Yuri Orlov

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For the zoologist, see Yuri Alexandrovich Orlov.
Not to be confused with the fictional lead character in the film Lord of War.
Yuri Fyodorovich Orlov
Orlov photo.jpg
Orlov, Summer 2008
Native name Юрий Фёдорович Орлов
Born (1924-08-13) 13 August 1924 (age 92)
Moscow, USSR
Citizenship
Nationality Russian
Fields nuclear physics
Institutions
Alma mater Moscow State University, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics
Known for participation in Soviet atomic bomb project and human rights movement in the Soviet Union
Notable awards Carter-Menil Human Rights Prize (1986), honorary doctorate Uppsala University (1990)[1] Nicholson Medal for Humanitarian Service (1995), Andrei Sakharov Prize (APS) (2006)
Spouse
Children sons Dmitri, Aleksandr,[6] Lev[2]
from Orlov’s interview for Ekho Moskvy, 11 May 2011

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Yuri Fyodorovich Orlov (Russian: Ю́рий Фёдорович Орло́в, born 13 August 1924 in Moscow) is Professor of Physics and Government at Cornell University, a former Soviet dissident,[7] Soviet nuclear physicist and human rights activist,[8] a founder of the Moscow Helsinki Group[9] and Soviet Amnesty International group.[10] He was declared a prisoner of conscience[11] when served nine years in prison and internal exile for monitoring the Helsinki human rights accords[12] as a founder of human rights movement in the Soviet Union.[13]

Early career[edit]

Yuri Orlov was born into a working-class family on 13 August 1924 and grew up in a village near Moscow.[14] His parents were Klavdiya Petrovna Lebedeva and Fyodor Pavlovich Orlov.[2] In March 1933, his father died.[2]

From 1944 to 1946, Orlov served as an officer in the Soviet army.[15] In 1952, he graduated from the Moscow State University and began his postgraduate studies at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics[16] where he later worked as a physicist.[15]

In 1956, Orlov nearly lost his career of scientist due to his speech at the party meeting devoted to the discussion of the report On the Personality Cult and its Consequences by Khrushchev at the 20th Congress of the CPSU. Then he publicly called Stalin and Beria "killers who were in power" and put forward the requirement of "democracy on the basis of socialism."[17] For the pro-democracy speech he made in 1956, he was expelled from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and fired from his job.[15]

"What is the meaning of life? That your soul may outlive your remains in something sacred and should escape decay... I have again looked at, added up, corrected, and sized up what I have been doing during these last years and have seen that this is good..." (Yuri Orlov, 1980)[18]

Orlov obtained the Candidate of Sciences degree in 1958 and the Doctor of Sciences degree in 1963.[16] He became an expert on particle acceleration.[14] In 1968, he was elected a corresponding member of the Armenian Academy of Sciences[14] after he found work at the Yerevan Physics Institute.[15] In 1972, he came back to Moscow and worked at the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism.[15]

Dissident[edit]

In September 1973, when Pravda published a statement by a group of prominent academicians denouncing Andrei Sakharov's anti-patriotic activity, Orlov decided to support him, while recollecting the well memorized spells of the 1930s, in which some academicians demanded the death penalty for others already arrested; later some of these academicians themselves were arrested; and then third academicians, still alive, publicly demanded the death penalty for them.[17][19]:163[20]:161

Defending academician Sakharov, Orlov on 16 September 1973 wrote "Open Letter to L.I. Brežnev about the Reasons for the Intellectual Backwardness in the USSR and Proposals to Overcome It"[21] which appeared in underground samizdat circulation.[22] The Western press published the letter in 1974[23] but its publication in the Russian press took place only in 1991.[24]

In the early 1970s, the article by Yuri Orlov "Is a Non-Totalitarian Type of Socialism Possible?" also appeared in underground samizdat circulation.[22]

In 1973, he was fired after becoming a founding member of the first Amnesty International group in the Soviet Union.[15]

