Japanese Army during Pacific War of World War II, and he barely passed the test in second-class on 27 April 1944. However, at the time of his medical check on convocation day of 10 February 1945 he had a cold. The young army doctor heard rales from the lung which were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis so Mishima was declared unfit for service.[43][26] The day before, Mishima had drawn up a will of farewell message to his family, with the ending words Tenno-heika Banzai (天皇陛下万歳, "Long live the Emperor"), preparing his hair and nails to be kept as a memento for his parents. [26][44] The troops of that unit were sent to Philippines. Many of those soldiers ended up dead or injured, and almost destroyed.[43] Immediately returning on the same day from convocation, Mishima's parents were so happy that he didn't have to go to the battlefield. Mishima was vague about it due to a high fever and tiredness of traveling, he muttered “I wanted to join the Tokko-tai (特攻隊, "Japanese Special Attack Units")”. [26]

After the Jewel Voice Broadcast on 15 August 1945(Surrender of Japan), Mishima took a vow to rebuild Japanese culture and protecting Japanese traditions in Tokyo, which had been burnt-out ruins by Bombing of Tokyo.[45] Mishima noted as below, “Only the preservation of Japanese irrationality will contribute to World Culture 100 years later”.[46] When Mishima's beloved sister Mitsuko (美津子) died of typhus on October, he cried,[26][47] and Kuniko Mitani (三谷邦子) whom Mishima loved, got engaged with another man.[48][49] Kuniko was a sister of Makoto Mitani (三谷信) whom Mishima's classmate. [e] published in 1949.}} These incidents became the motive power of later Mishima's literature. [51] And next year Mishima heard the sad and shocking news of Zenmei Hasuda (蓮田善明)’s death on 19 August 1945 in Johor.[52] Hasuda committed suicide in the Japanese spirit.[52] Mishima devoted poetry for Hasuda in the memorial meeting.[52][53][54]

At the end of the war, his father Azusa 'half-allowed' Mishima to become a novelist. He was worried that his son could actually become a professional novelist, and was hoping instead that his son would be a bureaucrat like himself and Mishima's grandfather Sadataro. He advised his son to enroll in the Faculty of Law instead of the literature department.[26] Attending lectures during the day and writing at night, Mishima graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1947, and entered the Ministry of the Treasury. He obtained a position as an official in the government's Finance Ministry and was set up for a promising career. However, Mishima had exhausted himself so much that his father agreed to his resigning from the position during the first year of employment to devote himself to writing.[26]

Post-war literature[edit]

Mishima wrote novels, popular serial novellas, many short stories and literary essays, as well as highly acclaimed plays for the Kabuki theatre and modern versions of traditional Noh drama.

Mishima with his cat
("Asahi Graph" May 12, 1948 issue)

Mishima began the short story Misaki nite no Monogatari (岬にての物語, "A Story at the Cape") in 1945, and continued to work on it through the end of World War II. In the occupation of Japan by SCAP, many military personnel were executed as "war criminals". Other people who held important posts in various fields were purged from public office. The media and the publishing industry were also censored, based on the SCAP's Press Code (プレスコード, "Press Code for Japan"), and were not allowed to praise Japan.[f] As a result, literary figures who were close to Mishima before the end of the war were also branded "war criminal literary figures", as well as leftists, communists, and opportunists who had been making their influence in the literary world.[57][58] Mishima who was beloved as a genius boy in the Japanese traditions sect Nihon Roman-ha (日本浪曼派, "Japanese Romantic School") before the end of the war, had already become "obsolete" or "outdated" in the postwar literary world, so he was impatient with himself at the age of twenty.[27]

Mishima, who had heard that Yasunari Kawabata had praised Mishima's work before the end of the war, decided to visit Kawabata's house with his last hope.[27] In January 1946, he visited famed writer Yasunari Kawabata in Kamakura, taking with him the manuscripts for "The Middle Ages" (中世, Chūsei) and "The Cigarette" (煙草, Tabako), and asking for Kawabata's advice and assistance. In June 1946, following Kawabata's recommendations, "The Cigarette" was published in the new literary magazine Ningen (人間, "Humanity"), and in December 1946. "The Middle Ages" was published in the same magazine. "The Middle Ages" was set in Japan's historical Muromachi period and examined the practice of shudō(衆道, man-boy love).

Mishima at age of 28
(in January 1953)

Also in 1946, Mishima began his first novel, Tōzoku (盗賊, "Thieves"), a story about two young members of the aristocracy drawn towards suicide. It was published in 1948, placing Mishima in the ranks of the Second Generation of Postwar Writers. He followed with Confessions of a Mask (仮面の告白, Kamen no kokuhaku), a semi-autobiographical account of a young homosexual who must hide behind a mask to fit into society. The novel was extremely successful and made Mishima a celebrity at the age of 24. Around 1949, Mishima published a literary essay about Yasunari Kawabata in Kindai Bungaku (近代文学), for whom he had always held a deep appreciation.

His writing gained him international celebrity and a sizeable following in Europe and the United States, with many of his most famous works translated into English. Mishima traveled extensively (The travelogue of his first world tour was published as Aporo no Sakazuki (アポロの杯, ”The Cup of Apollo”)); in 1952 he visited Greece, which he had fascinated with since childhood. Elements from his visit appear in The Sound of Waves (潮騒, Shiosai), which was published in 1954, and drew inspiration from the Greek legend of Daphnis and Chloe.

Yukio Mishima (lower) with Shintaro Ishihara in 1956
(At the roof of the Bungeishunjū Building in Ginza 6-chome)

Mishima made use of contemporary events in many of his works. The Temple of the Golden Pavilion (金閣寺, Kinkakuji) published in 1956 is a fictionalization of the burning of the famous temple in Kyoto.

Kyōko no Ie (鏡子の家, "Kyōko no Ie") was published in 1959 after Mishima's marriage. It depicted the inner emptiness and nihilism of four young men who lived in the period when Japan began to grow as an economic power: The Kōdo Seicho (高度経済成長, "Japanese economic miracle"), and the work was written with all his might. Although this work was well received by a small number of critics of the same generation as Mishima, reviews from literary circles were generally harsh, and it was branded as Mishima's first "failure work".[59][60] He lost heart, and it was the first discouragement (turning point) he had experienced as a novelist.[61][62]

Many of Mishima's most famous and highly regarded works were written prior to 1960. However, until that year he had not written works that were seen as especially political.[63] In the summer of 1960, Mishima became interested in the massive Anpo protests against the Shin Anpo Joyaku (新安保条約, ”Revision of the US-Japan Security Treaty”) (known as Anpo in Japanese). Although he did not participate directly in the protests himself, he often went out in the streets to observe the protestors in action, and kept extensive clippings of newspaper coverage of the protests.[63] In June 1960, at the climax of the protest movement, Mishima wrote a commentary in the Mainichi Shinbun newspaper, entitled "A Political Opinion".[63] In the critical essay, he pointed out the deceptions that the Zengakuren, the Socialist Party, and the Communist Party all used under the banner of "Democracy". He warned that the dangers of the Japanese people choosing an idealistic leader who tells lies is more dangerous than Mr. Nobusuke Kishi who is a "small nihilist" (Mishima called him so), being subordinating to the United States, and Mishima said in conclusion that he wanted to vote for a sturdy and realist person without using any honeyed words.[64]

Shortly after the Anpo protests ended, Mishima began writing his short story Yūkoku (憂国, "Patriotism"), glorifying the actions of a young right-wing ultranationalist Japanese army officer who commits suicide after a failed revolt against the government during the February 26 Incident.[63] The next year, Mishima published the first two parts of his three-part play Tōka no kiku (十日の菊, "Tenth-Day Chrysanthemum"), further celebrating the actions of the February 26 revolutionaries.[63]

On the other hand, he wrote various works. Mishima's novel After the Banquet (宴のあと, Utage no ato), published in 1960, so closely followed the events surrounding politician Hachirō Arita's campaign to become governor of Tokyo that Mishima was sued for invasion of privacy.[65] In 1962, Mishima's most avant-garde work, A Beautiful Star (美しい星, Utsukushii hoshi), which at times comes close to science fiction, was published to mixed critical response. The Frolic of the Beasts (獣の戯れ, Kemono no tawamure) in 1961 is considered a parody of the classical Noh play Motomezuka, written in the fourteenth century by the playwright Kiyotsugu Kan'ami.

In 1965, Madame de Sade (サド侯爵夫人, Sado koshaku fujin) was published. This work is a dialogic play in which six characters (all women), debate the actions and decisions of the Marquis de Sade's wife Renée de Sade. This play was later evaluated as "The greatest drama in the history of postwar theater" in 1994.[by whom?][66][67] In 1968, he wrote a play called My Friend Hitler (わが友ヒットラー, Waga tomo Hittorā), in which Mishima deployed the historical figures of Adolf Hitler, Gustav Krupp, Gregor Strasser, and Ernst Röhm as mouthpieces to express his own views on fascism and beauty,[63] depicting the ruthlessness of real political wiles, and the honesty and pureness of a man who tried to believe in his friend until the end and died tragically.[68] Mishima said about My Friend Hitler as below, "You may read this tragedy by analogy with the relationship between Ōkubo Toshimichi (大久保利通) and Saigō Takamori (西郷隆盛).".[69]

That same year, he wrote Life for Sale (命売ります, Inochi Urimasu), a humorous story about a man who, after failing to commit suicide, advertises his life for sale.

Mishima was considered for the Nobel Prize for Literature three times (in 1963, 1964, 1965)[70] and was a favourite of many foreign publications.[71] However, in 1968 his early mentor Kawabata won the Nobel Prize and Mishima realized that the chances of it being given to another Japanese author in the near future were slim.[72] In a work published in 1970, Mishima wrote that the writers he paid most attention to in modern western literature were Georges Bataille, Pierre Klossowski, and Witold Gombrowicz.[73]

Acting and modelling[edit]

Mishima was also an actor, and had a starring role in Yasuzo Masumura's 1960 film, Afraid to Die (からっ風野郎, Karakkaze Yarō). He also had roles in films including Yukoku (憂国, "Patriotism, the Rite of Love and Death") (directed by himself, 1966), Kurotokage (黒蜥蜴, "Black Lizard") (directed by Kinji Fukasaku, 1968) and Hitokiri (人斬り, "Hitokiri") (directed by Hideo Gosha, 1969). He also sang the theme song for Afraid to Die (lyrics by himself; music by Shichirō Fukazawa).

