- For the place and area in Persia/Iran see Yunesi.
|Prince Lian of the First Rank
Portrait of Yunsi
|Prince Lian of the First Rank of the Qing Dynasty|
|Predecessor||(None. Title created.)|
|House||House of Aisin-Gioro|
|Born||29 March 1681|
|Died||5 October 1726(aged 45)|
|Manchu script||ᠶᡡᠨ ᠰᡟ|
Yunsi (Chinese: 允禩, 29 March 1681 - 5 October 1726), born Yinsi (胤禩), was a Manchu prince of the Qing Dynasty in China. The eighth son of the Kangxi Emperor, Yunsi was a pivotal figure in the battle for succession to the imperial throne. Yunsi was believed to be favoured by most officials at the court of Kangxi to be the next Emperor but ultimately lost the struggle to the fourth prince, who became the Yongzheng Emperor.
Nevertheless, after Yongzheng ascended the throne in 1723, Yunsi was named a top advisor to the new emperor and imperial chancellor (i.e. prime minister), the head of Lifan Yuan, in addition to being created Prince Lian of the highest noble rank (Lian Qinwang; 廉亲王). He was removed from office four years later, his titles stripped, then he was banished from the imperial clan. He was charged with a litany of crimes and sent to prison, where he died in disgrace. He was posthumously rehabilitated during the Qianlong Emperor's reign.
Yunsi was born Yinsi to the Kangxi Emperor and Consort Liang (née Wei), a Manchu woman of the Plain Yellow Banner. Consort Liang was seen by some historians as coming from a disadvantaged background, because she was a member of the "Sin Jeku" (Chinese: 辛者庫) slave caste before she became Kangxi's consort. While that also had an impact on Yinsi's prestige within the ranks of Kangxi's princes, it also resulted in him becoming a knowledgeable person, and Yinsi was later seen was one of Kangxi's favorite sons.
Battle for the Throne
When Yinreng was stripped of his Crown Prince title or the first time, Yinsi was seen as a serious contender for the Crown Prince title. By that point, Yinsi had already established a strong base of support within the Qing court, which included many top-ranking court officers, in addition to Ninth Prince Yintang, Tenth Prince Yin’e, and the 14th Prince Yinti. Collectively, the power base was referred to as the Eighth Lord Party (八爺黨), which saw itself at odds with the Crown Prince Party (太子黨). Yinsi himself was also called "The Eighth Worthy Prince" (八賢王).
Yinreng was later restored to the Crown Prince position, but was once again stripped of his Crown Prince title a few years later. Once again, officials at court recommended to Kangxi that Yinsi take over as Crown Prince. Kangxi was reportedly angry at Yinsi's posturing, and stripped him of his Doroi Beile position and stipend (later restored). This is largely due to Kangxi sensing that Yinsi may well have amassed clout greater than himself. Thereafter, Yinsi threw his weight behind the 14th Prince Yinti, who was seen by most court observers as being destined for the throne.
Yongzheng Emperor's Reign
After his older brother, the fourth prince Yinzhen became Yongzheng Emperor in 1722, Yinsi changed his name to "Yunsi" to avoid using the same character as the Emperor's personal name, considered taboo.
At first, Yongzheng created Yunsi as "Prince Lian of the First Rank" (和碩廉親王) and he sat on the emperor's top advisory board along with Yinxiang, Ma Qi, and Longkodo. However, the Yongzheng Emperor frequently criticized Yunsi for not performing his duties properly. By 1725, Yunsi had completely lost favour with the emperor, and became the target of trumped-up charges and accusations that eventually led to the stripping of Yunsi's Princely title, along with his removal from the Imperial Household.
Yunsi died in captivity, four years after his brother Yinzhen ascended to the throne as Yongzheng Emperor. He was posthumously rehabilitated after the death of Yongzheng, and restored to the imperial clan under the name "Yunsi", during Qianlong Emperor's reign.
Meaning of "Acina"
"Acina" is a Manchu language term that has traditionally been translated to "Pig" in Chinese. However, there is some dispute as to whether that is an accurate translation. Some scholars suggest "Acina" actually means "Shameless", "Frozen Fish", "Fish on the Chopping Block", or "Meat on the Chopping Block".
- Father: Kangxi Emperor
- Mother: Consort Liang (良妃), from the Wei (衛) clan, daughter of Interior Guanling (內管領; similar to the Japanese kanrei) Abunai (阿布鼐).
- Lady Gorolo (郭絡羅氏), Yunsi's primary spouse, daughter of Heshuo Prince Consort (和碩額駙) Mingshang (明尚).
- Lady Zhang (張氏), Yunsi's concubine, daughter of Zhang Zhibi (張之碧).
- Lady Mao (毛氏), Yunsi's concubine, daughter of Mao Erge (毛二格).
- Hongwang (弘旺; 27 January 1708 - 16 December 1762), Yunsi's son, born to Lady Zhang. Name later changed to Pusabao by Yunsi.
- Daughter (24 June 1708 - 11 January 1776), personal name unknown, born to Lady Mao, married Sun Wufu (孫五福) in 1724.
|Ancestors of Yunsi|
- Xia, Xin (12 October 2012). "揭秘康熙所有兒子們的下場 (Revealing The Ending Of All Of Kangxi's Sons)". Xinhuanet.com (in Chinese). Huasheng Online (華聲在線). Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- Wang, Jia (9 February 2011). "歷史上真實的胤禩 (The True Yinsi In History)". Huaxia.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- Yu, Yuanxuan (28 January 2013). "【如是觀史】 阿其那與塞斯黑 (Looking At History: Acina and Seshe)". Merit Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- Wang, Ruifen. "康熙大帝17個兒子的生死命運 (The Fate Of Kangxi Emperor's 17 Sons)". CRI Online (in Chinese). Chinese Radio International. Retrieved 28 July 2014.