In May 1976, he organised the Moscow Helsinki Group and became its chairman.[15] Andrei Sakharov praised Orlov for systematically documenting Soviet violations of the human rights provisions of the Helsinki accords.[25] Orlov ignored orders to disband the Moscow Helsinki Group when the KGB told him the group was illegal.[26] The KGB head Yuri Andropov determined, "The need has thus emerged to terminate the actions of Orlov, fellow Helsinki monitor Ginzburg and others once and for all, on the basis of existing law."[27]

Arrest and trial[edit]

On 10 February 1977, Orlov was arrested.[28][29][30] In March 1977, Orlov published the article about his arrest "The road to my arrest."[31] In a closed trial, he was denied the right to examine evidence and to call witnesses.[32]

The courtroom was filled with some 50 individuals selected by authorities, while supporters and friends of Orlov, including Andrei Sakharov, were barred from entering because there was no room.[6] Orlov's summation was interrupted many times by the judge and the prosecutor and by spectators who shouted "spy" and "traitor."[6] According to Orlov’s wife Irina, hostile spectators in the courtroom applauded the sentence and shouted: "You should have given him more."[33]

Orlov at the trial argued that he has a right to criticize the government and a right to circulate such criticism under the freedom of information provisions of the Helsinki Accords.[6] Orlov also argued that he circulated such information for humanitarian, not subversive, reasons.[6] On 15 May 1978, Orlov was sentenced to seven years of a labour camp and five years internal exile for his work with the Moscow Helsinki Group.[34]

Protests over Orlov's trial[edit]

US President Jimmy Carter expressed his concern over the severity of the sentence and the secrecy of the trial.[35] Washington senator Henry M. Jackson said, "The Orlov trial, and the Ginzburg and Shcharansky incarcerations, are dramatic cases in point" when discussing Soviet breaches of law.[36] The US National Academy of Sciences has officially protested against the trial of Orlov.[37]

In the summer of 1978, 2400 American scientists[38] including physicists at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory created Scientists for Sakharov, Orlov and Shcharansky (SOS), an international movement to promote and protect the human rights of scientists.[39]:547 An initiator of SOS was American physicist Andrew Sessler,[40] its chairman was Prof. Morris Pripstein.[41]

Scientists at CERN have spoken out against the imprisonment of Orlov for "disseminating anti-Soviet propaganda".[42] 43 physicists have called off Soviet trips to protest the jailing of Orlov.[43]

Imprisonent and exile[edit]

A street in Kobyay

For the first year and a half, Orlov was imprisoned in Lefortovo Prison, then Perm Camp 35 and 37.[18] In Perm Camp 37, he has mounted three hunger strikes to make the prison authorities return his confiscated writings and notes.[44] Two articles written by Orlov in the camp were smuggled and published abroad.[45] On 5 July 1983, the Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky sent the Soviet leader Yuri Andropov a letter asking for the release of Orlov to Austria, but it was intentionally left without an answer.[46]

The New York-based Helsinki Watch issued a statement about Orlov’s health deterioration, "He has frequent headaches and dizzy spells, resulting from an old skull injury. He suffers from kidney and prostate inflammation, low blood pressure, rheumatic pains, toothaches, insomnia and vitamin deficiency. Medical care in the labor camp is extremely inadequate."[25] Orlov also suffered from tuberculosis.[47] He has lost a good deal of weight and most of his teeth.[48] Orlov’s wife said he looked extremely emaciated and that she was "very fearful for my husband's health. The authorities are gradually killing him."[49]

In 1984, Orlov was exiled to Kobyay in Siberia and was allowed to buy a house with a garden.[30] On 14 November 1985, Professor George Wald raised the case of Orlov in a talk with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev who answered he had not heard of Orlov.[50]

Emigration and US citizenship[edit]

On 30 September 1986, the KGB proposed to expel Orlov from the Soviet Union after depriving him of his Soviet citizenship and met with approval from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[51] Orlov's discharge from Siberian exile was part of the U.S.–Soviet deal to release journalist Nicholas Daniloff.[52] Orlov’s release from exile and expulsion from the USSR lifted hopes among Westerners that the Helsinki process might finally start yielding progress.[53] US President Jimmy Carter said, "As for Orlov, we're very delighted with this happy occurrence. We would like to meet with him if he comes to this country, but I don't know that he will. I have no way of knowing his plans."[54]

