Yuzo Koshiro

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Yuzo Koshiro
Yūzō Koshiro.jpg
Yuzo Koshiro at Chicago's "Play! A Video Game Symphony" concert in 2006
Background information
Born (1967-12-12) December 12, 1967 (age 50)
OriginHino, Tokyo, Japan
Genres
Occupation(s)
Instruments
Years active1986–present
LabelsAncient
Associated acts
WebsiteAncient Corp.

Yuzo Koshiro (古代 祐三, Koshiro Yūzō, born December 12, 1967 in Hino, Tokyo) is a Japanese video game music composer, arranger, music programmer, and president of the game development company, Ancient. He is often regarded as one of the most influential innovators in chiptune and video game music, producing music in a number of genres, including various electronic genres (such as breakbeat, electro, hardcore, house, jungle, techno, and trance),[1][2][3] experimental,[3] symphonic, hip hop, jazz, and synth-rock.[1]

Nintendo Power once stated that Koshiro was "arguably the greatest game-music composer of the 16-bit age" and that he "created some of the most memorable game music of the late '80s and early '90s."[4] 1UP stated he was the "king" of FM synthesis chiptune music.[5] He has produced some of the most influential role-playing video game scores, for titles such as Nihon Falcom's Dragon Slayer and Ys series,[1] as well as ActRaiser[2] and Beyond Oasis.[6] GameAxis Unwired stated that his "progressive, catchy, techno-style compositions" for games such as The Revenge of Shinobi, Misty Blue, and the Streets of Rage series were "far more advanced than what players were used to" and set a "new high watermark for what music in games could sound like."[7] The Streets of Rage soundtracks are considered ahead of their time,[8][9] featuring a "blend of swaggering house synths," "dirty" electro-funk,[8] and early trance elements.[3]

His influence also extends to the popular music industry, particularly electronic dance music.[9][10][11] His work remains highly regarded within the chiptune community,[10] and has influenced artists outside of it, including electronic music artists such as Ikonika,[11][12][13] BT,[9] Labrinth,[13] Martyn, Joker, Darkstar,[11] Danger,[14] and Just Blaze.[15] Koshiro's Streets of Rage soundtracks in particular have been compared to later electronic dance music,[8][9] and have influenced electronica, grime and dubstep producers.[11][13] Outside of composing music, Koshiro, along with his sister, found the game development company Ancient in 1990, where he has composed for many of the games the company has produced.[16]

Biography[edit]

Early life (1967–1985)[edit]

Yuzo Koshiro was born in Tokyo on December 12, 1967. His mother, Tomo Koshiro, was a pianist. She taught him how to play the piano at the age of three, and by the age of five, he had a strong command of it. In 1975, he began taking music lessons from the acclaimed film composer Joe Hisaishi (later known for his soundtracks to Hayao Miyazaki films), and studied with him for three years. Everything Koshiro has learned after that has since been self-taught.[17]

While he was still in high school during the early 1980s, Koshiro began composing music on the NEC PC-8801 as a hobby, including mockups of early arcade game music from Namco, Konami, and Sega. The sequencing skills and experience he gained from this would later be utilized in his early video game projects.[1][18] The video games that influenced him most were The Tower of Druaga (1984), Space Harrier (1985), and Gradius (1985). The video game music soundtracks to these games inspired him to become a video game composer.[18][19]

In a 1992 interview, Koshiro said that his favorite music genres are new wave, dance music, technopop, classical, and hard rock, and that his favorite Western bands are Van Halen and Soul II Soul.[20]

Career at Nihon Falcom (1986–1988)[edit]

Koshiro's first composing job was with Nihon Falcom in 1986 at the age of 18. Falcom used compositions from the PC-8801 demo tape he had sent them in their Dragon Slayer action role-playing game Xanadu Scenario II, for its opening theme and several dungeon levels.[21] He also wrote the opening song in Romancia that same year. His compositions for these early games were influenced by arcade game music and Japanese bands such as The Alfee. He then produced the soundtrack to Dragon Slayer IV / Legacy of the Wizard (1987), which was influenced by the sounds of early Konami games. His most well-known Falcom works are his soundtracks for Sorcerian (1987) and the early Ys games, Ys I (1987) and Ys II (1988). These early music productions mainly featured rock and fusion music.[1] The TurboGrafx-CD versions of the first three Ys games (from 1989 to 1991) are notable for their very early use of Red Book audio in video games. Music from the Ys games were also employed in the Ys anime.[22]

