|Yuri Fyodorovich Orlov|
Orlov, Summer 2008
|Native name||Юрий Фёдорович Орлов|
13 August 1924 |
|Alma mater||Moscow State University, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics|
|Known for||participation in Soviet atomic bomb project and for human rights activism with participation in dissident movement in the Soviet Union|
|Notable awards||Carter-Menil Human Rights Prize (1986), Nicholson Medal for Humanitarian Service (1995), Andrei Sakharov Prize (APS) (2006)|
|Children||sons Dmitri, Aleksandr, Lev|
from Orlov’s interview for Ekho Moskvy, 11 May 2011
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Yuri Fyodorovich Orlov (Russian: Ю́рий Фёдорович Орло́в, born 13 August 1924, Moscow) is Professor of Physics and Government at Cornell University, a former Soviet dissident, Soviet nuclear physicist and human rights activist, a founder of the Moscow Helsinki Group and Soviet Amnesty International group.
Yuri Orlov was born into a working-class family on 13 August 1924 and grew up in a village near Moscow. His parents were Klavdiya Petrovna Lebedeva and Fyodor Pavlovich Orlov. In March 1933, his father died.
From 1944 to 1946, Orlov served as an officer in the Soviet army. In 1952, he graduated from the Moscow State University and began his postgraduate studies at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics where he later worked as a physicist.
In 1956, Orlov nearly lost his career of scientist due to his speech at the party meeting devoted to the discussion of the report On the Personality Cult and its Consequences by Khrushchev at the 20th Congress of the CPSU. Then he publicly called Stalin and Beria "killers who were in power" and put forward the requirement of "democracy on the basis of socialism." For the pro-democracy speech he made in 1956, he was expelled from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and fired from his job.
"What is the meaning of life? That your soul may outlive your remains in something sacred and should escape decay... I have again looked at, added up, corrected, and sized up what I have been doing during these last years and have seen that this is good..." (Yuri Orlov, 1980)
Orlov obtained the Candidate of Sciences degree in 1958 and the Doctor of Sciences degree in 1963. He became an expert on particle acceleration. In 1968, he was elected a corresponding member of the Armenian Academy of Sciences after he found work at the Yerevan Physics Institute. In 1972, he came back to Moscow and worked at the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism.
In September 1973, when Pravda published a statement by a group of prominent academicians denouncing Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov's anti-patriotic activity, Orlov decided to support him, while recollecting the well memorized spells of the 1930s, in which some academicians demanded the death penalty for others already arrested; later some of these academicians themselves were arrested; and then third academicians, still alive, publicly demanded the death penalty for them.:163:161
Defending academician Sakharov, Orlov on 16 September 1973 wrote "About the Reasons for the Intellectual Backwardness in the USSR and Proposals to Overcome It (Open Letter to L.I. Brezhnev)" which appeared in underground samizdat circulation. The Western press published the letter in 1974 but its publication in the Russian press took place only in 1991.
In the early 1970s, the article by Yuri Orlov "Is a Non-Totalitarian Type of Socialism Possible?" also appeared in underground samizdat circulation.
In May 1976, he organised the Moscow Helsinki Group and became its chairman. He ignored orders to disband the Moscow Helsinki Group when the KGB told him the group was illegal. The KGB head Yuri Andropov determined, "The need has thus emerged to terminate the actions of Orlov, fellow Helsinki monitor Ginzburg and others once and for all, on the basis of existing law."
On 10 February 1977, Orlov was arrested. In March 1977, Orlov published the article about his arrest "The road to my arrest." In a closed trial, he was denied the right to examine evidence and to call witnesses. The courtroom was filled with some 50 individuals selected by authorities, while supporters and friends of Orlov, including Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, were barred from entering because there was no room. Orlov's summation was interrupted many times by the judge and the prosecutor and by spectators who shouted "spy" and "traitor." Orlov at the trial argued that he has a right to criticize the government and a right to circulate such criticism under the freedom of information provisions of the Helsinki Accords. Orlov also argued that he circulated such information for humanitarian, not subversive, reasons. On 15 May 1978, Orlov was sentenced to seven years of a labour camp and five years internal exile for his work with the Moscow Helsinki Group. US President Jimmy Carter expressed his concern over the severity of the sentence and the secrecy of the trial. Washington senator Henry M. Jackson said, "The Orlov trial, and the Ginzburg and Shcharansky incarcerations, are dramatic cases in point" when discussing Soviet breaches of law. The US National Academy of Sciences has officially protested against the trial of Orlov. In the summer of 1978, physicists at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory created Scientists for Sakharov, Orlov and Shcharansky (SOS), an international movement to promote and protect the human rights of scientists.:547 An initiator of SOS was American physicist Andrew Sessler, its chairman was Prof. Morris Pripstein.
