Zabol

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Zabol
زابل
Zābul
City
داخل ارگ سکوهه.JPG
Zabol is located in Iran
Zabol
Zabol
Zabol is located in West and Central Asia
Zabol
Zabol
Coordinates: 31°01′43″N 61°30′04″E / 31.02861°N 61.50111°E / 31.02861; 61.50111Coordinates: 31°01′43″N 61°30′04″E / 31.02861°N 61.50111°E / 31.02861; 61.50111
CountryIran
ProvinceSistan and Baluchestan
CountyZabol
BakhshCentral
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Urban
134,950 [1]
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)

Zabol (Persian: زابل, also transliterated as Zâbol or Zābul)[2] is a city and capital of Zabol County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. Zabol is near the border with Afghanistan. Referred to as Sistan until the late 1920s, the city was renamed Zabol by Reza Shah Pahlavi.[3] At the 2006 census, its population was 130,642, in 27,867 families.[4]

Zabol is located near Lake Hamun and the region is irrigated by the Helmand River. Lake Hamun is a seasonal lake that is often dry. The people of Zabol are mixed of Persians who speak a variant of the Persian language and known as Sistani or Seistani which is very similar to Dari, also known as Afghan Persian, and Baloch who speak Balochi, a Northwestern Iranian language.

The city is home to Zabol University, the largest university in the city, as well as the Zabol Medical Science University and the Sistan Museum of Anthropology. Zabol has a regional airport.

Zabol is connected by road to Milak and Zaranj (across the border in Afghanistan). The Delaram-Zaranj Highway provides road connectivity to the rest of Afghanistan. Zabol thus provides Afghanistan access to the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf via the Port of Chabahar.

Air pollution[edit]

Trucks wait to cross into Iran at the Zaranj border crossing.

The Zabol area is well known for its "120-day wind" (bād-e sad-o-bist-roz), a highly persistent dust storm in the summer which blows from north to south. The disappearance in the 2000s of the nearby Hamoun wetlands has exacerbated the dusty conditions in Zabol,[5] leading the World Health Organization to name Zabol the most polluted city in the world in 2016.[6] A 2017 study in the journal Preventive Medicine suggested that the harm from 30 minutes of cycling outdoors in Zabol's polluted air would outweigh the benefits of the exercise.[7]

Climate[edit]

Zabol has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh).

Climate data for Zabol (1962–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
32.8
(91.0)
41.5
(106.7)
43.0
(109.4)
48.0
(118.4)
49.6
(121.3)
49.0
(120.2)
51.0
(123.8)
46.8
(116.2)
42.0
(107.6)
36.0
(96.8)
29.0
(84.2)
51.0
(123.8)
Average high °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
18.5
(65.3)
24.6
(76.3)
31.7
(89.1)
36.6
(97.9)
40.5
(104.9)
41.7
(107.1)
40.0
(104.0)
36.1
(97.0)
30.5
(86.9)
23.4
(74.1)
17.2
(63.0)
29.7
(85.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
11.5
(52.7)
17.1
(62.8)
23.7
(74.7)
28.9
(84.0)
33.0
(91.4)
34.8
(94.6)
33.1
(91.6)
28.4
(83.1)
22.2
(72.0)
15.3
(59.5)
9.9
(49.8)
22.2
(72.0)
Average low °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
4.4
(39.9)
9.5
(49.1)
15.7
(60.3)
21.1
(70.0)
25.4
(77.7)
27.8
(82.0)
26.1
(79.0)
20.6
(69.1)
13.9
(57.0)
7.2
(45.0)
2.7
(36.9)
14.7
(58.5)
Record low °C (°F) −12.0
(10.4)
−9.0
(15.8)
−2.2
(28.0)
3.0
(37.4)
7.2
(45.0)
14.0
(57.2)
19.0
(66.2)
12.0
(53.6)
6.0
(42.8)
0.0
(32.0)
−4.0
(24.8)
−7.0
(19.4)
−12.0
(10.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.8
(0.54)
12.8
(0.50)
14.3
(0.56)
4.8
(0.19)
0.8
(0.03)
0.1
(0.00)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.6
(0.06)
2.2
(0.09)
7.3
(0.29)
57.7
(2.27)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.6 2.4 2.8 1.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.6 1.4 11.6
Average relative humidity (%) 57 52 46 39 30 25 23 22 24 32 43 53 37
Average dew point °C (°F) −3
(27)
−1
(30)
1
(34)
6
(43)
6
(43)
5
(41)
4
(39)
3
(37)
0
(32)
0
(32)
0
(32)
−3
(27)
2
(35)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.8 203.1 225.0 264.2 310.0 321.0 324.4 317.0 288.3 288.2 235.9 198.5 3,174.4
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.2 7.7 9.4 9.8 12.1 12.3 12.3 11.8 10.0 9.9 9.2 7.3 9.9
Average ultraviolet index 4 5 6 7 9 9 9 8 7 6 5 3 7
Source 1: Iran Meteorological Organization (records),[8] (temperatures),[9] (precipitation),[10] (humidity),[11] (days with precipitation),[12]

(sunshine)[13][14]

Source 2: Time and Date (dewpoints, 2005-2015)[15]

Weather Atlas (uv index and daily sun hours)[16]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Presidential Building of Zabol University

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Statistical Center of Iran > Home".
  2. ^ Zabol can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3781433" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  3. ^ Skrine, Clarmont (1962). World War In Iran. Constable & Company. p. 68.
  4. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Statistical Center of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11.
  5. ^ Vidal, John; Kamali, Saeed (May 12, 2016). "Which are the world's two most polluted cities – and why?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  6. ^ Miles, Tom (May 12, 2016). "Iranian, Indian cities ranked worst for air pollution". Reuters. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  7. ^ Van Mead, Nick (February 13, 2017). "Tipping point: revealing the cities where exercise does more harm than good". The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Monthly Total Precipitation in Zabol by Month 1962–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  11. ^ "Average relative humidity in Zabol by Month 1962–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  12. ^ "No. Of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 1 mm in Zabol by Month 1962–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  13. ^ "Monthly total sunshine hours in Zabol by Month 1962–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  14. ^ "40829: Zabol (Iran)". ogimet.com. OGIMET. 28 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  15. ^ "Climate & Weather Averages at Zabol Airport, Iran". Time and Date. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  16. ^ "Monthly weather forecast and climate in Zabol, Iran". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 11 January 2022.

External links[edit]

Media related to Zabol at Wikimedia Commons