All of these early soundtracks were produced using the FM synthesis sound chip of the PC-8801. Despite later advances in audio technology, Koshiro would continue to use older PC-8801 hardware to produce many of his later video game soundtracks, including the Streets of Rage and Etrian Odyssey soundtracks.[10] His soundtracks for early Nihon Falcom games, such as the Dragon Slayer and Ys series, are widely regarded as some of the most influential role-playing video game scores.[1]

Early freelance work (1988–1990)[edit]

Following his separation with Falcom, Koshiro became a freelancer, composing music for many other companies. His early freelance projects included the Sharp X68000 port of Bosconian, Bothtec's action role-playing game The Scheme (1988) for the PC-8801, and Enix's visual novel adventure game Misty Blue for the PC-9801 in 1990.[1][10] The latter two soundtracks featured early Eurobeat music.[1] His most notable freelance work was for Sega, where he composed music for the Shinobi series and the Streets of Rage series, as well as Quintet, where he composed the soundtracks to ActRaiser (1990) and ActRaiser 2 (1993).

His first freelance work for Sega was the soundtrack to The Revenge of Shinobi (1989), for which he produced house[1][23] and "progressive, catchy, techno-style compositions"[7] that fused electronic dance music with traditional Japanese music.[24] His soundtrack for ActRaiser (1990), on the other hand, was mainly classical and orchestral.[1] While working on ActRaiser, in order to get around the SNES's 64 KB memory limitation which limited the number of instruments that can be used and prevented the reloading of samples, Koshiro developed a sample loading system that worked with the ROM cartridge memory, swapping samples from the ROM data on the fly. This allowed him to "load parts of the music gradually as needed, and also change it quickly between stages or parts of a stage" which the "original system couldn't do it with its restrictions." A similar system was used by other companies for later SNES games such as Squaresoft's Seiken Densetsu 3 (1995) and Namco Tales Studio's Tales of Phantasia (1995).[18]

Founding of Ancient Corp. (1990–1994)[edit]

In 1990, Koshiro helped found Ancient Corp., which contributed to the development of a number of games, such as the 8-bit version of Sonic the Hedgehog and Beyond Oasis. The company was also founded by his mother, Tomo Koshiro, while his sister Ayano Koshiro works at the company as an art/character/graphic designer and was also the art designer for the ActRaiser games.[17] His sister Ayano has designed characters and graphics for several games Koshiro has worked on, including the Streets of Rage (Bare Knuckle in Japan) series, Ys, and ActRaiser.

While working with Ancient, he composed the soundtrack for the 8-bit version of Sonic the Hedgehog in 1991. He adapted several pieces of music from the original 16-bit version, while the rest of the soundtrack consisted of his own original music.[1]

His soundtracks for the Streets of Rage series (known as Bare Knuckle in Japan) from 1991 to 1994 were composed using then outdated PC-8801 hardware alongside his own original audio programming language. According to Koshiro: "For Bare Knuckle I used the PC88 and an original programming language I developed myself. The original was called MML, Music Macro Language. It is based on NEC's BASIC program, but I modified it heavily. It was more a BASIC-style language at first, but I modified it to be something more like Assembly. I called it ‘Music Love'. I used it for all the Bare Knuckle games."[10]

The soundtracks for Streets of Rage (1991) and Streets of Rage 2 (1992) were influenced by house, techno, hardcore techno,[2] breakbeat,[25] funk and ethnic music. He also attempted to reproduce the Roland TR-808 and TR-909 beats and Roland TB-303 synths using FM synthesis.[26] The soundtrack for Streets of Rage 2 in particular is considered "revolutionary" and ahead of its time,[8][9] for its "amazing blend of swaggering house synths, dirty" electro-funk and "trancey electronic textures that would feel as comfortable in a nightclub as a video game."[8]

His CD soundtracks became best-sellers in Japan during the early 1990s.[27] In 1993, Electronic Games listed the first two Streets of Rage games as having some of the best video game music soundtracks they "ever heard." They described Koshiro as "just about universally acknowledged as the most gifted composer currently working in the video game field."[28]