For the first year and a half, Orlov was imprisoned in Lefortovo Prison, then Perm Camp 35 and 37. In Perm Camp 37, he has mounted three hunger strikes to make the prison authorities return his confiscated writings and notes. Two articles written by Orlov in the camp were smuggled and published abroad. On 5 July 1983, the Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky sent the Soviet leader Yuri Andropov a letter asking for the release of Orlov to Austria, but it was intentionally left without an answer. The New York-based Helsinki Watch issued a statement about Orlov’s health deterioration, "He has frequent headaches and dizzy spells, resulting from an old skull injury. He suffers from kidney and prostate inflammation, low blood pressure, rheumatic pains, toothaches, insomnia and vitamin deficiency. Medical care in the labor camp is extremely inadequate."
Emigration and US citizenship
On 30 September 1986, the KGB proposed to expel Orlov from the Soviet Union after depriving him of his Soviet citizenship and met with approval from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
A member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Orlov studies particle accelerator design, beam interaction analysis and quantum mechanics. He has authored and coauthored numerous research papers, articles on human rights, and an autobiography, Dangerous Thoughts (1991).
In 1993, Orlov received American citizenship.
In 1995 the American Physical Society awarded him the Nicholson Medal for Humanitarian Service. In 2005 he was named the first recipient of the Andrei Sakharov Prize, awarded biennially by the American Physical Society to honor scientists for exceptional work in promoting human rights.
- "Орлов Юрий Федорович (р. 1924)" [Orlov Yuri Fyodorovich (b. 1924)] (in Russian). The Sakharov Center.
- Shultz, George (1993). Turmoil and triumph: my years as secretary of state. Scribner's. p. 749. ISBN 0684193256.
- "Yuri Orlov vows he'll continue to struggle for human rights". Kentucky New Era. 2 October 1986. p. 48.
- "The Yuri Orlov file". The National Security Archive.
- "Orlov receives maximum sentence" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LXXXV (113). 21 May 1978. p. 2.
- Human Rights Watch World Report 1990. Human Rights Watch. 1991. p. 296.
- Zellick, Graham (March 1980). "The criminal trial and the disruptive defendant". The Modern Law Review 43 (2): 121–135. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2230.1980.tb01585.x. JSTOR 1094873.
- "CERN turns its back on Yuri Orlov". New Scientist 91 (1260): 4. 2 July 1981.
- Garelik, Glenn (21 July 1991). "Science and dissidence". The Washington Post.
- Wren, Christopher (1 October 1986). "Man in the news; a pragmatic crusader: Yuri Fyodorovich Orlov". The New York Times.
- Andrei Sakharov and human rights. Council of Europe. 2010. p. 151. ISBN 9287169470.
- Marshak, Robert (September 1978). "Orlov dissident trial in perspective". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 34 (7): 5–6. doi:10.1080/00963402.1978.11458529.
- "Юрий Орлов. Человек-легенда" [Yuri Orlov. Legendary man]. Radio Liberty (in Russian). 15 August 2014.
- Bailey, Anthony (25 April 1983). "Orlov". The New Yorker: 40.
- Orlov, Yuri (1991). "Chapter thirteen. In the opposition". Dangerous Thoughts. Memoirs of a Russian Life. New York: William Morrow and Company. pp. 163–176. ISBN 0688104711.
- Орлов, Юрий (1992). "Глава тринадцатая. В оппозиции" [Chapter thirteen. In the opposition]. Опасные мысли: Мемуары из рус. жизни [Dangerous Thoughts. Memoirs of a Russian Life] (in Russian). Moscow: Аргументы и факты. pp. 161–174. ISBN 585272002X.
- De Boer, S. P.; Driessen, Evert; Verhaar, Hendrik (1982). Biographical dictionary of dissidents in the Soviet Union: 1956–1975. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 405. ISBN 9024725380.
- Shifman, Mikhail (ed.) (2015). Physics in a mad world. World Scientific. p. 445. ISBN 9814619310.
- Orlov 1974.
- Aksyutin & Medvedev 1991.
- Potok, Chaim; Slepak, Leonid; Slepak, Vladimir; Slepak, Alexander; Slepak, Maria (2010). The gates of November. Random House Publishing Group. p. 175. ISBN 0307575519.
- Snyder, Sarah (2011). Human rights activism and the end of the Cold War: a transnational history of the Helsinki network. Cambridge University Press. p. 73. ISBN 1139498924.
