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Yuzhny (Russian: Южный, lit. southern) is the southern island of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago, lying north of Russia. It has an area of 33,275 square kilometres (12,800 sq mi), which while smaller than the northern island of Severny, makes it one of the largest islands in the world. It is separated from Severny Island by the narrow Matochkin Strait, which is covered with ice most of the year. West of Yuzhny Island lies the Barents Sea, and to the east the Kara Sea.
Originally home to the Nenets people, the island was largely evacuated in the 1950s to make way for nuclear tests.
Yuzhny Island is known for its large seabird population. The island's vegetation is largely composed of tundra.