Mishima was featured as a photo model in Bara-kei (薔薇刑, "Ba-ra-kei: Ordeal by Roses") by Eikoh Hosoe, as well as in Taidō: Nihon no bodybuilder tachi (体道~日本のボディビルダーたち, "Young Samurai: Bodybuilders of Japan") and Otoko (, "Otoko: Photo Studies of the Young Japanese Male") by Tamotsu Yatō. American author Donald Richie gave a short lively account of Mishima, dressed in a loincloth and armed with a sword, posing in the snow for one of Tamotsu Yato's photoshoots.[74]

In a men's magazine Heibon Punch (平凡パンチ) in which Mishima contributed various essays and criticisms, he won first place of the "Mr. Dandy" reader's popularity poll in 1967 with 19,590 votes, and the second place Toshiro Mifune lost to Mishima by 720 votes.[75] In the next reader's popularity poll, "Mr. International", Mishima was ranked second, and France's President de Gaulle was first.[75] At that time, Mishima was the first celebrity to be described as a "Superstar" in Japanese magazines. [76]

Private life[edit]

Mishima at age 30 in his garden
(An autumn day in 1955)

In 1955, Mishima took up weight training to overcome the inferiority complex about his weak constitution, and his workout regimen of three sessions per week was not disrupted for the final 15 years of his life. In his 1968 essay "Sun and Steel" (太陽と鉄, Taiyo to tetsu),[77] Mishima deplored the emphasis given by intellectuals to the mind over the body. Mishima later also became very skilled at kendo, traditional Japanese swordsmanship. In 1956, he tried boxing too, although he later gave this up. In the same year, he became a member of Nihon soratobu enban kenkyukai (日本空飛ぶ円盤研究会, ”Japan Flying Saucer Research Association”) to observe a subject he became interested in, UFOs.[78] From 1954, he had a lover named Sadako Toyoda (豊田 貞子, Toyoda Sadako) Sadako became the model for main characters in The Sunken Waterfall (沈める滝, Shizumeru taki) and Hashi zukushi (橋づくし, "The Seven Bridges").[79][80] Mishima hoped to marry her, but they broke up in 1957.[47][81]

After briefly considering marriage with Michiko Shōda (正田美智子) (who later married Crown Prince Akihito and later became Empress Michiko),[82] Mishima married Yoko Sugiyama (瑤子)(daughter of Yasushi Sugiyama (杉山寧)) on June 1, 1958. The couple had two children: a daughter named Noriko (紀子) (born June 2, 1959) and a son named Iichirō (威一郎) (born May 2, 1962).

While working on Forbidden Colors (禁色, Kinjiki), Mishima visited gay bars in Japan.[83] Mishima's sexual orientation was an issue that bothered his wife, and she always denied his homosexuality after his death.[84] In 1998, the writer Jirō Fukushima (福島次郎) published an account of his relationship with Mishima in 1951, including fifteen letters (not love letters[85]) from the famed novelist.[85] Mishima's children successfully sued Fukushima and the publisher for copyright violation for the use of Mishima's letters.[86][85][87] The publisher Bungeishunjū on the defendant side insisted that "The content of these letters are practical correspondences, not copyrighted works", however, the plaintiff side won the judgment as follows: "In addition to clerical content, these letters describe the feelings of Mishima's own works, his aspirations and views of life, in different words from the literary works."[88][g]

In February 1961, Mishima became embroiled in the aftermath of the Shimanaka Jiken (嶋中事件, ”Shimanaka Incident”). In 1960, the author Shichirō Fukazawa (深沢七郎) had published a satirical short story Fūryū mutan (風流夢譚, "The Tale of an Elegant Dream") in the mainstream magazine Chūō Kōron. The story contained a dream sequence in which the Emperor and Empress were beheaded by a guillotine, leading to a chorus of outrage from right-wing ultra-nationalist groups, and numerous death threats against Fukazawa, any writers believed to have been associated with him, and Chūō Kōron magazine itself.[91] On February 1, 1961 Kazutaka Komori (小森一孝), a seventeen-year-old rightist, broke into the home of Hōji Shimanaka (嶋中鵬二), the president of Chūō Kōron, killing his maid with a sword and severely wounding his wife.[92] In the ensuing atmosphere of terror, Fukazawa went into hiding, and dozens of writers and literary critics, including Mishima, were provided with round-the-clock police protection for several months.[93] A rumor became widespread that Mishima had personally recommended Fūryū mutan be published, and even though he repeatedly denied this, he received hundreds of death threats,[93] and was forced to live under police protection for two months.[94] Mishima criticized the culprit with severity, saying that those who harm women and children are neither patriots nor traditional right-wingers, and also that the assassination must be a one-on-one confrontation with risking the assassinator's life. That it was the manner of traditional Japanese patriots to immediately commit suicide after assassination.[95]

In 1963, there was an incident called Yorokobi no koto Jiken (喜びの琴事件, "The Harp of Joy Incident") at the troupe Bungakuza (文学座) to which Mishima belonged. It was here that Haruko Sugimura (杉村春子) and other actors who were Communist Party members refused to stage the drama Yorokobi no koto (喜びの琴, "The Harp of Joy"), Mishima wrote. The main character of the drama was anti-communist and included in his dialogues there was criticism about a conspiracy of world communism. The actress Haruko Sugimura, who was a follower of Mao Zedong, refused to take part in the play due to ideological reasons, so Mishima quit Bungakuza.[96][97][98]

During the Tokyo Olympics in 1964, Mishima interviewed various athletes every day and wrote the report articles as a correspondent for newspapers.[99][100] China, which does not allow Taiwan to participate in the Olympics, also boycotted the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and conducted their first nuclear weapons test during the Olympics.[101]

Mishima hated Ryokichi Minobe, who was a communist and was the governor of Tokyo beginning in 1967.[102] Influential persons in the conservative Liberal Democratic Party, including Takeo Fukuda and Kiichi Aichi, were bosses of Mishima during his time at the Ministry of the Treasury, and since Mrs. Hiroko Sato was a fan of Mishima, her husband Eisaku Satō, the then Prime Minister of Japan was also close to Mishima. For those reasons, LDP officials solicited Mishima as the next candidate for governor of Tokyo against Minobe, but Mishima did not intend to become a politician.[102]

Mishima was fond of Manga and Gekiga, especially drawing from the style of Hiroshi Hirata (平田弘史), and the characters of Mōretsu Atarō (もーれつア太郎), and the imagination of GeGeGe no Kitarō (ゲゲゲの鬼太郎) which were slapstick, nonsense, unrefined, and desperate, but also intellectual.[103][104] He loved reading boxing manga Ashita no Joe (あしたのジョー) in "Weekly Shōnen Magazine" every week.[105][h] Urutoraman (ウルトラマン, "Ultraman") and Gojira (ゴジラ, "Godzilla") were his favorite kaiju fantasies, and he once compared himself to "Godzilla's egg" in 1955.[106][107] On the other hand, he disliked story manga with Humanism or Cosmopolitanism themes: for example Hi no Tori (火の鳥, "Phoenix").[103][104]

Mishima liked science fiction and said, "I even think that science fiction will be the first literature to completely overcome modern humanism."[108] He praised Arthur C. Clarke's "Childhood's End" in particular, and while talking about "the inexpressible unpleasant and uncomfortable feelings after reading it", he said, "I'm not afraid to call it the best masterpiece."[109]

Mishima traveled to Shimoda on the Izu Peninsula with his wife and children in the summer of 1964; thereafter, it became customary for the family to spend the summer there every year.[110][111] In Shimoda, Mishima often enjoyed eating local seafood with his friend Henry Scott-Stokes.[111] When Mishima heard that the name of the inn where Stokes was staying was "Kurofune" ("black ship"), his voice suddenly became low and he said in a sullen manner, "Why? Why do you stay at a place with such a name?" Until then Mishima never showed any hostility toward America in front of foreign friends like Stokes. Mishima and his wife had even visited Disneyland as newlyweds, and he liked the fun park and ordinary American people after the war. However, he clearly retained a strong sense of hostility toward the "black ships" of Commodore Matthew C. Perry, which had forcibly opened Japan up to unequal international relations at the end of the Edo Period, and had destroyed the peace of Edo, where vivid Chōnin culture was flourishing.[111]

Harmony of Pen and Sword[edit]

In 1967, Mishima enlisted in the Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF) and underwent basic training. A year later, he formed the Tatenokai (楯の会, "Shield Society"), a private militia composed primarily of young students who studied martial principles and physical discipline, and swore to protect the Emperor of Japan. Mishima trained them himself. However, under Mishima's ideology, the emperor was not necessarily the reigning Emperor, but rather the abstract essence of Japanese traditional culture. In his short story "The Voices of the Heroic Dead" (英霊の聲, Eirei no koe) Mishima depicted the spirits of the departed soldiers of the February 26 Incident (二・二六事件, Ni-Ni-Roku Jiken) and Japanese Special Attack Units (特攻隊, Tokkōtai). Mishima denounced Emperor Hirohito for renouncing his own divinity after World War II, arguing that the soldiers had died in the February 26 Incident and Japanese Special Attack Units for their "living god" Emperor, and that the Showa Emperor's renounciation of his divinity meant that all those deaths had been in vain. [112][113] Mishima said that “As the duty of a human, our Majesty should be a God” in "The Voices of the Heroic Dead."[114]

In 1967, Mishima also issued a protest statement against the "Cultural Revolution" by the Chinese Communist Party. Yasunari Kawabata, Kōbō Abe and Jun Ishikawa also participated in this protest statement. [115][i] In the same year Mishima visited India to collect data for his next work, The Temple of Dawn (暁の寺, Akatsuki no tera), and met with the Prime Minister of India, and the colonel of the Army. Mishima felt a sense of danger regarding the lack of awareness the Japanese national defense held against the threat of the Chinese Communist Party.[118][119][j]

