Church of St Andrew
|• Mayor||Jadwiga Sobanska|
|• Total||13.8 km2 (5.3 sq mi)|
|• Density||240/km2 (630/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Złoczew (German: 1939-45 Schlötzau) is a town in Sieradz County, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,371 inhabitants (2016). The city is located at a distance of 23 kilometres (14 miles) south of Sieradz and 23 kilometres (14 miles) north of Wieluń.
Złoczew was mentioned for the first time in 1496. It is known that the property was part of unikowski and belonged to the parish in Uników. Most likely, the owner of Złoczew in the mid-15th century was Jan Ruszkowski coat of arms Pobóg.
16th to 18th centuries
In the mid-16th century, the heir of goods złoczewskich was Stanisław Ruszkowski (1529-1597), cavalry captain in expeditions of Stefan Batory against Moscow, swordfish sieradzki and Warrant Officer kaliski (buried in the monastery Order of Cistercians in Koło, where his tombstone is preserved. However, its urban character Złoczew owes his son Andrzej Ruszkowski (1563-1619), for the Kalisz swordfish and the owner of the Nowa Wieś, Barczew and Ruszków. In 1600 he brought to Złoczew oo. Cistercians, building the monastic church and the monastery, and in 1601 funded parish church for Złoczew . Andrzej Ruszkowski had ambitious plans to create the Złoczew an important center of craft and trade and raise it to the status of the city. Złoczew had good localisation at the crossroads of trade routes between Wieruszów, Sieradz and Wieluń, it was big advantage in the effort to obtain municipal rights. On 14 December 1605 King Sigismund III Vasa issued in Cracow to location privilege for a new town Złoczew on the Magdeburg Law. Andrzej Ruszkowski moved his registered office to Złoczew and built there his brick manor (1614–16). In 1651 on the middle of market square built the town hall with a wooden tower. Not far from Złoczew in two neighboring villages Szklana Huta and Stara Huta built two glassworks, where probably produced window glass and bottle glass. In the surrounding area were built several mills and windmills. In the 18th century as a result of large influx of Jewish origin population, the synagogue was built in Złoczew.
January Uprising in Złoczew
In April 1861 after the service in memory of the victims who died on 27 February 1861 in Warsaw, among them Marcel Karczewski landowner from Sieradz. Nobility with the common people and the Jews throw out the mayor Paweł Kużawski and his clerk. This event has contributed to the January Uprising (1863–64) at Złoczew's lands. On 10 February 1863 the troops Prince Makary Drohomirecki marched into Złoczew. At the head of five riders marched into Złoczew and on the market square red the Manifesto of the National Government to residents of Złoczew. To the troops joined several volunteers from Złoczew. On 15 February 1863 as a result of betrayal Alexander Rumowicz - a peasant from colony Potok, thirty-two bedded insurgent unit with Makary Drohomirecki was surrounded in the forest pyszkowskim for about 500 men under the command of major Hanczakowa and major Pisanka. In the battle were killed five insurgents and Makary Drohomirecki. Some of the insurgents have been captured and some killed by their chasing down Cossacks.Only a few insurgents managed to save and escape. On 28 June 1863 in the village Potok a troop of the national gendarmerie made a judgment on traitor Aleksader Rumowicz. Last battle insurgent on the land of Złoczew was fought on 22 August 1863 by a troop of General Edmund Taczanowski on the fields between Złoczew and Kamionka. As a result, the prevailing forces the enemy general E. Taczanowski was forced to retreat. Many residents from Złoczew helped the insurgents repairing weapons, providing medicines and medical supplies, giving money, weapons, clothes and food.
For helping to insurgents since 1864 Złoczew ceased to be a private city and became the government city. As a result of the investigation were deported to Russia 3 people, and several people imprisoned in Sieradz prison. On the night of 27/28 November 1864 the tsarist troops surrounded the Cistercians Monastery in Złoczew. Plundered the monastery and the monks were sent to a monastery in Widawa. The graves of insurgents remaining to this day in: Pyszków, Brzeźnio, Klonowa, Gruszczyce, Poddębice and Widawa.
