Yunnan cuisine

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Yunnan cuisine
Traditional Chinese 雲南菜
Simplified Chinese 云南菜
Dian cuisine
Chinese 滇菜
Mixian (rice noodles) being cooked in copper pots on gas stoves at a restaurant in Kunming.
Ingredients used for dishes in Yunnan cuisine
Street barbeque vendor in Kunming. Jianshui tofu is at the centre. Clockwise from top: Shiping tofu, potato skewers, Jianshui tofu skewers, processed meat sticks, probably beef skewers (often fatty) and another type of meat.
Street vendors. From bottom-left: quail eggs, two types of vinegar preserved vegetables (probably radish), bamboo rice (竹饭 zhufan), barbequed Jianshui tofu, roasted corn.

Yunnan cuisine, alternatively known as Dian cuisine, is an amalgam of the cuisines of the Han Chinese and other ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. As the province with the largest number of ethnic minority groups, Yunnan cuisine is vastly varied, and it is difficult to make generalisations. Many Yunnan dishes are quite spicy, and mushrooms are featured prominently. Flowers, ferns, algae and insects may also be eaten.

Three of the province's most famous products are the renowned Pu'er tea which was traditionally grown in Ning'er; as well as Xuanwei ham, which is often used to flavour stewed and braised foods in Chinese cuisine and for making the stocks and broths of many Chinese soups, and guoqiao (crossing the bridge), a rice noodle soup with chicken, pig's kidney and liver, fish and pickled pork.

Yunnan cuisine is unique in China for its cheeses like Rubing and Rushan cheese made by the Bai people, and its yogurt; the prominence of yogurt in the local cuisine may have been due to a combination of Mongolian influence during the Yuan dynasty, the Central Asian settlement in Yunnan, and the proximity and influence of India and Tibet on Yunnan.[1]

Notable dishes[edit]

English Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Pinyin Origin Description
Baba 粑粑 粑粑 bābā Naxi A thick, round and heavy bread, either prepared plain or with various fillings.
Banana flower 芭蕉花 芭蕉花 bājiāo huā Dai/Zhuang people The heart of the banana flower. Frequently eaten roasted in banana leaves on an open barbecue, but also stir-fried.
Pineapple rice 菠蘿飯 菠萝饭 bōluó fàn Dai people Pineapple rice. It is found in Xishuangbanna and others areas populated by Dai people.
Erkuai 餌塊 饵块 ěrkuài Bai people (Dali Prefecture) Highly refined and compressed rice cakes.
Crossing the bridge noodles 過橋米線 过桥米线 guò qiáo mǐxiàn Han Chinese Literally means "crossing the bridge noodles" or "across the bridge noodles". It is Yunnan's best known dish. It typically consists of a bowl of boiling chicken soup, to which diners add their own selection of thin meat slices, mixian, vegetables and spices, much like a hot pot. It is ubiquitous throughout the province.
Adzuki beans 紅豆 红豆 hóngdòu Adzuki beans have been used in Yunnan for millennia. Earliest domesticated examples are known from tombs in Japan (4,000 BCE), then China and Korea (3,000 BCE). Genetic evidence indicates that the bean later crossbred with native species in the Himalayas, and Yunnan was probably exposed to the ingredient at the time. Frequently prepared fried with kale or mint.
Jidou liangfen 雞豆涼粉 鸡豆凉粉 jīdòu liángfěn Naxi people (Lijiang) A savoury jelly made from gram flour.
Juecai 蕨菜 蕨菜 juécài In high altitudes, often the first green growth in spring. Immature fronds of bracken ferns, such as osmunda japonica.[2] Stir-fried or in soup.
Granny's potato 老奶洋芋 老奶洋芋 lǎonǎi yángyù A local mashed potato style dish typically flavoured with spring onions and chilli.
Lufu 滷腐 卤腐 lǔfǔ Northern China, via the Mongols (during the Yuan dynasty) A type of fermented beancurd, typically used as a condiment or made into sauces, often used on erkuai. It is reddish-yellow in colour, with a soft texture and a savoury flavour.
Migan / Mixian 米干 / 米線 米干 / 米线 mǐgàn / mǐxiàn Dai people / Han Chinese Fresh Yunnanese rice noodles, typically served either in a soup of broth or stir-fried.
Pu'er tea 普洱茶 普洱茶 pǔ'ěr chá Han Chinese (Ning'er) Famous dark tea that had gained popularity worldwide for its health benefits.
Steam pot chicken 氣鍋雞 气锅鸡 qì guō jī Han Chinese (Jianshui) Literally means "steam pot chicken". It consists of chicken steamed with tonics and herbs in a ceramic pot.
Rubing 乳餅 乳饼 rǔbǐng Bai people (Dali Prefecture) Cheese made from goat's milk.
Rushan 乳扇 乳扇 rǔshān Bai people (Dali Prefecture) Cheese made from cow's milk.
Shiping tofu 石屏豆腐 石屏豆腐 shípíng dòufǔ Han Chinese via the Mongols (Shiping) Traditional bean curd made in Shiping County, dating from the Yuan dynasty.
Xuanwei ham 宣威腿 宣威腿 Xuānwēi tuǐ Han Chinese (Qujing) Traditional ham made in Xuanwei, a county-level city in Qujing. It dates from the Ming dynasty.
Yiliang roast duck 宜良烤鴨 宜良烤鸭 yíliáng kǎoyā Han Chinese (Yiliang) A crispy skin roast duck similar to Peking duck, but honey is used to crisp and colour the skin. It is roasted with pine branches and needles, which impart a unique flavour to the dish.
Zhe'ergen 折耳根 折耳根 zhé'ěrgēn Yelang An edible rhizome with a fresh, spicy and peppery flavour. The leaves are also eaten.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anderson, E. N. (1988). The Food of China (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Yale University Press. pp. 91, 178, 207. ISBN 0300047398. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  2. ^ "Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China" (PDF).