In the final ten years of his life, Mishima wrote several full-length plays, acted in several films, and co-directed an adaptation of one of his stories, “Patriotism, the Rite of Love and Death”. He also continued work on his final tetralogy as his lifework, The Sea of Fertility (豊饒の海, Hōjō no Umi), which appeared in monthly serialized format from September 1965.[121] Mishima aimed for a very long novel with a completely different raison d'etre from Western chronicle novels since the 19th century, with the aim of interpreting the whole human world.[122] In his last novel, four stories related to the circle of transmigration structure by the main character had been reincarnated,[122] and Mishima wanted to express something along the lines of a world image of religion similar to pantheism in literature.[123]

Mishima's nationalism accelerated towards the end of his life. He was hated by leftists who said Hirohito should have abdicated and taken responsibility for the loss of life in the war. Mishima also was hated by leftists, in particular for his outspoken commitment to bushido, the code of the samurai in Hagakure Nyūmon (葉隠入門, "Hagakure: Samurai Ethic and Modern Japan"), his support for the abolition of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, and for his contention in "In Defense of the Culture" (文化防衛論, Bunka Bōeiron) that preached the importance of the Emperor in Japanese cultures. Mishima regarded the postwar era of Japan, where no poetic culture and supreme artist was born, as an era of fake prosperity, and stated in his "In Defense of the Culture" as follows; "In the postwar prosperity called Shōwa Genroku, where there are no Chikamatsu Monzaemon, Ihara Saikaku, Matsuo Bashō, only infestation of flashy manners and customs in there. Passion is dried up, strong realism dispels the ground, and the deepening of poetry is neglected. That is, there are no Chikamatsu, Saikaku, or Basho now.[124] In other critical essays,[k] Mishima argued that the national spirit which cultivated in Japan's long history is the key to national defense, and he had apprehensions about the insidious “indirect aggression” of the Chinese Communist Party, North Korea and the Soviet Union.[12][13]

In critical essays in 1969, Mishima explained Japan's difficult and delicate position and peculiarities between China, the Soviet Union and the United States. "To put it simply, support for the Security Treaty means agreeing with the United States, and to oppose it means agreeing with the Soviet Union or the Chinese Communist Party, so after all, it's only just a matter of which foreign country to rely on, and therein the question of "what is Japan" is completely lacking. If you ask the Japanese, "Hey you, do you choose America, Soviet Union, or Chinese Communist Party?", if he is a true Japanese, he will withhold his attitude.".[125][126] Regarding those who strongly opposed the US military base in Okinawa and the Security Treaty: "They may appear to be nationalists and right-wingers in the foreign common sense, but in Japan, most of them are in fact left-wingers and communists.".[127][126]

Coup attempt and ritual suicide[edit]

Mishima delivering his speech in the failed coup attempt just prior to performing seppuku (November 25, 1970)

On November 25, 1970, Mishima and four members of the Tatenokai (楯の会, "Shield Society"), under pretext, visited the commandant Kanetoshi Mashita (益田兼利) of the Ichigaya chutonchi (市ヶ谷駐屯地, "Ichigaya Camp"), the Tokyo headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[84] Inside, they barricaded the office and tied the commandant to his chair. With a prepared manifesto and a banner listing their demands, Mishima stepped onto the balcony to address the soldiers gathered below. His speech was intended to inspire a coup d'état to restore the power of the emperor. He succeeded only in irritating the soldiers, and was heckled, thus drowning out some parts of his speech. In the last message of Mishima's Geki (, "An appeal"), there were words that perceived the real nature of JSDF: "It is self-evident that the United States is not pleased with a true Japanese volunteer army protecting the land of Japan.".[128][129]

He finished his planned speech after a few minutes, and after cried out three times, Tenno-heika Banzai! (天皇陛下万歳, "Long live the Emperor!"). He returned to the commandant's office and apologized to the commandant and said "We did it to return the JSDF to the Emperor. I had no choice but to do this", and performed seppuku.[130][131][132] Just before his seppuku, Mishima tried to stop Morita's death and said to him, "Morita, you must live not die.".[133][134] The assisting kaishakunin duty at the end of this ritual (decapitation to finish Mishima's pains immediately) had been assigned to Tatenokai member Masakatsu Morita (森田必勝), who was unable to properly perform the task. After three failed attempts at severing Mishima's head, he allowed another Tatenokai member, Hiroyasu Koga (古賀浩靖), to behead Mishima. Morita then knelt and stabbed himself in the abdomen and Koga again performed the kaishakunin duty.[135] This coup is called Mishima jiken (三島事件, "Mishima Incident") in Japan.

Mishima delivering his speech on the balcony

Another traditional element of the suicide ritual was the composition of so-called death poems before their entry into the headquarters.[136] Having been enlisted in the Ground Self-Defense Force for many years, Mishima and Tatenokai members, alongside several officials, were secretly researching coup plans for a constitutional amendment. They thought there was a chance when under the opportunity of Chian Shutsudo (治安出動, "security dispatch") for subjugation of New left Zenkyoto's revolt. However, Zenkyoto was suppressed easily by the Riot Police Unit in 1969. These officials gave up the coup of constitutional amendment, and Mishima disappointed them and the actual circumstances in Japan after World War II.[137] Officer Kiyokatsu Yamamoto (山本舜勝), Mishima's training teacher, explained about this difficult situation. "The officers had a trusty connection with the U.S.A.F.(includes U.S.F.J), and with the approval of the U.S. army side, they were supposed to carry out a security dispatch toward the Armed Forces of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. However, due to the policy change(reversal) of U.S. by Henry Kissinger who prepared for visiting China in secret (changing relations between U.S. and Chinese Communist Party), it became a situation where the Japanese military was not allowed legally."[137]

Mishima planned his suicide meticulously for at least a year and no one outside the group of hand-picked Tatenokai members had any indication of what he was planning. [138][139] His biographer, translator John Nathan, suggests that the coup attempt was only a pretext for the ritual suicide of which Mishima had long dreamed.[140] Another biographer, Henry Scott-Stokes, says that “Mishima is the most important person in postwar Japan", and described the shackles of the constitution of Japan: "Mishima cautioned against the lack of reality in the basic political controversy in Japan and the particularity of Japan's democratic principles.".[141] Also, Scott-Stokes kept in his diary when he met Mishima who had a dark expression on his face on 3 September 1970. At that time, he heard from Mishima: "Japan lost its spiritual tradition, and materialism infested instead. Japan is under the curse of a Green Snake now. The Green Snake bites on Japanese chest. There is no way to escape this curse."[142] Scott-Stokes continued thinking of this, and he understood the meaning in 1990 later. He said to Takao Tokuoka that, this Green Snake related to the "U.S. dollar".[143] In 1968 to 1970, Mishima also said words about Japan's future. Mishima's senior friend and father heard from Mishima: "Japan will be hit hard. One day, the United States suddenly contacts China over Japan's head, Japan will only be able to look up from the bottom of the valley and eavesdrop on the conversation slightly. Our friend Taiwan will say that "it will no longer be able to count on Japan", and Taiwan will go somewhere. Japan may become an orphan in the Orient, and may eventually fall into the product of slave dealers.”[144]

Mishima's corpse returned home the day after his death. Father Azusa had been afraid to see his son whose appearance had completely changed.[145] However, when he looked into the casket fearfully, Mishima's head and body had been sutured neatly, and his dead face, to which makeup had been beautifully applied, looked as if he were alive.[145] These charities were the kindness of the police officers, "We applied funeral makeup carefully with special feelings, because it is the body of Dr. Mishima, whom we have always respected secretly.".[145] Mishima's body was dressed in the uniform of Tatenokai, and the Guntō was firmly clasped at the chest according to the will that Mishima entrusted to his friend Kinemaro Izawa (伊沢甲子麿).[145][146] Azusa put the manuscript papers and fountain pen that his son cherished, in the casket together.[145][37][l]

Mishima made sure his affairs were in order and left money for the legal defence of the three surviving Tatenokai members, Masahiro Ogawa (小川正洋), Masayoshi Koga (小賀正義), and Hiroyasu Koga.[139][m] After the incident, there were exaggerated media commentaries that “it was a fear of the revival of militarism.”[150][151] The commandant who was made a hostage said in the trial, "I didn't feel hate towards the defendants at that time. Thinking about the country of Japan, thinking about the JSDF, the pure hearts of thinking about our country that did that kind of thing, I want to buy it as an individual.”. [130]

Regarding Mishima's decisive day of November 25, it was the date when Hirohito(Emperor Shōwa) became Regent and the Emperor Shōwa made the "Humanity Declaration" at the age of 45, so some researchers study that; the day had a meaning to revive the "God" by dying as a scapegoat, the Emperor became a human at the same age, 45.[152][153] And there are the views that; the day corresponds to the date of execution (replace with the adoption of the Gregorian calendar) of Yoshida Shōin (吉田松陰) whom Mishima respected,[145] or there is the suggestion that; Mishima had set his period of Chuu (中有, "Bardo") for Tensei (転生, "reincarnation") because the 49th day after his death was his birthday, January 14.[154] And on this birthday, Mishima's remains were buried in the grave of the Hiraoka Family at Tama Cemetery.[145]

In addition, November 25 is the day of he began writing Confessions of a Mask (仮面の告白, Kamen no kokuhaku), and this work was announced as, "Techniques of Life Recovery", "Suicide inside out", also, Mishima wrote down in notes of this work, "This book is a will for leave in the Realm of Death where I used to live. If you take a movie of a suicide jumped, and rotate the film in reverse, the suicide person jumps up from the valley bottom to the top of the cliff at a furious speed and he revives.".[155][156] In other words, he wrote this Confessions of a Mask to live the postwar, and to get away from his “Realm of Death”. [156] So there is the literary view as below; By dying on 25 November which was the same date he set out to write Confessions of a Mask, Mishima had the purpose of dismantling all of his postwar creative activities, returning to the "Realm of Death" where he used to live.[156]

Legacy[edit]

Mishima Yukio Literary Museum in Yamanakako, Yamanashi

Much speculation has surrounded Mishima's suicide. At the time of his death he had just completed the final book in his Sea of Fertility tetralogy.[84] He was recognized as one of the most important post-war stylists of the Japanese language. Mishima wrote 34 novels, about 50 plays, about 25 books of short stories, at least 35 books of essays, one libretto, and one film.

