At Homosassa, Yulee established a sugar cane plantation, which was destroyed during the American Civil War. The original plantation covered more than 5,000 acres (2,000 ha), and was worked by approximately 1,000 enslaved African Americans. They raised sugar cane, citrus, and cotton. The large mill (which was steam-driven) ran from 1851 to 1864. It produced sugar, syrup and molasses, the latter used in making rum.
At the park, the stonework (foundation, well and 40-foot chimney) of the mill, iron gears, a cane press, and some of the other machinery remain. The site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 12, 1970.