Orlov, 24 November 1986

On 10 December 1986, Orlov was awarded with the Carter-Menil Human Rights Prize of $100,000.[55]:253

Since 1987, Orlov has been working at Cornell University as a scientist.[56] A member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Orlov studies particle accelerator design, beam interaction analysis and quantum mechanics. He has authored and coauthored numerous research papers,[57] articles on human rights,[58] and an autobiography, Dangerous Thoughts (1991).[59]

In 1990, Gorbachev restored Soviet citizenship to Orlov and other 23 prominent exiles and emigres who lost the right in the period from 1966 to 1988.[60][61][62] Orlov told Gorbachev, "I would say you have a very great power in your hands, the K.G.B., and you should therefore carry out your reforms without fearing anyone at all. Afterward, you should liquidate the K.G.B., because it is a cancer."[63] On 18 July 1991, Orlov and Elena Bonner wrote an open letter about the fact that Soviet army and special troops have been systematically deporting thousands of Armenians from Azerbaijan to Armenia.[64]

In 1993, Orlov received American citizenship.[65]

In 1995 the American Physical Society awarded him the Nicholson Medal for Humanitarian Service.[66] In 2005 he was named the first recipient of the Andrei Sakharov Prize, awarded biennially by the American Physical Society to honor scientists for exceptional work in promoting human rights.[66][67] In 2004, Orlov expressed his opinion about Russia and Vladimir Putin by saying, "Russia is flying backwards in time. Putin is like Stalin, and he speaks in the language of the thug, the mafia."[68] However, on 24 March 2005, Orlov wrote a letter to Putin to express Orlov's disquiet over the criminal prosecution of Anna Mikhalchuk, Yuri Samodurov, and Ludmila Vasilovskaya in the case concerning the Sakharov Museum exhibit on religion.[69]

Orlov participated in two documentaries about the Soviet dissident movement, the 2005 one They Chose Freedom[70] and in the 2014 one Parallels, Events, People.