Grave of Yukio Mishima in Tama Cemetery. The inscription reads, "Grave of Hiraoka family"

Mishima's grave is located at the Tama Cemetery in Fuchū, Tokyo. The Mishima Prize was established in 1988 to honor his life and works. On July 3, 1999, Mishima Yukio Bungaku-kan (三島由紀夫文学館, "Yukio Mishima Literary Museum") was opened in the Yamanakako, Yamanashi Prefecture.

The Mishima Incident helped inspire the formation of "New Right" (新右翼, shin uyoku) groups in Japan, such as the Issuikai (一水会, "First Wednesday Society"), founded by some of Mishima's followers. In contrast to older groups such as Bin Akao's Greater Japan Patriotic Party that took a pro-American, anti-communist stance, New Right groups such as the Issuikai tended to emphasize ethnic nationalism and anti-Americanism.[157]

A Memorial service Deathday for Mishima, called Yukoku-ki (憂国忌, "Patriotism Memorial"), is held every year in Japan on November 25 . Apart from this, a memorial service is held every year by former Tatenokai members, which began in 1975, the year after Masahiro Ogawa, Masayoshi Koga, and Hiroyasu Koga were released on parole.[158]

A variety of cenotaphs and memorial stones have been erected in honor of Mishima's memory in various places around Japan. For example, stones have been erected at Hachiman Shrine in Kakogawa City, Hyogo Prefecture where his grandfather's permanent domicile was,[159] in front of the 2nd company corps at JGSDF Camp Takigahara,[160] and in a home garden of an acquaintance of Mishima.[161] Also, there is "Monument of Honor Yukio Mishima & Masakatsu Morita" in front of the Rissho University Shonan High school in Shimane Prefecture.[162]

"Mishima Yukio Shrine" was built in the suburb of Fujinomiya city, Shizuoka Prefecture on 9 January 1983.[163][164]

A 1985 biographical film by Paul Schrader titled Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters depicts his life and work; however, it has never been given a theatrical presentation in Japan. A 2012 Japanese film titled 11:25 The Day He Chose His Own Fate also looks at Mishima's last day.

In 2014, Mishima was one of the inaugural honourees in the Rainbow Honor Walk, a walk of fame in San Francisco's Castro neighbourhood noting LGBTQ people who have "made significant contributions in their fields."[165][166][167]

David Bowie painted a large expressionist portrait of Mishima, which he hung at his Berlin residence.[168]

Awards[edit]

Major works[edit]

Literature[edit]

Japanese title English title Year (first appeared) English translation, year ISBN
花ざかりの森
Hanazakari no Mori
(short story)
"Forest in Full Bloom" 1941  
サーカス
Sākasu
(short story)
"The Circus" 1948 Andrew Rankin, 1999[171]
盗賊
Tōzoku
Thieves 1947-1948  
假面の告白
(仮面の告白)
Kamen no Kokuhaku
Confessions of a Mask 1949 Meredith Weatherby, 1958,

Peter Owen Publishers, reissue due December 2017.

0-8112-0118-X
愛の渇き
Ai no Kawaki
Thirst for Love 1950 Alfred H. Marks, 1969 4-10-105003-1
純白の夜
Junpaku no Yoru
Pure White Nights 1950  
青の時代
Ao no Jidai
The Age of Blue 1950  
禁色
Kinjiki
Forbidden Colors 1951-1953 Alfred H. Marks, 1968–1974 0-375-70516-3
真夏の死
Manatsu no Shi
(short story)
Death in Midsummer and Other Stories 1952 Edward G. Seidensticker, Ivan Morris,
Donald Keene, Geoffrey W. Sargent, 1966
0-8112-0117-1
潮騒
Shiosai
The Sound of Waves 1954 Meredith Weatherby, 1956 0-679-75268-4
詩を書く少年
Shi o Kaku Shōnen
(short story)
"The Boy Who Wrote Poetry" 1954 Ian H. Levy, 1977[171]
沈める滝
Shizumeru Taki
The Sunken Waterfall 1955  
金閣寺
Kinkaku-ji
The Temple of the Golden Pavilion 1956 Ivan Morris, 1959 0-679-75270-6
鹿鳴館
Rokumeikan
(play)
Rokumeikan 1956 Hiroaki Sato, 2002 0-231-12633-6
鏡子の家
Kyōko no Ie
Kyoko's House 1959  
宴のあと
Utage no Ato
After the Banquet 1960 Donald Keene, 1963 0-399-50486-9
スタア
"Sutā" (novella)
Star (novella) 1960[172] Sam Bett, 2019 978-0811228428
憂國(憂国)
Yūkoku
(short story)
"Patriotism" 1961 Geoffrey W. Sargent, 1966 0-8112-1312-9
黒蜥蜴
Kuro Tokage
(play)
The Black Lizard 1961 Mark Oshima, 2007 1-929280-43-2
獣の戯れ
Kemono no Tawamure
The Frolic of the Beasts 1961 Andrew Clare, 2018 978-0525434153
美しい星
Utsukushii Hoshi
A Beautiful Star 1962  
肉体の学校
Nikutai no Gakkō
The School of Flesh 1963  
午後の曳航
Gogo no Eikō
The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea 1963 John Nathan, 1965 0-679-75015-0
絹と明察
Kinu to Meisatsu
Silk and Insight 1964 Hiroaki Sato, 1998 0-7656-0299-7
三熊野詣
Mikumano Mōde
(short story)
"Acts of Worship" 1965 John Bester, 1995 0-87011-824-2
サド侯爵夫人
Sado Kōshaku Fujin
(play)
Madame de Sade 1965 Donald Keene, 1967 0-394-17304-X
英霊の聲
Eirei no Koe
(short story)
"The Voices of the Heroic Dead" 1966  
朱雀家の滅亡
Suzaku-ke no Metsubō
(play)
The Decline and Fall of The Suzaku 1967 Hiroaki Sato, 2002 0-231-12633-6
命売ります
Inochi Urimasu
Life for Sale 1968 Stephen Dodd, 2019 978-0241333143 (Penguin Classic UK)
わが友ヒットラー
Waga Tomo Hittorā
(play)
My Friend Hitler and Other Plays 1968 Hiroaki Sato, 2002 0-231-12633-6
癩王のテラス
Raiō no Terasu
(play)
The Terrace of The Leper King 1969 Hiroaki Sato, 2002 0-231-12633-6
豐饒の海
(豊饒の海)
Hōjō no Umi
The Sea of Fertility tetralogy: 1965–1971   0-677-14960-3
  I. 春の雪
  Haru no Yuki
   1. Spring Snow 1965-1967 Michael Gallagher, 1972 0-394-44239-3
  II. 奔馬
  Honba
   2. Runaway Horses 1967-1968 Michael Gallagher, 1973 0-394-46618-7
  III. 曉の寺
  Akatsuki no Tera
   3. The Temple of Dawn 1968-1970 E. Dale Saunders and Cecilia S. Seigle, 1973 0-394-46614-4
  IV. 天人五衰
  Tennin Gosui
   4. The Decay of the Angel 1970-1971 Edward Seidensticker, 1974 0-394-46613-6

Critical essay[edit]

Japanese title English title Year (first appeared) English translation, year ISBN
アポロの杯
Aporo no Sakazuki
The Cup of Apollo 1952  
不道徳教育講座
Fudōtoku Kyōiku Kōza
Lectures on Immoral Education 1958-1959  
私の遍歴時代
Watashi no Henreki Jidai
My Wandering Period 1963  
太陽と鐡
(太陽と鉄)
Taiyō to Tetsu
Sun and Steel 1965-1968 John Bester 4-7700-2903-9
葉隠入門
Hagakure Nyūmon
Way of the Samurai 1967 Kathryn Sparling, 1977 0-465-09089-3
文化防衛論
Bunka Bōei-ron
In Defense of the Culture 1968  
革命哲学としての陽明学
Kakumei tetsugaku toshiteno Yomegaku
Wang Yangming Thought as Revolutionary Philosophy 1970 Harris I. Martin, 1971[171]

Plays for classical Japanese theatre[edit]

In addition to contemporary-style plays such as Madame de Sade, Mishima wrote for two of the three genres of classical Japanese theatre: Noh and Kabuki (as a proud Tokyoite, he would not even attend the Bunraku puppet theatre, always associated with Osaka and the provinces).[173]

Though Mishima took themes, titles and characters from the Noh canon, his twists and modern settings, such as hospitals and ballrooms, startled audiences accustomed to the long-settled originals.

Donald Keene translated Kindai Nogaku-shū (近代能楽集, Five Modern Noh Plays) (Tuttle, 1981; ISBN 0-8048-1380-9). Most others remain untranslated and so lack an "official" English title; in such cases it is therefore preferable to use the rōmaji title.