- Shanker, Thom (1 October 1986). "Bitter Siberian ordeal ends at last for Yuri Orlov". Bangor Daily News. p. 9.
- Bailey, Anthony (19 September 1977). "Defending Yuri Orlov". The New Yorker: 29.
- "Yuri Orlov Soviet dissident group founder". UPI. 6 October 1986.
- Orlov 1977.
- Oshins, Eddie (3 February 1983). "The case of Yuri Orlov". The New York Review of Books.
- "CERN scientists speak out for Orlov". New Scientist 94 (1306): 473. 20 May 1982.
- Carter, Jimmy. "Presidential Documents. Week Ending Friday, May 26, 1978". Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Jimmy Carter, 1978, Book 1: January 1 to June 30, 1978. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. p. 938.
- "U.S. senators seek Nobel for Helsinki groups" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LXXXV (159). 16 July 1978. pp. 1–2.
- Ziman, John (January 1979). "Science and human rights". Index on Censorship 8 (1): 41–44. doi:10.1080/03064227908532880.
- Pripstein, Morris (1991). "Sakharov, scientists, and human rights; a personal recollection". Andrei Sakharov: facets of a life. Atlantica Séguier Frontières. pp. 546–548. ISBN 2863320963.
- Sessler, Andrew (1 April 1995). "Physicist and the eternal struggle for human rights". Bulletin of the American Physical Society 40 (2).
- Lipkin, Harry (2013). Andrei Sakharov: quarks and the structure of matter. World Scientific. p. 11. ISBN 9814407437.
- "A small word in support of Orlov". New Scientist 96 (1331): 341. 11 November 1982.
- O'Toole, Thomas (3 June 1978). "Orlov's sentence causes third U.S. physicist group to cancel Russian trip". The Washington Post.
- "Concerns about Orlov's health". New Scientist: 592. 22 November 1979.
- Orlov (1981, 1982)
- About the letter by Bruno Kreisky to the Soviet leader Yuri Andropov
- Eaton, William (1 October 1986). "Harshly treated: Orlov: ordeal for symbol of dissent ends". The Los Angeles Times.
- "О лишении гражданства и выдворении из СССР Орлова Ю.Ф." [On the deprivation of citizenship and expulsion of Orlov Yu F. from the USSR] (PDF) (in Russian). Soviet archives collected by Vladimir Bukovsky. 30 September 1986.
- Hochman, Steven (2009). "Carter center". In Forsythe, David (ed.). Encyclopedia of human rights. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. pp. 252–256. ISBN 0195334027.
- Lanier, Alfredo (5 June 2000). "Network forms to aid scholars at risk". The Chicago Tribune.
- Orlov's research papers
- Orlov 1979; Orlov & Bethell 1987; Orlov (1988a, 1988b); Gottfried & Orlov 1989; Birman, Lizhi & Winick 1994
- Sessler, Andrew (1991). "Book Review: Dangerous Thoughts: Memoirs of a Russian Life". Physics Today 44 (11): 92. Bibcode:1991PhT....44k..92S. doi:10.1063/1.2810325.
- Bonner & Orlov 1991.
- "Curriculum vitae of Yuri Orlov" (PDF). Cornell University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 October 2015.
- Gold, Lauren (14 November 2005). "First Andrei Sakharov Prize for human rights goes to Cornell physicist and former Soviet gulag prisoner Yuri Orlov". Cornell Chronicle.
- 2006 Andrei Sakharov Prize Recipient
- В Москве прошла презентация фильма "Они выбрали свободу" об истории диссидентов в СССР [In Moscow, the presentation of the film They Chose Freedom went off] (in Russian). NEWSru.com. 1 December 2005.
- Orlov, Yuri. Letter to L.I. Brezhnev. Survey. Spring–Summer 1974;(14):241–245.
- Orlov, Yuri. The road to my arrest. The New Leader. March 1977;60(6).
- Orlov, Yuri. On prisoners in Soviet camps. Survey. Spring 1979;(24):67–91.
- Orlov, Yuri. A quantum model of doubt. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. October 1981;373:84–92. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1981.tb51134.x. Bibcode:1981NYASA.373...84O.
- Orlov, Yuri. The wave logic of consciousness: a hypothesis. International Journal of Theoretical Physics. January 1982;21(1):37–53. doi:10.1007/BF01880263. Bibcode:1982IJTP...21...37O.
- "Yury Orlov: I believe in the people". Index on Censorship 16 (2): 10. February 1987. doi:10.1080/03064228708534201.
