ZEB2 (previously also known as SMADIP1, SIP1) and its mammalian paralog ZEB1 belongs to the Zeb family within the ZF (zinc finger) class of homeodomain transcription factors. ZEB2 protein has 8 zinc fingers and 1 homeodomain. The structure of the homeodomain shown on the right.
ZEB2 interacts with receptor-mediated, activated full-length SMADs. The activation of TGFβ receptors brings about the phosphorylation of intracellular effector molecules, R-SMADs. ZEB2 is an R-SMAD-binding protein and acts as a transcriptional corepressor.
Mutations in the ZEB2 gene are associated with the Mowat–Wilson syndrome. This disease exhibits mutations and even complete deletions of the ZEB2 gene. Mutations of the gene can cause the gene to produce nonfunctional ZEB2 proteins or inactivate the function gene as a whole. These deficits of ZEB2 protein interferes with the development of many organs. Many of the symptoms can be explained by the irregular development of the structures from the neural crest.
Hirschsprung's disease also has many symptoms that can be explained by lack of ZEB2 during development of the digestive tract nerves. This disease causes severe constipation and enlargement of the colon.
^Bassez G, Camand OJ, Cacheux V, Kobetz A, Dastot-Le Moal F, Marchant D, Catala M, Abitbol M, Goossens M (March 2004). "Pleiotropic and diverse expression of ZFHX1B gene transcripts during mouse and human development supports the various clinical manifestations of the "Mowat-Wilson" syndrome". Neurobiology of Disease. 15 (2): 240–50. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2003.10.004. PMID15006694.
^Dastot-Le Moal F, Wilson M, Mowat D, Collot N, Niel F, Goossens M (April 2007). "ZFHX1B mutations in patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome". Human Mutation. 28 (4): 313–21. doi:10.1002/humu.20452. PMID17203459.
^Saunders CJ, Zhao W, Ardinger HH (November 2009). "Comprehensive ZEB2 gene analysis for Mowat-Wilson syndrome in a North American cohort: a suggested approach to molecular diagnostics". American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 149A (11): 2527–31. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.33067. PMID19842203.
Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N, Ohara O (February 1998). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. IX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 5 (1): 31–9. doi:10.1093/dnares/5.1.31. PMID9628581.
Ueki N, Oda T, Kondo M, Yano K, Noguchi T, Muramatsu M (December 1998). "Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins". Nature Biotechnology. 16 (13): 1338–42. doi:10.1038/4315. PMID9853615.
Verschueren K, Remacle JE, Collart C, Kraft H, Baker BS, Tylzanowski P, Nelles L, Wuytens G, Su MT, Bodmer R, Smith JC, Huylebroeck D (July 1999). "SIP1, a novel zinc finger/homeodomain repressor, interacts with Smad proteins and binds to 5'-CACCT sequences in candidate target genes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (29): 20489–98. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.29.20489. PMID10400677.
Wakamatsu N, Yamada Y, Yamada K, Ono T, Nomura N, Taniguchi H, Kitoh H, Mutoh N, Yamanaka T, Mushiake K, Kato K, Sonta S, Nagaya M (April 2001). "Mutations in SIP1, encoding Smad interacting protein-1, cause a form of Hirschsprung disease". Nature Genetics. 27 (4): 369–70. doi:10.1038/86860. PMID11279515.
Comijn J, Berx G, Vermassen P, Verschueren K, van Grunsven L, Bruyneel E, Mareel M, Huylebroeck D, van Roy F (June 2001). "The two-handed E box binding zinc finger protein SIP1 downregulates E-cadherin and induces invasion". Molecular Cell. 7 (6): 1267–78. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00260-X. PMID11430829.
Cacheux V, Dastot-Le Moal F, Kääriäinen H, Bondurand N, Rintala R, Boissier B, Wilson M, Mowat D, Goossens M (July 2001). "Loss-of-function mutations in SIP1 Smad interacting protein 1 result in a syndromic Hirschsprung disease". Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (14): 1503–10. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.14.1503. PMID11448942.
Tylzanowski P, Verschueren K, Huylebroeck D, Luyten FP (October 2001). "Smad-interacting protein 1 is a repressor of liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase transcription in bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (43): 40001–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M104112200. PMID11477103.
Zweier C, Albrecht B, Mitulla B, Behrens R, Beese M, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Rott HD, Rauch A (March 2002). ""Mowat-Wilson" syndrome with and without Hirschsprung disease is a distinct, recognizable multiple congenital anomalies-mental retardation syndrome caused by mutations in the zinc finger homeo box 1B gene". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 108 (3): 177–81. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10226. PMID11891681.
Nagaya M, Kato J, Niimi N, Tanaka S, Wakamatsu N (August 2002). "Clinical features of a form of Hirschsprung's disease caused by a novel genetic abnormality". Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 37 (8): 1117–22. doi:10.1053/jpsu.2002.34455. PMID12149685.
Guaita S, Puig I, Franci C, Garrido M, Dominguez D, Batlle E, Sancho E, Dedhar S, De Herreros AG, Baulida J (October 2002). "Snail induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in tumor cells is accompanied by MUC1 repression and ZEB1 expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (42): 39209–16. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206400200. PMID12161443.
Espinosa-Parrilla Y, Amiel J, Augé J, Encha-Razavi F, Munnich A, Lyonnet S, Vekemans M, Attié-Bitach T (June 2002). "Expression of the SMADIP1 gene during early human development". Mechanisms of Development. 114 (1–2): 187–91. doi:10.1016/S0925-4773(02)00062-X. PMID12175509.
Yoneda M, Fujita T, Yamada Y, Yamada K, Fujii A, Inagaki T, Nakagawa H, Shimada A, Kishikawa M, Nagaya M, Azuma T, Kuriyama M, Wakamatsu N (November 2002). "Late infantile Hirschsprung disease-mental retardation syndrome with a 3-bp deletion in ZFHX1B". Neurology. 59 (10): 1637–40. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000034842.78350.4e. PMID12451214.