Year (first appeared) Japanese title English title Genre
1950 邯鄲
Kantan
The Magic Pillow Noh
1951 綾の鼓
Aya no Tsuzumi
The Damask Drum Noh
1952 卒塔婆小町
Sotoba Komachi
Komachi at the Gravepost Noh
1954 葵の上
Aoi no Ue
The Lady Aoi Noh
1954 鰯賣戀曳網
(鰯売恋曳網)
Iwashi Uri Koi Hikiami
The Sardine Seller's Net of Love Kabuki
1955 班女
Hanjo
The Waiting Lady with the Fan Noh
1955 芙蓉露大内実記
Fuyō no Tsuyu Ōuchi Jikki
The Blush on the White Hibiscus Blossom: Lady Fuyo and the True Account of the Ōuchi Clan Kabuki
1957 道成寺
Dōjōji
Dōjōji Temple Noh
1959 熊野
Yuya
Yuya Noh
1960 弱法師
Yoroboshi
The Blind Young Man Noh
1969 椿説弓張月
Chinsetsu Yumiharizuki
A Wonder Tale: The Moonbow
or Half Moon (like a Bow and arrow setting up): The Adventures of Tametomo
Kabuki

Films[edit]

Year Title United States release title(s) Character Director
1951 純白の夜
Jumpaku no Yoru
Unreleased in the U.S. an extra (dance party scene) Hideo Ōba
1959 不道徳教育講座
Fudōtoku Kyōikukōza
Unreleased in the U.S. himself as navigator Katsumi Nishikawa
1960 からっ風野郎
Karakkaze Yarō
Afraid to Die Takeo Asahina
(main character)
Yasuzo Masumura
1966 憂国
Yūkoku
The Rite of Love and Death
Patriotism
Shinji Takeyama
(main character)
Yukio Mishima,
Domoto Masaki (sub)
1968 黒蜥蜴
Kurotokage
Black Lizard Human Statue Kinji Fukasaku
1969 人斬り
Hitokiri
Tenchu! Tanaka Shinbei Hideo Gosha

Works about Mishima[edit]

Collection of Photographs
Book
Film, TV
Music
  • String Quartet No.3, "Mishima", by Philip Glass. A reworking of parts of his soundtrack for the film Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters it has a duration of 18 minutes.
  • Death and Night and Blood (Yukio), a song by the Stranglers from the Black and White album (1978) (Death and Night and Blood is the phrase from Mishima's novel Confessions of a Mask)[175]
  • Forbidden Colours, a song on Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence soundtrack by Ryuichi Sakamoto with lyrics by David Sylvian (1983). (Inspired by Mishima's novel Forbidden Colors)[176]
Play
  • Yukio Mishima, a play by Adam Darius and Kazimir Kolesnik, first performed at Holloway Prison, London, in 1991, and later in Finland, Slovenia and Portugal.
  • M, a ballet spectacle work homage to Mishima by Maurice Béjart in 1993
Manga, Game
  • Tekken by Namco (1994) - Mishima surname comes from Yukio Mishima, and a main character Kazuya Mishima's way of thinking was based on Mishima.
  • Jakomo Fosukari(Jakomo Fosukari (ジャコモ・フォスカリ)) by Mari Yamazaki (2012) - The characters modeled on Mishima and Kōbō Abe appears in.
Poem
  • Grave of Mishima (Yukio Mishima no haka (ユキオ・ミシマの墓)) by Pierre Pascal (1970) – 12 Haiku poems and 3 Tanka poems. Appendix of Shinsho Hanayama (花山信勝)'s book translated into French.
Art
  • Kou (Kou ()) by Junji Wakebe (分部順治) (1976) - Life-sized male sculpture modeled on Mishima. The work was requested by Mishima in the fall of 1970, he went to Wakebe’s atelier every Sunday. It was exhibited at the 6th Niccho Exhibition on April 7, 1976.
  • Season of fiery fire / Requiem for someone: Number 1, Mishima (Rekka no kisetsu/Nanimonoka eno rekuiemu: Sono ichi Mishima (烈火の季節/なにものかへのレクイエム・その壱 ミシマ)) and The classroom of Beauty; Listen to everyone (Bi no kyositsu, seicho seyo (美の教室、清聴せよ)) by Yasumasa Morimura (2006, 2007) – Disguise performance as Mishima
  • Objectglass 12 and The Death of a Man (Otoko no shi (男の死)) by Kimiski Ishizuka (石塚公昭) (2007, 2011) – Mishima dolls