For the soundtrack to Streets of Rage 3 (1994), he created a new composition method called the "Automated Composing System" to produce "fast-beat techno like jungle."[2] It was the most advanced techno technique of the time, incorporating heavily randomized sequences.[1] This resulted in innovative and experimental sounds generated automatically that, according to Koshiro, "you ordinarily never could imagine on your own." This method was very rare at the time, but has since become popular among techno and trance music producers to get "unexpected and odd sounds."[3] The soundtrack also had elements of abstract, experimental, gabber,[29] and trance music.[30] The experimental electronic music was not very well received upon release, but has since been considered to be ahead of its time. According to Mean Machines, "ironically it pre-dated the 'trance' era that came a short while after release."[30]

Later career (1994–present)[edit]

Also in 1994, Koshiro co-composed a well known soundtrack for the Mega-CD version of Eye of the Beholder, a dungeon crawl role-playing video game ported over from the original by Japanese developer Opera House and published by Sega.[6] That same year, his soundtrack for Beyond Oasis utilized a late romantic style of music, which he later also utilized for Legend of Oasis (1996), Merregnon (2000), and Warriors of the Lost Empire (2007).[1]

He also composed the soundtrack for Sega's Shenmue (1999) alongside Takenobu Mitsuyoshi and a few others, with Koshiro contributing fifteen original compositions to the soundtrack. Three other staff members of Ancient also worked on Shenmue.[17][31] He later composed the soundtracks for the Wangan Midnight series (2001 onwards) and Namco × Capcom (2005). These were the first projects where he wrote the lyrics along with the music. For the Wangan Midnight series in particular, his compositions were mostly trance music, a style he was previously unfamiliar with.[18]

He composed the main theme of the French TV channel Nolife, which launched in 2007. The theme was released as part of the album Tamiuta in 2008.[32] Some of Koshiro's latest work includes music for the Etrian Odyssey series,[10] the Wangan Midnight series, and the 7th Dragon series .

Concert performances[edit]

Year Venue Game(s) performed Role
2004[33] Symphonic Game Music Concert, Gewandhaus ActRaiser Medley Music arranger
2005[33] Chamber Music Game Concert, Gewandhaus ActRaiser Medley
2006 Play! A Video Game Symphony, Rosemont Theater Sonic the Hedgehog
Symphonic Game Music Concert, Gewandhaus The Revenge of Shinobi
2007 Play! A Video Game Symphony, Stockholm
Play! A Video Game Symphony, Prague
Play! A Video Game Symphony, Singapore[34] Disc jockey
Symphonic Game Music Concert, Gewandhaus[33] New Super Mario Bros. Music arranger
2008[33] Symphonic Shades – Hülsbeck in Concert Jim Power in Mutant Planet
2013 MAGFest[35] Disc jockey
2018 La Gaîté Lyrique[36], Paris, France Disc jockey with Motohiro Kawashima

Works[edit]

All works listed below had scores written by Koshiro unless otherwise noted.

