Nobel Laureates in Chemistry 2005 on stage
October 10, 1930|
|Died||January 27, 2015
|Institutions||French Institute of Petroleum|
|Alma mater||Lyon School of Chemistry, Physics, and Electronics|
|Known for||Deciphering the process of metathesis|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2005)|
Yves Chauvin (French: [ʃɔvɛ̃]; October 10, 1930 – January 27, 2015) was a French chemist and Nobel Prize laureate. He was honorary research director at the Institut français du pétrole and a member of the French Academy of Science. He was known for his work for deciphering the process of metathesis for which he was awarded the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock.
Yves Chauvin was on born October 10, 1930 in Menen, Belgium, to French parents; his father worked as an electrical engineer. He graduated in 1954 from the Lyon School of Chemistry, Physics, and Electronics. He began working in the chemical industry but was frustrated there. He is quoted as saying, "If you want to find something new, look for something new...there is a certain amount of risk in this attitude, as even the slightest failure tends to be resounding, but you are so happy when you succeed that it is worth taking the risk." In 1960, Chauvin began working for the French Petroleum Institute in Rueil-Malmaison. He became honorary director of research there following his retirement from the institute in 1995. Chauvin also served as an emeritus (retired) director of research at the Lyon School of Chemistry, Physics, and Electronics.
Awards and recognitions
He was awarded the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, along with Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock, for his work from the early 1970s in the area of olefin metathesis. Chauvin was embarrassed to receive his award and initially indicated that he might not accept it. He did however receive his award from the King of Sweden and deliver his Nobel lecture. He was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences in 2005.
Chauvin’s work centred on metathesis, which involves organic (carbon-based) compounds. In metathesis, chemists break double bonds more easily by introducing a catalyst—that is, a substance that starts or speeds up a chemical reaction. Chemists began performing metathesis in the 1950s without knowing exactly how the reaction worked. This lack of understanding hindered the search for more efficient catalysts.
In the early 1970s Chauvin achieved a breakthrough when he described the mechanism by which a metal atom bound to a carbon atom in one group of atoms causes the group to shift places with a group of atoms in another molecule and explained metathesis in detail. He showed that the reaction involves two double bonds. One of the double bonds connects two parts of an organic molecule. The other double bond connects a metal-based catalyst to a fragment of an organic molecule. In metathesis, these two double bonds combine and split to make four single bonds. The single bonds form a ring that connects the metal catalyst, the organic fragment, and the two parts of the organic molecule. The metal catalyst then breaks off from the ring, carrying away part of the organic molecule. This process leaves the fragment attached to the remainder of the organic molecule with a double bond, forming a new organic compound. Scholars have compared this reaction to a dance in which two sets of partners join hands to form a ring and then split apart again to form two new partnerships.
Chauvin’s description of metathesis led Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock to develop catalysts that carried out the reaction more efficiently. The three chemists’ work has enabled manufacturers to make organic compounds, including some plastics and medicines, using less energy because the required reaction pressures and temperatures became lower, and using fewer harmful and expensive chemicals, and creating fewer contaminant reaction by-products and hazardous waste that must be extracted from the desired synthetic. It was for this process they were awarded with 2005 Chemistry Nobel Prize.
- Martinato, A.; Chauvin, Y.; Lefebvre, G. (1964). "Kinetic aspects of the "period of adjustment" during polymerization (of propylene) with titanium trichloride-triethylaluminium, "Title". Compt. Rend. 258 (17): 4271–4273.
- Uchino, M.; Chauvin, Y.; Lefebvre, G. (1967). "Dimerization of propylene by nickel complexes". Compt. Rend. C. 265 (2): 103–106.
- Herisson, J. L.; Chauvin, Y. (1971). "Catalysis of olefin transformations by tungsten complexes. II. Telomerization of cyclic olefins in the presence of acyclic olefins". Makromol. Chem. 141: 161–176. (Dieser Artikel wird aufgrund eines typographischen Fehlers in der Originalpublikation gelegentlich mit 1970 als Jahr der Veröffentlichung zitiert.)
- Chauvin, Y.; Gilbert, B.; Guibard, I. (1990). "Catalytic dimerization of alkenes by nickel complexes in organochloroaluminate molten salts". Chem. Comm. 23: 1715–1716.
- Magna, L.; Niccolai, G. P.; Chauvin, Y.; Basset, J.-M. (2003). "The importance of imidazolium substituents in the use of imidazolium based room temperature ionic liquids as solvents for palladium catalyzed telomerization of butadiene with methanol". Organometallics. 22 (22): 4418–4425. doi:10.1021/om021057s.
- Basset, Jean-Marie (2015). "Yves Chauvin (1930-2015) Nobel-prizewinning chemist who rearranged carbon–carbon bonds". Nature. 519 (7542): 159. doi:10.1038/519159a. PMID 25762275.
- Olivier-Bourbigou, H (2015). "Yves Chauvin (1930-2015)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 54: 4428. doi:10.1002/anie.201501336. PMID 25754448.
- Mansuy, D (2005). "Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2005. Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock. Metathesis and catalysis honored". médecine/sciences. 21 (11): 995–6. doi:10.1051/medsci/20052111995. PMID 16274653.
- "Britannica". Retrieved February 3, 2015.
- Chauvin, Yves." World Book Student. World Book, 2011. Web. 21 March 2011.
- Chang, Kenneth, Yves Chauvin, chemist sharing Nobel Prize, dies at 84, New York Times, January 31, 2015, p. B13
- SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg, Germany (5 October 2005). "Keine Freude: Nobelpreistr臠er findet Auszeichnung peinlich". SPIEGEL ONLINE.
- Karl Grandin, ed. (2005). "Yves Chauvin Biography". Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
- "Chemistryviews.org". Retrieved February 3, 2015.
- "Humantouchofchemistry.com". Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- "NNDB". Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- "NobelPrize.org". Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- "Eluniversal.com". Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- "Le Nobel de chimie Yves Chauvin est mort". Le Monde.fr.
- "NYT". Retrieved February 3, 2015.
- Chemistry Nobel laureate Yves Chauvin dies aged 84
- Details about his Nobel Prize
- General information about the Nobel Prize 2005
- Yves Chauvin's U.S. Patents
- Information relating to recent work in the CNRS CPE-Lyon laboratory
- Yves Chauvin Nobel Lecture, December 8, 2005
- Video of Chauvin Nobel Lecture