Zenit-2 rocket ready for launch at Baikonur.
The A.M. Makarov Southern Machine-Building Plant, or PA Yuzhmash (Ukrainian: Виробниче Об'єднання Південний Машинобудівний Завод імені А.М. Макарова; Russian: Производственное Объединение Южный Машиностроительный Завод имени А.М. Макарова; literally: Production Union Southern Machine-Building Plant named after A.M. Makarov) is a Ukrainian manufacturer of space rockets, satellites, agricultural equipment, buses, trolley buses, trams, and wind turbines that was inherited from the Soviet Union. It is a large state-owned company located in Dnipropetrovsk.
Yuzhmash is a Russian portmanteau that stands for Southern Machines.
Yuzhmash operated initially as "plant 586" in the Soviet Union. In 1954 Mikhail Yangel established the autonomous design bureau designated OKB-586, from the former chief designer's division of plant 586. Yangel had previously headed OKB-1 (today RKK Energiya) and was primarily a supporter of liquid fuel technology – unlike Sergei Korolev at OKB-1, who was a supporter of missiles using cryogenic fuels. To pursue development of ballistic missiles using storable liquid fuels, Mikhail Yangel had received authorization to convert the chief designer's division of the plant into an autonomous design bureau. Following this, OKB-586 was designated Southern Design Bureau (better known as Yuzhnoye) and plant 586 was renamed Southern Machine-Building Plant in 1966, with an focus on the design and production of ballistic missiles. The plant was later renamed Southern Machine-Building Production Union, or Yuzhmash.
Missiles produced at Yuzhmash included the first nuclear armed Soviet rocket R-5M (SS-3 'Shyster'), the R-12 Dvina (SS-4 'Sandal'), the R-14 Chusovaya (SS-5 'Skean'), the first widely deployed Soviet ICBM R-16 (SS-7 'Saddler'), the R-36 (SS-9 'Scarp'), the MR-UR-100 Sotka (SS-17 'Spanker'), and the R-36M (SS-18 'Satan'). During the Soviet era, the plant was capable of producing of up to 120 ICBMs a year. In the late 1980s, Yuzhmash was selected to be the main production facility of the RT-2PM2 Topol-M ICBM (SS-27 "Sickle B").
One line of products added after 1992 are trolleybuses. Models include the articulated YuMZ T1 (1992–1998) and its non-articulated brother, the YuMZ T2. The T2 continues[when?] to be produced alongside the more modern YuMZ E-186 which features a low floor cabin.
In addition to production facilities in Dnipropetrovsk, Pivdenne Production Association includes the Pavlohrad Mechanical Plant, which specialized in producing solid-fuel missiles. Pivdenmash's importance was further bolstered by its links to Ukraine's former President Leonid Kuchma, who worked at Pivdenmash between 1975 and 1992. He was the plant's general director from 1986 to 1991.
In February 2015, following a year of strained relations as a result of a Russian military intervention into Ukraine, Russia announced that it would sever its "joint program with Ukraine to launch Dnepr rockets and [was] no longer interested in buying Ukrainian Zenit boosters, deepening problems for [Ukraine's] space program and its struggling Yuzhmash factory."
The firm imposed a two month unpaid vacation on its workers in January 2015. With the loss of Russian business the only hope for the company was increased international business which seemed unlikely in the time frame available. Bankruptcy seemed certain as of February 2015.
- 1952 - 1957 Leonid Smirnov
- 1961 - 1986 Aleksandr Makarov
- 1986 - 1992 Leonid Kuchma
- 1992 - 2005 Yuriy Alekseyev
- 2005–present Viktor Shchegol
|This section requires expansion. (September 2012)|
- the R-5M - the Soviet Union's first nuclear armed missile
- the R-12 Dvina theatre ballistic missile
- the R-14 Chusovaya theatre ballistic missile
- the R-16 - the first widely deployed ICBM of the Soviet Union
- the R-36 (8K67) ICBM
- the RT-20, the first mobile ICBM (not deployed)
- the R-36orb, the first ICBM with orbital warhead (not deployed)
- the R-36M ICBM family (converted to Dnepr rocket)
- the MR-UR-100 ICBM family
- the 15A11 missile for Perimetr system
- the RT-23 Molodets ICBM family
Space Launch Vehicles
- Kosmos (rocket family)
- Tsyklon (based on R-36/8K67)
- Zenit (rocket family)
- Boosters for Energia (based on Zenit first stage)
- Yuzhnoe Design Bureau - a major missile designer closely co-operating with Yuzhmash
- National Space Agency of Ukraine
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yuzhmash.|
- English-language home page
- Makarov Pivdennyy (Yuzhnyy) Machine-Building Plant at the Nuclear Threat Initiative
- Messier, Doug (6 February 2015). "Russia Severing Ties With Ukraine on Dnepr, Zenit Launch Programs". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Doug Messier (February 10, 2015). "Ukraine Space Industry on Verge of Collapse". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved February 14, 2015.