Year Title Notes
1986 Xanadu Scenario II with Takahito Abe
Romancia Composed the opening theme
1987 Ys I: Ancient Ys Vanished with Mieko Ishikawa
Legacy of the Wizard
Space Harrier sound effects for the X68000 version
Sorcerian with various others
Ojousama Club
Dark Storm: Demon Crystal
The Gate of Labyrinth
1988 Ys II: Ancient Ys Vanished – The Final Chapter with Mieko Ishikawa and Hideya Nagata
The Scheme
The Return of Ishtar MSX version
The Curse of Mars
1989 Wanderers from Super Scheme
Algarna
The Revenge of Shinobi
Bosconian X68000 version with Hideya Nagata
1990 Misty Blue
ActRaiser
Thrice
1991 The G.G. Shinobi
Streets of Rage
Sonic the Hedgehog 8-bit version
Star Wars: Attack on the Death Star arrangements
1992 Super Adventure Island
Eye of the Beholder PC-98 version with Yuji Yamada
Gage
Batman Returns sound producer on the 8-bit versions
The G.G. Shinobi II: The Silent Fury with Motohiro Kawashima
Streets of Rage 2
1993 Slap Fight MD
ActRaiser 2
1994 Streets of Rage 3 with Motohiro Kawashima
Eye of the Beholder Sega CD version with Motohiro Kawashima
Robotrek sound producer
Beyond Oasis
1995 Miracle Casino Paradise
Manji Psy Yuuki with Motohiro Kawashima
1996 Zork I: The Great Underground Empire PlayStation version with Motohiro Kawashima
The Legend of Oasis
Vatlva with Motohiro Kawashima
1997 Culdcept with Takeshi Yanagawa
1999 Shenmue with various others
2001 Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune
Shenmue II with various others
Car Battler Joe with Tomonori Hayashibe
2004 Amazing Island with Motohiro Kawashima
Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune
Dokapon the World
2005 Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune 2
Namco × Capcom with various others
Dance Dance Revolution Extreme 2 composed "You gotta move it"
2006 Ueki no Housoku with Motohiro Kawashima and Takeshi Yanagawa
Castlevania: Portrait of Ruin with Michiru Yamane
2007 Etrian Odyssey
Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune 3
Katekyo Hitman Reborn! Dream Hyper Battle! with Motohiro Kawashima and Takeshi Yanagawa
Warriors of the Lost Empire
2008 Super Smash Bros. Brawl arrangements with various others
Etrian Odyssey II
Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune 3 DX
2009 7th Dragon
Half-Minute Hero with various others
2010 Dragon Ball Online
Etrian Odyssey III
Protect Me Knight
Jaseiken Necromancer: Nightmare Reborn with Takeshi Yanagawa
Criminal Girls with various others
Dead Heat with Motohiro Kawashima
2011 7th Dragon 2020
Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune 4
2012 Kid Icarus: Uprising with Motoi Sakuraba, Masafumi Takada, Noriyuki Iwadare, Takahiro Nishi, and Yasunori Mitsuda
Etrian Odyssey IV
Layton Brothers: Mystery Room with Takeshi Yanagawa
Time and Eternity
2013 7th Dragon 2020-II
Etrian Odyssey Untold: The Millennium Girl
Drift Spirits[37]
Momoiro Billionaire! with Motohiro Kawashima
2014 Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune 5
Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth composed "Disturbances - The One Called from Beyond"
Gotta Protectors[38] with Hisayoshi Ogura, Motoaki Furukawa, Shinji Hosoe, and Hiroshi Kawaguchi
Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U arrangements with various others
Etrian Odyssey 2 Untold: The Fafnir Knight
2015 Etrian Mystery Dungeon with Takeshi Yanagawa
Chunithm: Seelisch Tact composed "Grab your sword"
7th Dragon III Code: VFD[39]
Project X Zone 2 composed "Main Theme"
Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune 5 DX
2016 Cosmic Cavern 3671[40]
Puzzle & Dragons X with Kenji Ito, Akira Yamaoka, and Keigo Ozaki
Etrian Odyssey V
2017 Etrian Mystery Dungeon 2
RXN -Raijin-[41] with various others
2018 Secret of Mana[42] arrangements with various others
Monster Boy and the Cursed Kingdom with Motoi Sakuraba, Michiru Yamane, Keiki Kobayashi, Takeshi Yanagawa, and Haruka Shimotsuki
Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune 6
Etrian Odyssey Nexus[43]
The Takeover[44]
Super Smash Bros. Ultimate[45] arrangements with various others
2019 198X[46]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Chris Greening & Don Kotowski (February 2011). "Yuzo Koshiro Interview: Innovator in Game Music and Sound Design". Game Music Online. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d Davis, Jeff. "Interview with Yuzo Koshiro". Gaming Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d Horowitz, Ken (February 5, 2008). "Interview: Yuzo Koshiro". Sega-16. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
  4. ^ Nintendo Power, Volumes 208–210. Nintendo Power. 2006. p. 102. Retrieved August 5, 2011. Yuzo Koshiro, the musician responsible for ActRaiser's amazing score, is arguably the greatest game-music composer of the 16-bit age. Equally comfortable composing classical or techno, Koshiro built up a faithful fan base by creating some of the most memorable game music of the late '80s and early '90s.
  5. ^ Barnholt, Ray (June 2012). "The Magic of FM Synth". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  6. ^ a b Barton, Matt (February 23, 2007). "Part 2: The Golden Age (1985–1993)". The History of Computer Role-Playing Games. Gamasutra. Archived from the original on March 30, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