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pronunciation: UK: /ˈmɪʃɪmə/, US: /-mɑː, ˈmʃimɑː, mɪˈʃmə/,[1][2][3][4] Japanese: [miɕima].
  2. ^ Yoritaka's eldest son was Matsudaira Yorinori (松平頼徳) who died at the age of 33 when he was ordered to commit seppuku by the shogunate during the Tengutō no ran (天狗党の乱, "Mito Rebellion"), because he was sympathetic to Tengu-to (天狗党)'s Sonnō jōi.[19]
  3. ^ At the end of this debut work, a limpid "tranquility" is drawn, and it is often pointed out by some literature researchers that it has something in common with the ending of Mishima's posthumous work The Sea of Fertility.[29][30]
  4. ^ The origin of pen-name “Mishima” was Mishima Station, where Fumio Shimizu and Zenmei Hasuda on the way to the Bungeibunka’s editorial meeting in Izu, Shizuoka. The idea of ”Yukio” was Yuki (, ”Snow”) on Mount Fuji they saw then,[32] and the kanji,Yuki (由紀) was came from Yuki (斎忌、悠紀、由基, 斎忌、悠紀、由基) in Daijo-sai (大嘗祭, ”Daijo-sai Festival”).[33]
  5. ^ Kuniko Mitani (三谷邦子) was written as "Sonoko" in Confessions of a Mask (仮面の告白, Kamen no kokuhaku). Mishima sent a letter to his acquaintance that "I wouldn't have lived if I didn't write about her."[50]
  6. ^ In the occupation of Japan, SCAP executed "sword hunt", and 3 million swords which had been owned by the Japanese people were confiscated. Further Kendo was banned, and even when barely allowed in the form of "bamboo sword competition", SCAP severely banned kendo shouts,[55] and, they banned Kabuki which had the revenge theme, or inspired the samurai spirit.[56]
  7. ^ As for the evaluation of Fukushima’s book, it is attracting attention as material for learning about Mishima’s friendships when writing Forbidden Colors; however, there were criticisms that this book was confused readers, because it was written the real names of all characters like a nonfiction, at the same time, Fukushima specified "a novel about Mr. Yukio Mishima", "this work", “this novel” in the introduction and epilogue[89] or it was advertised as "an autobiographical novel", so the publisher didn't have the confidence to say that everything was true; the only valuable accounts in this book were Mishima's letters.[85] Also there were vitriolic criticisms that these contents of book was insignificant compared to its exaggerated advertising, or it was pointed out that there were contradictions and unnatural adaptations like a made-up story in the neighborhood of gay bars.[85] Gō Itasaka, who thinks Mishima was homosexual, said about this book as below, "Fukusima's petty touch only described a petty Mishima, Mishima was sometimes vulgar, but was never a humble man. The complex which Mishima himself kept holding like a poison in his own(is like available for use at any time), was not always an aversion for him."[85] Jakucho Setouchi and Akihiro Miwa said about this book and Fukusima as below, "It's the worst way for a man or a woman to write bad words about someone you once liked, and Fukusima is ingrateful, because he had been taken care of in various ways when he was poor, by Mishima and his parents. "[90]
  8. ^ There is an episode that when Mishima missed the new "Weekly Shōnen Magazine" on the release day, because of shooting the movie "Black Lizard" was prolonged, and at the midnight he suddenly appeared in the magazine's editorial department and said that; "I want you to sell to me the Weekly Shōnen Magazine just released today.".[105]
  9. ^ Around this time, Japanese media was dominated by praise to North Korea and China by progressives, so when the Cultural Revolution occurred in China, Japanese media such as the Asahi Shimbun praised the movement by Mao Zedong, and flattered China like an ideal nation, however on the other hand, to escape from the relentless persecution of the revolution, hundreds of Chinese people tried to swim to Hong Kong for exile there, and many drowned and some were killed by sharks.[116][117]
  10. ^ Mishima who was paying attention to the disquieting movement of China, also in 1959 commented about resistance of Tibet as below, "A Fuunji (風雲児, "young hero of the troubled times") who dives and joins the Tibetan Rebel Army against China did not appear from Japan. It seems like that Japanese have lost spirits of helping the weak, and it may be a weakling self-torturing consider of which Japan is the weakest in the world, lurked deep inside Japanese minds after the defeat."[120]
  11. ^ There are Jieitai nibun ron (自衛隊二分論, ”Bisection of JSDF”), Eiyo no kizuna de tsunage Kiku to Ktana (栄誉の絆でつなげ菊と刀, ”Connect them with bonds of honor, Chrysanthemum and Sword”), Tatenokai no koto (「楯の会」のこと, ”About the Shield Society”), J.N.G Karian (Sokoku Boei-tai) (J.N.G.仮案 (Japan National Guard ―祖国防衛隊), ”Japan National Guard: Tentative plan”), Sokoku Boei-tai wa naze hitsuyou ka? (祖国防衛隊はなぜ必要か?, Why we need the Japan National Guard), collected in complete34 2003, complete35 2003.
  12. ^ Masakatsu Morita's corpse, like Mishima, his head and body had been sutured neatly. Then Morita’s body was dressed in the shroud, the casket was taken over by his brother. After the cremation in Yoyogi, Shibuya, Morita’s ashes returned to his hometown of Mie Prefecture.[147][148]
  13. ^ Mishima as a father arranged for the department store for his two children till they became adults to receive Christmas gifts every year after his death,[149] and asked the publisher to pay the long-term subscription fee for children's magazines in advance and deliver them every month.[144]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mishima". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  2. ^ "Mishima, Yukio". Lexico Dictionaries. Retrieved 2020-01-08. (US) and "Mishima, Yukio". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  3. ^ "Mishima". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  4. ^ "Mishima". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  5. ^ Mccarthy, Paul (2013-05-05). "Revealing the many masks of Mishima". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2020-01-08.
  6. ^ Rankin, Andrew (2018). Mishima, Aesthetic Terrorist: An Intellectual Portrait. University of Hawaii Press. p. 119.
  7. ^ Belsky, Beryl. "Yukio Mishima: The Turbulent Life Of A Conflicted Martyr". Culture Trip.
  8. ^ "Yukio Mishima – 'The Lost Samurai'". Japan Today.
  9. ^ Flanagan, Damian (November 21, 2015). "Yukio Mishima's enduring, unexpected influence". The Japan Times.
  10. ^ "Everyone in Japan Has Heard of Him". archive.nytimes.com.
  11. ^ a b Mishima, Yukio (1970). "問題提起 (一)(二)" [Problem presentation 1,2]. Constitutional Amendment Draft Study Group (in Japanese). collected in complete36 2003, pp. 118-132
  12. ^ a b c Mishima, Yukio (1969). "自衛隊二分論" [Bisection of JSDF]. 20 Seiki (in Japanese). collected in complete35 2003, pp. 434-446
  13. ^ a b c Mishima, Yukio (1968). "栄誉の絆でつなげ菊と刀" [Connect them with bonds of honor, Chrysanthemum and Sword]. Nihon Oyobi Nihonjin(Seikyosha) (in Japanese). collected in complete35 2003, pp. 188-199
  14. ^ a b c Mishima, Yukio (1970). "我が国の自主防衛について" [About self-defense of our country]. Lecture at the 3rd Shinsei Doshikai Youth Politics Workshop (in Japanese). collected in complete36 2003, pp. 319-347, complete41 2004
  15. ^ Azusa 1996, pp. 31-47
  16. ^ Inose-e 2012
  17. ^ Matsumoto 1990, pp. 9-30
  18. ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Yukio Mishima". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on October 10, 2004.
  19. ^ Etsugu 1983, pp. 71-140
  20. ^ Inose-j 1999, pp. 25-111
  21. ^ Family tree of the Matsudaira family in Etsugu 1983, pp. 137-140, 234-235
  22. ^ "水戸支流松平氏(宍戸藩・御連枝) - Reichsarchiv ~世界帝王事典~". reichsarchiv.jp.
  23. ^ a b "Mishima, Yukio (1925-1970)". Archived from the original on February 21, 2015.
  24. ^ "Yukio Mishima (January 14, 1925 – November 25, 1970". Archived from the original on November 21, 2008.
  25. ^ Hiraoka, Shizue (1976). "暴流のごとく―三島由紀夫七回忌に" [Like as Turbulent water runs: On the sixth anniversary of Yukio Mishima’s death]. Shincho(Shinchosha) (in Japanese)., collected in Gunzo18 1990, pp. 193-204
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Azusa 1996, pp. 48-102
  27. ^ a b c Mishima, Yukio (1963). "私の遍歴時代" [My Wandering Period]. Tokyo Shimbun (in Japanese)., collected in complete32 2003, pp. 271-323
  28. ^
  29. ^ Okuno 2000, pp. 421-450
  30. ^ Encyclo 2000, pp. 335-345
  31. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1958). "「花ざかりの森」出版のころ" [When I published "Forest in Full Bloom"]. Gunzo(Kodansha) (in Japanese)., collected in complete30 2003, pp. 285-286
  32. ^ a b Shimizu, Fumio (1975). "「花ざかりの森」をめぐって" [Over the Hanazakari no Mori]. Appendix of "Yukio Mishima Complete Works No.1"(Shinchosha) (in Japanese). collected in N-Reader 1990, pp. 22-24
  33. ^ Taiyo 2010, p. 19
  34. ^ Hasuda, Zenmei (1941). "編集後記" [Editor's note]. Bungeibunka(Nihonbungaku No Kai) (in Japanese). collected in Jurō 2005, p. 116
  35. ^ Hasuda, Zenmei (1943). "古典の教育" [Education of Classic]. Bungaku (in Japanese). collected in Ando 1996, pp. 57-58
  36. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1960). "惟神之道" [The way of the Gods]. Private Note (in Japanese). collected in complete26 2003, pp. 88-90
  37. ^ a b Muramatsu 1990, pp. 469-503
  38. ^ Ando 1996, p. 59
  39. ^ a b Mitani 1999, pp. 11-133
  40. ^ a b Mishima, Yukio (1957). "学習院の卒業式" [The graduation ceremony of Gakushūin]. Style (in Japanese)., collected in complete29 2003, p. 499
  41. ^ complete42 2005, p. 95
  42. ^ Album 1983, p. 18
  43. ^ a b Mishima, Yukio (1957). "わが思春期" [My Puberty]. Myōjō(Shueisha) (in Japanese). collected in complete29 2003, pp. 339-408
  44. ^ photograph of the will in Album 1983, p. 21
  45. ^ Mishima’s letters to his friends(Makoto Mitani, Akira Kanzaki) and teacher Fumio Shimizu on August 1945, collected in complete38 2004, pp. 604,921-922,
  46. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1945). "戦後語録" [Postwar Diary]. Private Note (in Japanese). collected in complete26 2003, pp. 560-562
  47. ^ a b Yuasa 1984, pp. 105-128
  48. ^ Muramatsu 1990, pp. 78-97
  49. ^ Ando 1996, p. 85
  50. ^ Mishima's letter to Chikayoshi Ninagawa in 1949, Ando 1996, p. 120, Inose-j 1999, p. 262
  51. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1955). "終末感からの出発―昭和二十年の自画像" [A departure from feelings of ending: a self-portrait in 1945]. Shincho(Shinchosha) (in Japanese)., collected in complete28 2003, pp. 516-518
  52. ^ a b c Jurō 2005, pp. 99-156
  53. ^ Shima 2010, p. 262
  54. ^ The poetry is collected in complete37 2004, p. 762