He is a member of the Human Rights Watch Asia Advisory and Academic Freedom Committees, and member of the Honorary 25th Anniversary Committee, Global Rights.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.uu.se/en/about-uu/traditions/prizes/honorary-doctorates/
  2. ^ a b c d "Орлов Юрий Федорович (р. 1924)" [Orlov Yuri Fyodorovich (b. 1924)] (in Russian). The Sakharov Center. 
  3. ^ Shultz, George (1993). Turmoil and triumph: my years as secretary of state. Scribner's. p. 749. ISBN 0684193256. 
  4. ^ "Yuri Orlov vows he'll continue to struggle for human rights". Kentucky New Era. 2 October 1986. p. 48. 
  5. ^ "The Yuri Orlov file". The National Security Archive. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Orlov receives maximum sentence" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LXXXV (113). 21 May 1978. p. 2. 
  7. ^ Human Rights Watch World Report 1990. Human Rights Watch. 1991. p. 296. 
  8. ^ Zellick, Graham (March 1980). "The criminal trial and the disruptive defendant". The Modern Law Review. 43 (2): 121–135. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2230.1980.tb01585.x. JSTOR 1094873. 
  9. ^ "CERN turns its back on Yuri Orlov". New Scientist. 91 (1260): 4. 2 July 1981. 
  10. ^ Garelik, Glenn (21 July 1991). "Science and dissidence". The Washington Post. 
  11. ^ Halperin, Israel (December 1984). "Prisoners of conscience". Physics Today. 37 (12): 94. Bibcode:1984PhT....37l..94H. doi:10.1063/1.2916026. 
  12. ^ "Orlov receives red carpet from Western science". New Scientist. 112 (1529): 16. 9 October 1986. 
  13. ^ "Founder of the Soviet human-rights movement". U.S. News & World Report. 101 (16): 23. 10 October 1986. 
  14. ^ a b c Wren, Christopher (1 October 1986). "Man in the news; a pragmatic crusader: Yuri Fyodorovich Orlov". The New York Times. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Andrei Sakharov and human rights. Council of Europe. 2010. p. 151. ISBN 9287169470. 
  16. ^ a b Marshak, Robert (September 1978). "Orlov dissident trial in perspective". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 34 (7): 5–6. doi:10.1080/00963402.1978.11458529. 
  17. ^ a b "Юрий Орлов. Человек-легенда" [Yuri Orlov. Legendary man]. Radio Liberty (in Russian). 15 August 2014. 
  18. ^ a b Bailey, Anthony (25 April 1983). "Orlov". The New Yorker: 40. 
  19. ^ Orlov, Yuri (1991). "Chapter thirteen. In the opposition". Dangerous Thoughts. Memoirs of a Russian Life. New York: William Morrow and Company. pp. 163–176. ISBN 0688104711. 
  20. ^ Орлов, Юрий (1992). "Глава тринадцатая. В оппозиции" [Chapter thirteen. In the opposition]. Опасные мысли: Мемуары из рус. жизни [Dangerous Thoughts. Memoirs of a Russian Life] (in Russian). Moscow: Аргументы и факты. pp. 161–174. ISBN 585272002X. 
  21. ^ De Boer, S. P.; Driessen, Evert; Verhaar, Hendrik (1982). Biographical dictionary of dissidents in the Soviet Union: 1956–1975. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 405. ISBN 9024725380. 
  22. ^ a b Shifman, Mikhail (ed.) (2015). Physics in a mad world. World Scientific. p. 445. ISBN 9814619310. 
  23. ^ Orlov 1974.
  24. ^ Aksyutin & Medvedev 1991.
  25. ^ a b Eaton, William (1 October 1986). "Harshly treated: Orlov: ordeal for symbol of dissent ends". The Los Angeles Times. 
  26. ^ Potok, Chaim; Slepak, Leonid; Slepak, Vladimir; Slepak, Alexander; Slepak, Maria (2010). The gates of November. Random House Publishing Group. p. 175. ISBN 0307575519. 
  27. ^ Snyder, Sarah (2011). Human rights activism and the end of the Cold War: a transnational history of the Helsinki network. Cambridge University Press. p. 73. ISBN 1139498924. 
  28. ^ Shanker, Thom (1 October 1986). "Bitter Siberian ordeal ends at last for Yuri Orlov". Bangor Daily News. p. 9. 
  29. ^ Bailey, Anthony (19 September 1977). "Defending Yuri Orlov". The New Yorker: 29. 
  30. ^ a b "Yuri Orlov Soviet dissident group founder". UPI. 6 October 1986. 
  31. ^ Orlov 1977.
  32. ^ Oshins, Eddie (3 February 1983). "The case of Yuri Orlov". The New York Review of Books. 
  33. ^ "Yuri Orlov sentenced to 12 years". Herald-Journal. Vol. 106 (99). 19 May 1978. 
  34. ^ "CERN scientists speak out for Orlov". New Scientist. 94 (1306): 473. 20 May 1982. 