- Orlov, Yuri; Bethell, Nicholas. Out of the Gulag and into exile. Encounter. May 1987;(26):48–52.
- Orlov, Yuri. Before and after glasnost. Commentary. 1 October 1988;86(4):24.
- Orlov, Yuri. The Soviet Union, human rights, and national security. In: Corillon, Carol (ed.). Science and human rights. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 1988. p. 62–67.
- Gottfried, Kurt; Orlov, Yuri. A man who would not be silenced: Sakharov: he saw scientific, political and moral realities as one equation, and he died still warning about 'tomorrow'. The Los Angeles Times. 19 December 1989.
- Bonner, Elena; Orlov, Yuri. Armenia: an open letter. The New York Review of Books. 18 July 1991.
- Orlov, Yuri [Юрий Орлов]. Перейти к полной свободе в сфере идей [Passing to full freedom in the area of ideas]. In: Aksyutin, Yuri; Medvedev, Roy [Юрий Аксютин, Рой Медведев] (eds.). Л.И. Брежнев: Материалы к биографии [L.I. Brezhnev: Materials to biography]. Moscow: Политиздат; 1991. Russian. ISBN 5-250-01721-5. p. 323–328.
- Orlov, Yuri (1991). Dangerous Thoughts. Memoirs of a Russian Life. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0688104711.
- Орлов, Юрий (1992). Опасные мысли: Мемуары из рус. жизни [Dangerous Thoughts. Memoirs of a Russian Life] (in Russian). Moscow: Аргументы и факты. ISBN 585272002X.
- Birman, Joseph; Lizhi, Fang; Winick, Herman; Chudnovsky, Eugene; Orlov, Yuri. Science and human rights. Nature. August 1994;370(6491):592. doi:10.1038/370592a0. Bibcode:1994Natur.370..592B.
- Orlov, Yuri [Юрий Орлов] (1997). "Возможен ли социализм не тоталитарного типа?" [Is a non-totalitarian type of socialism possible?]. In Akhmetiev I., Kulakov V. [И. Ахметьев, В. Кулаков] (eds.). Самиздат века [Samizdat of the century] (in Russian). Minsk: Полифакт. ISBN 5-89356-004-3.
- Orlov, Yuri [Юрий Орлов] (2005). "Возможен ли социализм не тоталитарного типа?" [Is a non-totalitarian type of socialism possible?]. In Igrunov, Vyacheslav [Вячеслав Игрунов] (ed.). Антология самиздата. Неподцензурная литература в СССР. 1950–1980-е.: В 3-х томах: т. 3: после 1973 [Anthology of samizdat. Uncensored literature in the USSR. The 1950s–1980s. In 3 volumes. Volume 3. After 1973] (PDF) (in Russian). Moscow: Международный институт гуманитарно-политических исследований. pp. 191–205. ISBN 5-89793-034-1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2013.
- Yuri Orlov Cornell University Homepage
- "Biography of Yuri Fyodorovich Orlov". Basket III: implementation of the Helsinki Accords. Hearings before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Ninety-fifth congress. First session on implementation of the Helsinki Accords (PDF). Vol. IV. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1977. pp. 67–69. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2015.
- Alexeyeva, Lyudmila; Bukovsky, Vladimir; Amalrik, Andrei; Voikhanskaya, Marina; Plyushch, Leonid; Elina, Emilia; Voronina, Lidia; Bresenden, Yevgeniy (November 1977). "The Orlov tribunal". Index on Censorship 6 (6): 52–60. doi:10.1080/03064227708532716.
- Sakharov, Andrei; Meiman, Naum (March–April 1982). "The plight of Yuri Orlov". Harvard International Review 4 (6): 50. JSTOR 42762207.
- Turchin, Valentin (July 1985). "Orlov in exile". Physics Today 38 (38): 9. Bibcode:1985PhT....38g...9T. doi:10.1063/1.2814623.
- Sessler, Andrew (November 1986). "Reflections occasioned by the release of Yuri Orlov". Physics Today 39 (11): 168. Bibcode:1986PhT....39k.168S. doi:10.1063/1.2815231.
- "Человек дня – Юрий Орлов, основатель и первый председатель Московской Хельсинкской Группы" [The man of the day Yuri Orlov, the founder and first chairman of the Moscow Helsinki Group]. Radio Liberty (in Russian). 13 May 2006.
- Natella Boltyanskaya (8 September 2014). "Восемнадцатая серия. Юрий Орлов" [The eighteenth part. Yuri Orlov]. Voice of America (in Russian). Parallels, Events, People.
- ] on YouTube