  55. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1970). "「変革の思想」とは―道理の実現" [What is "Idea of reform": Realization of reason]. Yomiuri Shinbun (in Japanese). collected in complete36 2003, pp. 30-38
  56. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1970). "武士道と軍国主義" [Bushido and Militarism]. Weekly Playboy (in Japanese). collected in complete36 2003, pp. 247-266
  57. ^ Kimura 1995, pp. 247-267
  58. ^ Honda 2005, pp. 70-88
  59. ^ Muramatsu 1990, pp. 279-280
  60. ^ Inose-j 1999, pp. 346-347
  61. ^ Mishima's letter to Yasunari Kawabata on 18 December 1959, collected in complete38 2004, pp. 291-292
  62. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1968). "ファシストか革命家か" [Fascist or Revolutionist]. Eiga Geijutsu (in Japanese). collected in complete39 2004, pp. 729-760(dialogue with Nagisa Ōshima)
  63. ^ a b c d e f Kapur, Nick (2018). Japan at the Crossroads: Conflict and Compromise after Anpo. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 250–51. ISBN 978-0-674-98850-7.
  64. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1960). "一つの政治的意見" [A Political Opinion]. Mainichi Shinbun (in Japanese). collected in complete31 2003, pp. 433-436
  65. ^ Cooper-Chen, Anne; Kodama, Miiko (1997). Mass communication in Japan. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-8138-2710-0. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
  66. ^ Encyclo 2000, p. 149
  67. ^ Taiyo 2010, pp. 104-105
  68. ^ Ito 2006, pp. 164-168
  69. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1968). "作品の背景―「わが友ヒットラー」" [Background of the work My Friend Hitler]. Tokyo Shinbun (in Japanese). collected in complete35 2003, pp. 319-320
  70. ^ "Nomination Database: Yukio Mishima". Nobel prize. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  71. ^ Flanagan, Damian. "Mishima, Murakami and the elusive Nobel Prize". Japan Times. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  72. ^ McCarthy, Paul. "Revealing the many masks of Mishima". Japan Times. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  73. ^ Mishima, Yukio; Bataille, Georges (1995). My Mother/Madame Edwarda/The Dead Man. London: Marion Boyars. pp. 4, 11. ISBN 0-7145-3004-2.
  74. ^ Richie, Donald (2005). The Japan journals : 1947-2004. Berkeley, Calif.: Stone Bridge. pp. 148–149. ISBN 978-0-89346-984-9. OCLC 773692477.
  75. ^ a b Shiine 2012, pp. 27-33
  76. ^ Shiine 2012, p. 104
  77. ^ "Inside The Soviet KGB's Secret War On Western Books". RadioFreeEurope RadioLiberty. April 21, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  78. ^ Side 2014, pp. 71-74
  79. ^ Iwashita 2008, pp. 44-53
  80. ^ CITEREFIwashita2008
  81. ^ Iwashita 2008, CITEREFIwashita2011
  82. ^ Sheridan, Michael (March 27, 2005). "Briton let author commit hara kiri". The Sunday Times. ISSN 0956-1382. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
  83. ^ Scott-Stokes 2000
  84. ^ a b c Kakutani, Michiko (September 15, 1985). "Mishima: Film Examines an Affair with Death". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
  85. ^ a b c d e f Itasaka 1998, pp. 227-244
  86. ^ complete42 2005, pp. 365,367
  87. ^ Sato, Hiroaki (December 29, 2008). "Suppressing more than free speech". The View from New York. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  88. ^ "判決文・三島由紀夫の手紙無断使用事件(2)" [The judgment sentence: The case of unauthorized copying of Mishima’s letters]. Japan Uni Copyright Center (in Japanese). Retrieved August 23, 2020.
  89. ^ Fukushima 1998, p. 7, 273
  90. ^ Setouchi 2003
  91. ^ Kapur, Nick (2018). Japan at the Crossroads: Conflict and Compromise after Anpo. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 255–59. ISBN 978-0-674-98850-7.
  92. ^ Kapur, Nick (2018). Japan at the Crossroads: Conflict and Compromise after Anpo. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-674-98850-7.
  93. ^ a b Kapur, Nick (2018). Japan at the Crossroads: Conflict and Compromise after Anpo. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-674-98850-7.
  94. ^ Muramatsu 1990, pp. 305-324
  95. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1968). "国家革新の原理―学生とのティーチ・イン その一" [Principle of national innovation: Teach in with students (No.1)]. Hitotsubashi University Japanese Culture Study Group (in Japanese). collected in complete40 2004, pp. 204-232
  96. ^ Muramatsu 1990, pp. 348-372
  97. ^ Testi 2011, pp. 125-158
  98. ^ Side 2014, pp. 85-89
  99. ^ complete42 2005, pp. 267-268
  100. ^ Tokyo Olympics reports are collected in complete33 2003, pp. 171-196
  101. ^ Morita 2002, p. 60
  102. ^ a b Side 2014, pp. 152-155
  103. ^ a b Mishima, Yukio (1970). "劇画における若者論" [Theory of Youth in Gekiga]. Sunday Mainichi (in Japanese). collected in complete36 2003, pp. 53-56
  104. ^ a b Mishima, Yukio (1956). "わが漫画" [My manga]. Manga Yomiuri (in Japanese). collected in complete29 2003, pp. 166-169
  105. ^ a b Ōno, Shigeru (2009). サンデーとマガジン 創刊と死闘の15年 [The Sunday and Magazine: 15 years of Start and Struggles] (in Japanese). Kobunsha. ISBN 978-4334035037.
  106. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1955). "作家の日記" [Writer's Diary]. Shosetsu Shincho (in Japanese). collected in complete28 2003, pp. 501-503
  107. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1955). "ゴジラの卵―余技・余暇" [Godzilla's egg: Hobby/Leisure]. Chūōkōron (in Japanese). collected in complete28 2003, p. 667
  108. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1963). "一S・Fファンのわがままな希望" [Selfish hope of one SF fan]. Uchūjin (in Japanese). collected in complete32 2003, pp. 582-583
  109. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1970). "小説とは何か 十" [What is a Novel; 10]. Nami (in Japanese). collected in complete34 2003, pp. 732-737
  110. ^ Matsumoto 1990, p. 158
  111. ^ a b c Scott-Stokes 2012, pp. 168-170
  112. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1966). "二・二六事件と私" [”February 26 Incident” and me]. Appendix of Book "The Voices of the Heroic Dead"(Kawadeshoboshinsha) (in Japanese). collected in Heroic 2005, pp. 243-261,complete34 2003, pp. 107-119
  113. ^ "Mishima's Negative Political Theology". www.libraryofsocialscience.com. Retrieved 2020-07-19.
  114. ^ Heroic 2005
  115. ^ complete42 2005, p. 288
  116. ^ Suzuki 2005, pp. 62-63
  117. ^ Murata 2015, p. 15
  118. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1967). "インドの印象" [Impression of India]. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). collected in complete34 2003, pp. 585-594
  119. ^ letter to Katsuo Kikuchi collected in complete38 2004, p. 460
  120. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1959). "憂楽帳ー反乱" [Notes of Hope and Despair: The rebel]. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). collected in complete31 2003, p. 195
  121. ^ Flanagan, Damian (2015-08-22). "Descending to the depths of Yukio Mishima's Sea of Fertility". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2020-07-19.
  122. ^ a b Mishima, Yukio (1969). "「豊饒の海」について" [About The Sea of Fertility]. Mainichi Shinbun (in Japanese). collected in complete35 2003, pp. 410-412
  123. ^ Mishima, Yukio; Mitsuo, Nakamura (1968). 対談・人間と文学 [Dialogue: Human being and Literatures] (in Japanese). Kodansha. NCID BN04404448. collected in complete40 2004, pp. 43-175(dialogue with Mitsuo Nakamura)
  124. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1968). "文化防衛論" [Defense of the Culture]. Chūō Kōron (in Japanese). collected in complete35 2003, pp. 15-51
  125. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1969). "日本とは何か" [What is Japan]. Bungeishunjū (in Japanese). collected in complete35 2003, pp. 678-701
  126. ^ a b Mishima, Yukio (1969). "現代における右翼と左翼―リモコン左翼に誠なし" [Right-wing and left-wing in modern times: There is no sincerity in the remote control left wing]. Ryudo (in Japanese). collected in complete40 2004, pp. 567-583(dialogue with Hayashi Fusao)
  127. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1969). "STAGE-LEFT IS RIGHT FROM AUDIENCE" [Okinawa and Madame Butterfly’s Offspring]. The New York Times (in Japanese). collected in complete35 2003, pp. 740-743
  128. ^ Mishima's "An appeal"(last Manifesto) on 25 November 1970 was collected in complete36 2003, pp. 402-406
  129. ^ Sugiyama 2007, pp. 185-219
  130. ^ a b Date 1972, pp. 109-116
  131. ^ Date 1972, pp. 117-122
  132. ^ Nakamura 2015
  133. ^ Ando 1998, pp. 319-331
  134. ^ Mochi 2010, pp. 171-172
  135. ^ "Japanese Stunned by Samurai-Style Suicide of Novelist Mishima". Chicago Tribune. November 26, 1970. p. 88. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  136. ^ Keene, Donald (1988). The Pleasures of Japanese Literature. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 62. ISBN 0-231-06736-4. OCLC 18068964.
  137. ^ a b Yamamoto 2001, pp. 119-149, 192-237
  138. ^ Nakamura 2015, pp. 137-198
  139. ^ a b Jurō 2005, pp. 157-184
  140. ^ Nathan, John. Mishima: A biography, Little Brown and Company: Boston/Toronto, 1974.
  141. ^ Scott-Stokes, Henry (1971). "ミシマは偉大だったか" [Was Mishima great]. Shokun(Bungeishunjū) (in Japanese). collected in memorial 1999
  142. ^ Scott-Stokes 1985, pp. 25-27
  143. ^ Tokuoka 1999, pp. 238-269
  144. ^ a b Azusa 1996, pp. 103-164
  145. ^ a b c d e f g Azusa 1996, pp. 7-30
  146. ^ Date 1972, pp. 157-196
  147. ^ complete42 2005, pp. 330-334
  148. ^ Nakamura 2015, pp. 231-253
  149. ^ Kodama, Takaya (1970). "知られざる家庭人・三島由紀夫" [Unknown side of family man]. Josei Jishin (in Japanese).
  150. ^ Tokuoka 1999, pp. 238-269
  151. ^ Date 1972, pp. 271-304
  152. ^ Ando 1998, pp. 233-331
  153. ^ Shibata 2012, pp. 231-267
  154. ^ Komuro 1985, pp. 199-230
  155. ^ Notes of Confessions of a Mask is collected in complete27 2003, pp. 190-191
  156. ^ a b c Inoue 2010, pp. 245-250
  157. ^ Itasaka 2010, pp. 19-48
  158. ^ Suzuki 2005, pp. 111-188
  159. ^ Ando 1996, p. 428
  160. ^ Yamamoto 1980, pp. 290-298
  161. ^ Matsumoto 1990, p. 235
  162. ^ Azusa 1996, pp. 206-232
  163. ^ Matsumoto 1990, p. 244
  164. ^ Ando 1996, p. 446
  165. ^ Shelter, Scott (March 14, 2016). "The Rainbow Honor Walk: San Francisco's LGBT Walk of Fame". Quirky Travel Guy. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
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  168. ^ "Mishima and Bowie". Manwithoutquotes. January 8, 2017. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  169. ^ "読売文学賞" [Yomiuri Prize for Literature]. Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese). Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  170. ^ "Candidates for the 1963 Nobel Prize in Literature". Nobel Prize. 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
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  176. ^ Yamashita, Kunihiko (1991). 坂本龍一・全仕事 [Ryuichi Sakamoto Complete Works] (in Japanese). Ohta Shuppan.