20th century and World War II
In 1919 polish administration restore the municipal rights Złoczew's. In 1939, the city has reached record high of 5,300 people, of which about 40% were Jews. On 1 September 1939 was a tragic day for the whole country. Poland has been invaded by Germany. The first bombs fell on Wieluń which was located just 15 kilometres (9 miles) from the border between Poland and Germany. Tragic day in the history Złoczew's was 4 September 1939, when, after crossing the front line, German soldiers from the SS Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler Regiment, together with the soldiers of the 17th Wehrmacht Infantry Division, killed about 200 people of Polish and Jewish nationality. The city was burned in 80 percent and scenery of burning Złoczew's by the Wehrmacht was used in the Nazi chronicle war, displayed in the first week of the war in the cinemas of the Third Reich. Among the victims were men, women, children, residents of Złoczew and refugees from the neighboring village. Destroyed 243 houses and economic buildings. In 1940, the Germans established a ghetto in Złoczew, which brought together about 2,500 Jews from the city and surrounding areas. Into 1942 its residents were deported to death camps and murdered. After war managed to identify the 71 victims - from which 58 came from Złoczew. Investigations carried out by German prosecutors after the war was discontinued due to the difficulty in determining exactly which units of the 17th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht) and Regiment Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler were at that time in Złoczew. During the war Złoczew was extremely damaged and deserted. The center of town has never been rebuilt, and its population has not reached prewar status today.
Some of the most prominent points of interest in the town include the Bernardine monastery complex built in 1603-1607 from donation by Andrzej Ruszkowski. From 1608 to 1864 the only residents of the monastery were Bernardine monks. In 1683-1692 the complex was expanded by Wojciech Urbański, warrant officer from Wieluń. The monastery was destroyed twice by fire, in 1719 and in 1808. From 1949 Camaldolese nuns live there. On 6 May 1986 the monastery was officially granted to Camaldolese nuns and became their property.
- Church of St. Cross from the late renaissance. The main altar in the rococo style of the mid-17th century, with carved crucifixion group.The two side altars - in rococo style. One of the sculpture of St. Anna's second sculpture Joachim - baroque from the 18th century. The next two side altars in rococo style with paintings St. Anthony and Barbara - 18th century, St. Joseph from the mid-19th century and St. Teresa - 18th century. In one of the side altars there is a painting Our Lady of Złoczew's from the late 16th or beginning of the 17th century. In the chapel (now vestry) rococo altar with paintings of St. John Cantius and St. Trinity. From the 18th century and rococo sculptures of St. Casimir and St. Valentine. During the renovation lasted several months following works were performed: repair of the church roof, the installation of lightning protection, restoration of the cross on the spire and tower of the church and replacing the floor in the church.
- Ruszowski palace from the beginning of the 17th century; rebuilt in the 18th and 19th centuries. Behind the palace was a park in the English style. During the Second World War the Germans rebuilt the building by removing arcades and destine it to the prison. After the war, in the palace was a primary school and secondary school dormitory. After the liquidation of dormitory building fell into disrepair. After Polish accession to the European Union in the framework of co-financing from the European fund, the palace was renovated. Currently in the palace there is headquartered office of the town and commune of Złoczew.
In Złoczew there are three schools:
- Primary School name of Nicolaus Copernicus
- Public Middle School name of Andrzej Ruszkowski
- Secondary Schools in Złoczew which includes:
- High School name of Wojciech Urbański
- Technical School
- Basic Vocational School
Honorary citizens of Złoczew
- prelate Piotr Światły from 9 November 2007
- Congregation of the Camaldolese Nuns from 1 January 2009
Notable people associated with Złoczew
- Maria Klemensa (Helena) Staszewska (1890-1943) – Polish nun born in Złoczew, Blessed Catholic Church.
- Wojciech Urbanski (xxxx-1692) - Senator in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the owner of Złoczew (1671-1692), took part in the Battle of Vienna, fought in the battle of Battle of Parkany.
- Kazimierz Błeszyński (1703-1757) - Member of Parliament, ensign greater of Sieradz (1748-1757)
- Population. Size and Structure and Vital Statistics in Poland by Territorial Division in 2016, as of December 31 (PDF). Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. 2017. p. 117. ISSN 2451-2087.
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