  35. ^ Carter, Jimmy. "Presidential Documents. Week Ending Friday, May 26, 1978". Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Jimmy Carter, 1978, Book 1: January 1 to June 30, 1978. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. p. 938. 
  36. ^ "U.S. senators seek Nobel for Helsinki groups" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LXXXV (159). 16 July 1978. pp. 1–2. 
  37. ^ Ziman, John (January 1979). "Science and human rights". Index on Censorship. 8 (1): 41–44. doi:10.1080/03064227908532880. 
  38. ^ "Soviet physicist could face new jail term". New Scientist. 101 (1396): 4. 9 February 1984. 
  39. ^ Pripstein, Morris (1991). "Sakharov, scientists, and human rights; a personal recollection". Andrei Sakharov: facets of a life. Atlantica Séguier Frontières. pp. 546–548. ISBN 2863320963. 
  40. ^ Sessler, Andrew (1 April 1995). "Physicist and the eternal struggle for human rights". Bulletin of the American Physical Society. 40 (2). 
  41. ^ Lipkin, Harry (2013). Andrei Sakharov: quarks and the structure of matter. World Scientific. p. 11. ISBN 9814407437. 
  42. ^ "A small word in support of Orlov". New Scientist. 96 (1331): 341. 11 November 1982. 
  43. ^ O'Toole, Thomas (3 June 1978). "Orlov's sentence causes third U.S. physicist group to cancel Russian trip". The Washington Post. 
  44. ^ "Concerns about Orlov's health". New Scientist: 592. 22 November 1979. 
  45. ^ Orlov (1981, 1982)
  46. ^ About the letter by Bruno Kreisky to the Soviet leader Yuri Andropov
  47. ^ "Soviet dissident Orlov reported terminally ill". Los Angeles Times. 15 November 1985. 
  48. ^ "Yuri Orlov is reported very sick" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LII (24). 10 June 1984. p. 2. 
  49. ^ "Concern about Orlov's health". New Scientist. 84 (1182): 592. 22 November 1979. 
  50. ^ "Russian dissident Yuri Orlov close to death, says scientist". The Glasgow Herald. 15 November 1985. 
  51. ^ "О лишении гражданства и выдворении из СССР Орлова Ю.Ф." [On the deprivation of citizenship and expulsion of Orlov Yu F. from the USSR] (PDF) (in Russian). Soviet archives collected by Vladimir Bukovsky. 30 September 1986. 
  52. ^ Valentine, Paul (6 October 1986). "Soviet dissident Orlov starts 'a new life' in U.S.". The Washington Post. 
  53. ^ Snyder, Sarah. Human rights activism and the end of the Cold War: a transnational history of the Helsinki network. Cambridge University Press. p. 168. ISBN 1139498924. 
  54. ^ "Yuri Orlov wins human rights award". Lodi News-Sentinel. 1 October 1986. 
  55. ^ Hochman, Steven (2009). "Carter center". In Forsythe, David. Encyclopedia of human rights. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. pp. 252–256. ISBN 0195334027. 
  56. ^ Lanier, Alfredo (5 June 2000). "Network forms to aid scholars at risk". The Chicago Tribune. 
  57. ^ Orlov's research papers
  58. ^ Orlov 1979; Orlov & Bethell 1987; Orlov (1988a, 1988b); Gottfried & Orlov 1989; Birman, Lizhi & Winick 1994
  59. ^ Sessler, Andrew (1991). "Book Review: Dangerous Thoughts: Memoirs of a Russian Life". Physics Today. 44 (11): 92. Bibcode:1991PhT....44k..92S. doi:10.1063/1.2810325. 
  60. ^ "Citizenship: better late than never". Time. 27 August 1990. 
  61. ^ "Solzhenitsyn, 22 others qet citizenship back". The Pittsburgh Press. 16 August 1990. p. A8. 
  62. ^ "Solzhenitsyn cool as Moscow confirms offer". The New York Times. 17 August 1990. 
  63. ^ Rosenthal, Andrew (5 December 1987). "For the Soviet emigres, Gorbachev stirs both optimism and skepticism". The New York Times. 
  64. ^ Bonner & Orlov 1991.
  65. ^ "Curriculum vitae of Yuri Orlov" (PDF). Cornell University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 October 2015. 
  66. ^ a b Gold, Lauren (14 November 2005). "First Andrei Sakharov Prize for human rights goes to Cornell physicist and former Soviet gulag prisoner Yuri Orlov". Cornell Chronicle. 
  67. ^ 2006 Andrei Sakharov Prize Recipient
  68. ^ "Soviet-era dissidents despise Putin". The Washington Times. 13 November 2004. 
  69. ^ Orlov, Yuri (24 March 2005). "A letter to Vladimir Putin". Sakharov Center. 
  70. ^ В Москве прошла презентация фильма "Они выбрали свободу" об истории диссидентов в СССР [In Moscow, the presentation of the film They Chose Freedom went off] (in Russian). NEWSru.com. 1 December 2005. 

Some publications[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Video[edit]