Further reading[edit]

  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第26巻・評論1 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.26-criticisms 1] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425660.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第27巻・評論2 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.27-criticisms 2] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425677.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第28巻・評論3 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.28-criticisms 3] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425684.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第29巻・評論4 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.29-criticisms 4] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425691.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第30巻・評論5 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.30-criticisms 5] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425707.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第31巻・評論6 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.31-criticisms 6] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425714.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第32巻・評論7 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.32-criticisms 7] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425721.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第33巻・評論8 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.33-criticisms 8] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425738.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第34巻・評論9 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.34-criticisms 9] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425745.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第35巻・評論10 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.35-criticisms 10] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425752.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2003). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第36巻・評論11 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.36-criticisms 11] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425769.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2004). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第37巻・詩歌 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.37-Poetry] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425776.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2004). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第38巻・書簡 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.38-Letters] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425783.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2004). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第39巻・対談1 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.39-Dialogues 1] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425790.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2004). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第40巻・対談2 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.40-Dialogues 2] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425806.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2004). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第41巻・音声(CD) [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.41-Voices(CD)] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425813.
  • Satō Hideaki; Inoue Takashi; Yamanaka Takeshi, eds. (2005). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・第42巻・年譜・書誌 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works No.42-Biographical sketch and Bibliography] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425820.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2005). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・補巻・補遺・索引 [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works Supplementary volume-Addenda, Indexes] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425837.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2006). 決定版 三島由紀夫全集・別巻・映画「憂国」(DVD) [Definitive Edition-Yukio Mishima complete works Separate volume-movie "Patriotism"(DVD)] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106425844.
  • Mishima, Yukio (2005). 英霊の聲 オリジナル版 [The Voices of the Heroic Dead: Original version] (in Japanese) (Paperback ed.). Kawadeshoboshinsha. ISBN 978-4309407715. First original edition published 1966.
  • 新文芸読本 三島由紀夫 [New Literature Reader: Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Kawadeshoboshinsha. 1990. ISBN 978-4309701554.
  • 近代作家追悼文集成〈42〉三島由紀夫 [Collection of memorial text to modern writers 42: Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Yumanishobo. 1999. ISBN 978-4897146454.
  • Akiyama, Shun; Etō, Jun (1990). 三島由紀夫―群像日本の作家18 [Yukio Mishima: Sculptured group of Japanese author 18] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 978-4095670188.
  • Andō, Takeshi (1996). 三島由紀夫「日録」 ["Daily record" of Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Michitani. ISBN 978-4915841392.
  • Andō, Takeshi (1996). 三島由紀夫の生涯 [The life of Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Natsumeshobo. ISBN 978-4931391390.
  • Date, Munekatsu (1972). 裁判記録 「三島由紀夫事件」 [Judicial record of “Mishima Incident”] (in Japanese). Kodancha. NCID BN0140450X.
  • Etsugu, Tomoko (1983). 三島由紀夫 文学の軌跡 [Yukio Mishima: Trajectory of his literature] (in Japanese). Koronsha. NCID BN00378721.
  • Fukushima, Jirō (1998). 三島由紀夫―剣と寒紅 [Yukio Mishima: Sword and Winter red] (in Japanese). Bungeishunjū. ISBN 978-4163176307. This book is out of print now, for copyright violation.
  • Fukusima, jurō (2005). 再訂資料・三島由紀夫 [Re-edition Document: Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese) (enlarged ed.). Chobunsha. ISBN 978-4886951809. First edition published 1989.
  • Hiraoka, Azusa (1996). 伜・三島由紀夫 [My son: Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese) (Paperback ed.). Bungeishunjū. ISBN 978-4167162047. First edition published in May 1972.
  • Honda, Shōgo (2005). 物語 戦後文学史(上) [Story: Postwar literary history (first volume)] (in Japanese). Iwanami gendai bunko. ISBN 978-4006020910.
  • Inose, Naoki; Sato, Hiroaki (2012). Persona: A Biography of Yukio Mishima. Berkeley CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-61172-524-7. OCLC 826479168.
  • Inose, Naoki (1999). ペルソナ―三島由紀夫伝 [Persona: A Biography of Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese) (Paperback ed.). Bungeishunjū. ISBN 978-4167431099. First edition published in November 1995.
  • Inoue, Takashi (2010). 三島由紀夫 幻の遺作を読む―もう一つの『豊饒の海』 [Reading the Yukio Mishima's posthumous work which was not exhibited in public: Another The Sea of Fertility] (in Japanese). Kobunsha. ISBN 978-4334035945.
  • Isoda Koichi, ed. (1983). 新潮日本文学アルバム20 三島由紀夫 [Shincho Album for Japanese literature No.20 Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4106206207.
  • Itasaka, Gō (1998). 真説・三島由紀夫―謎の原郷 [A true theory/Yukio Mishima: Mysterious urheimat] (in Japanese). Natsumeshobo. ISBN 978-4931391444.
  • Itasaka, Gō; Suzuki, Kunio (2010). 三島由紀夫と一九七〇年 [Yukio Mishima and 1970] (in Japanese). Rokusaisha. ISBN 978-4846307721.
  • Itō, Katsuhiko (2006). 最後のロマンティーク 三島由紀夫 [Last romantic: Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Shinyosha. ISBN 978-4788509818.
  • Iwashita, Hisafumi (2008). 見出された恋 「金閣寺」への船出 [A love found: Sailing into "The Temple of the Golden Pavilion"] (in Japanese). Yuzankaku. ISBN 978-4639020240.
  • Iwashita, Hisafumi (2011). ヒタメン―三島由紀夫が女に逢う時… [The face with no mask: When Yukio Mishima meet a his woman…] (in Japanese). Yuzankaku. ISBN 978-4639021971. Paperback edition published in November 2016.
  • Kimura, Tokuzō (1995). 文芸編集者の戦中戦後 [Literary editor's wartime and postwar] (in Japanese). Ozorasha. ISBN 978-4756800077.
  • Komuro, Naoki (1985). 三島由紀夫が復活する [Yukio Mishima will be resurrected] (in Japanese). Mainichi Communications. ISBN 4895639010. Reprint edition published in November 2002 and April 2019.
  • Matsumoto, Tōru (1990). 三島由紀夫 年表作家読本 [Yukio Mishima: Author's Chronological Reader] (in Japanese). Kawadeshoboshinsha. ISBN 978-4309700526.
  • Matsumoto Tōru, ed. (2010). 別冊太陽 日本のこころ175―三島由紀夫 [”Separate volume Taiyo” Hearts of Japan 175: Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Heibonsha. ISBN 978-4582921755.
  • Mitani, Makoto (1999). 級友 三島由紀夫 [My classmate: Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese) (reprint ed.). Chukou-bunko. ISBN 978-4122035577. First edition published in July 1985.
  • Mochimaru, Hirosi; Satō, Matsuo (2010). 証言 三島由紀夫・福田恆存 たった一度の対決 [Testimonies: The only once showdown between Yukio Mishima and Tsuneari Fukuda] (in Japanese). Bungeishunjū. ISBN 978-4163732503.
  • Morita, Masakatsu (2002). わが思想と行動―遺稿集 [My thoughts and actions: Collection of manuscripts] (in Japanese) (New format ed.). Nisshin houdou. ISBN 978-4817405289. First edition published 1971.
  • Muramatsu, Takeshi (1990). 三島由紀夫の世界 [The world of Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4103214021. Paperback edition published 1996.
  • Murata, Haruki (2015). 三島由紀夫が生きた時代―楯の会と森田必勝 [The period when Yukio Mishima lived: The Tatenokai and Masakatsu Morita] (in Japanese). Seirindo. ISBN 978-4792605322.
  • Nakamura, Akihiko (2015). 三島事件 もう一人の主役―烈士と呼ばれた森田必勝 [Another protagonist of Mishima Incident: Masakatsu Morita who called Upright man] (in Japanese). Wakku. ISBN 978-4898317297.
  • Nathan, John (1974). Mishima: A biography. Boston/Toronto: Little Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0316598446.
  • Nathan, John (2000). 新版 三島由紀夫─ある評伝 [”New edition” Mishima: A biography] (in Japanese). Translated by Takehiko Noguchi (Revision ed.). Shinchosha. ISBN 978-4864100281. Old edition published in June 1976. (Old edition was out of print due to Mishima's family's claim that the book had parts of what they didn't say.)
  • Nosaka, Akiyuki (1991). 赫奕たる逆光―私説・三島由紀夫 [Brilliant backlight: Personal opinion about Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese) (Paperback ed.). Bungeishunjū. ISBN 978-4167119126. First edition published in November 1987.
  • Okayama, Norihiro (2014). 三島由紀夫外伝 [The Side story of Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Sairyusha. ISBN 978-4779170225.
  • Okuno, Takeo (2000). 三島由紀夫伝説 [Legend of Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese) (Paperback ed.). Shincho. ISBN 978-4101356020. First edition published in February 1993.
  • Satō Hideaki; Inoue Takashi; Matsumoto Tōru, eds. (2011). 同時代の証言 三島由紀夫 [Testimony of the same age: Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Kanaeshobo. ISBN 978-4907846770.
  • Satō Hideaki; Inoue Takashi; Matsumoto Tōru, eds. (2000). 三島由紀夫事典 [Encyclopedia of Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Benseishuppan. ISBN 978-4585060185.
  • Scott-Stokes, Henry (2000) [1974]. The Life and Death of Yukio Mishima (1st Cooper Square Press ed.). New York: Cooper Square Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-8154-1074-3. OCLC 44313407.
  • Scott-Stokes, Henry (1985). 三島由紀夫─死と真実 [The Life and Death of Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Translated by Takao Tokuoka. Diamond-sha. ISBN 978-4478940563. Revision edition published in November 1998(Seiryu-shuppan). ISBN 978-4916028525
  • Scott-Stokes, Henry; Kase, Hideaki (2012). なぜアメリカは、対日戦争を仕掛けたのか [Reason why America set a trap of the war against Japan] (in Japanese). Shodensha-shinsho. ISBN 978-4396112875.
  • Seikai, Ken (1992). 三島由紀夫とニーチェ―悲劇的文化とイロニー [Yukio Mishima and Nietzsche: Tragic culture and Irony] (in Japanese). Seikyūsha. ISBN 978-4787290663.
  • Seikai, Ken (2000). 三島由紀夫の帰還―青海健評論集 [Return of Yukio Mishima: Seikai Ken criticism collection] (in Japanese). Ozawashoten. ISBN 978-4755103933.
  • Setouchi, Jakucho; Miwa, Akihiro (2003). ぴんぽんぱん ふたり話 [Pin-pon-pan: Talk for two] (in Japanese). Shueisha. ISBN 978-4087752953.
  • Shibata, Shōji (2012). 三島由紀夫 作品に隠された自決への道 [Yukio Mishima: Road to the self-determination hidden in his works] (in Japanese). Shodensha. ISBN 978-4396113001.
  • Shiine, Yamato (2012). 完全版 平凡パンチの三島由紀夫 [Full version: Yukio Mishima of "Heibon-Punch"] (in Japanese). Matsurikasha(Kawadeshoboshinsha). ISBN 978-4309909639. First old edition published in March 2007 by Shinchosha.
  • Shimauchi, Keiji (2010). 三島由紀夫―豊饒の海へ注ぐ [Yukio Mishima: Flows into The Sea of Fertility]. Minerva Japan biography selection (in Japanese). Minerva-shobo. ISBN 978-4623059126.
  • Sugiyama, Takao (2007). 「兵士」になれなかった三島由紀夫 [Yukio Mishima who could not become a "Soldier"]. Heishi (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 978-4093797733. Paperback edition published in April 2010.
  • Suzuki Ayumi; Tamura Tsukasa, eds. (2015). 火群のゆくへ―元楯の会会員たちの心の軌跡 [Whereabouts of the fire group: The trajectories of their hearts who once belonged to the Tatenokai] (in Japanese). Hakurosha. ISBN 978-4434070662.
  • Tokuoka, Takao (1999). 五衰の人―三島由紀夫私記 [Decayed Angel: Private Notes about Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese) (Paperback ed.). Bungeishunjū. ISBN 978-4167449032. First edition published in November 1996.
  • Yamamoto, Kiyokatsu (1980). 三島由紀夫・憂悶の祖国防衛賦―市ケ谷決起への道程と真相 [Yukio Mishima, An anguish verse of Motherland Defense: The road to the Ichigaya decision and the truth] (in Japanese). Nihon Bungeisha. NCID BN10688248.
  • Yamamoto, Kiyokatsu (2001). 自衛隊「影の部隊」―三島由紀夫を殺した真実の告白 [Japan Self-Defense Forces "A unit of Shadow": Confession of truth killed Yukio Mishima] (in Japanese). Kodansha. ISBN 978-4062107815.
  • Yuasa, Atsuko (1984). ロイと鏡子 [Roy & Kyoko] (in Japanese). Chuoukoronsha. ISBN 978-4120012761. Atsuko Yuasa (湯浅あつ子) was an old friend of Mishima, and her house was model of Kyōko no Ie (鏡子の家, "Kyōko no Ie").

External links[edit]