  7. ^ a b Santos, Wayne (December 2006). "Songs & Sounds In The 21st Century". GameAxis Unwired. SPH Magazines (40): 39. ISSN 0219-872X. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  8. ^ a b c d e McNeilly, Joe (April 19, 2010). "Game music of the day: Streets of Rage 2". GamesRadar. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d e Mustin. "Streets of Rage 2 Original Soundtrack (US): Review". Square Enix Music Online. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Szczepaniak, John. "Retro Japanese Computers: Gaming's Final Frontier". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved March 29, 2011. Reprinted from Retro Gamer (67), 2009
  11. ^ a b c d "Recording Under the Influence: Ikonika". Self-Titled Magazine. April 21, 2010. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  12. ^ Lawrence, Eddy (January 11, 2011). "Ikonika interview: Producer and DJ, Ikonika had an incredible 2010". Time Out. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  13. ^ a b c Lawrence, Eddy (January 18, 2011). "Ikonika interview: Dubstep has taken the world by storm over the past 12 months". Time Out. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
  14. ^ Danger (7) – 09/17 2007 at Discogs
  15. ^ http://www.redbullmusicacademy.jp/jp/magazine/digging-in-the-carts
  16. ^ Parish, Jeremy. "Yuzo Koshiro: Legendary game composer, family business owner". Polygon. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
  17. ^ a b c "TNL Developer Spotlight: Ancient". The Next Level. March 11, 2003. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  18. ^ a b c d Kikizo (October 14, 2005). "Yuzo Koshiro Interview". VideoGamesDaily.com. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
  19. ^ Interview with Yuzo Koshiro – Game Music on YouTube
  20. ^ GameFan, volume 1, issue 1 (October 1992), page 8
  21. ^ Kevin Gifford (June 3, 2010). "Xanadu Scenario II". MagWeasel.com. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
  22. ^ Patrick Gann. "Falcom Special Box '90". RPGFan. Retrieved September 3, 2011.
  23. ^ Yuzo Koshiro at AllGame
  24. ^ RocketBaby (October 1999). "Interview with Yuzo Koshiro". Square Enix Music Online. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  25. ^ "Yuzo Koshiro – Bare Knuckle II". Discogs. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  26. ^ http://daily.redbullmusicacademy.com/2014/09/yuzo-koshiro-interview
  27. ^ https://archive.org/stream/Computer_and_Video_Games_Issue_192_1997-11_EMAP_Images_GB#page/n101/mode/2up
  28. ^ https://archive.org/stream/Electronic-Games-1993-06/Electronic%20Games%201993-06#page/n45/mode/2up
  29. ^ "Yuzo Koshiro / Motohiro Kawashima – Bare Knuckle III". Discogs. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  30. ^ a b "Streets of Rage 3 review – Sega Megadrive". Mean Machines. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  31. ^ Andrew Long. "Interview With Shenmue's Composer". RPGamer. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  32. ^ Nolife TV Theme, released on the album Tamiuta
  33. ^ a b c d Symphonic Game Music Concerts, The Concert Programs Archived December 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ Yuzo Koshiro The DJ, IGN.com, March 2, 2007. Retrieved March 17, 2012
  35. ^ MAGFest 2013 Performers Archived January 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., MAGFest.org. Retrieved January 6, 2013
  36. ^ [1] Archived September 7, 2018, at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved September 7, 2018
  37. ^ Crider, Michael. "47 New And Notable Android Games From The Last 2 Weeks (5/26/15 - 6/8/15)". Android Police. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  38. ^ Whitehead, Thomas. "Gotta Protectors Looks Like an Amazing and Quirky Throwback to '80s Gaming". Nintendo Life. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  39. ^ Kemps, Heidi. "7th Dragon III Code: VFD Review". GameSpot. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  40. ^ "Cosmic Cavern 3671". Gamasutra. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  41. ^ Farrell, Reilly. "RXN -Raijin- soundtrack coming this summer". Video Game Music Online. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  42. ^ Gallagher, Mathew. "Team of arrangers announced for Secret of Mana remake". Video Game Music Online. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  43. ^ Gallagher, Mathew. "Yuzo Koshiro returns for Etrian Odyssey X". Video Game Music Online. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
  44. ^ @1thetakeover (August 13, 2018). "A new version of The Takeover has hit Steam Early Access! What's New: - New music track by the legendary Yuzo Koshiro! - A new vertical roll move (much like in SoR3) - New voice samples for all characters! - Plenty of bug fixes!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  45. ^ Sounders, Mike. "Guile's theme goes with anything, including Super Smash Bros. Ultimate". Destructoid. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  46. ^ McFerran, Damien. "Streets Of Rage Composer Yuzo Koshiro Is Contributing To 198X's Soundtrack". Nintendo Life. Retrieved May 17, 2018.

External links[edit]