Zabol

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Zabol
زابل
city
Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar statue
Zabol is located in Iran
Zabol
Zabol
Coordinates: 31°01′43″N 61°30′04″E / 31.02861°N 61.50111°E / 31.02861; 61.50111Coordinates: 31°01′43″N 61°30′04″E / 31.02861°N 61.50111°E / 31.02861; 61.50111
Country  Iran
Province Sistan and Baluchestan
County Zabol
Bakhsh Central
Population (2006)
 • Total 130,642
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)

Zabol About this sound pronunciation  (Persian: زابل‎‎, also Romanized as Zābol)[1] is a city in and the capital of Zabol County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. Zabol lies on the border with Afghanistan. Referred to as Sistan until the late 1920s, the city was renamed Zabol by Reza Shah Pahlavi.[2] At the 2006 census, its population was 130,642, in 27,867 families.[3]

Zabol is located near Lake Hamun and the region is irrigated by the Hirmand River. Lake Hamun is a seasonal lake that is often dry. The people of Zabol are predominantly Persians who speak a variant of the Persian language and known as Sistani or Seistani which is very similar to Dari, also known as Afghan Persian, and a minority of Baluchs who speak Baluchi, a north western Iranian language.

The city is home to Zabol University, the largest university in the city, as well as the Zabol Medical Science University. Zabol has a regional airport.

Zabol is connected by road to Zaranj across the border in Afghanistan. The Delaram-Zaranj Highway provides road connectivity to the rest of Afghanistan. Zabol thus provides Afghanistan access to the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf via the Port of Chabahar.

Air pollution[edit]

The Zabol area is well known for its "120-day wind" (bād-e sad-o-bist-roz), a highly persistent dust storm in the summer which blows from north to south. The disappearance in the 2000s of the nearby Hamoun wetlands has exacerbated the dusty conditions in Zabol[4], leading the World Health Organization to name Zabol the most polluted city in the world in 2016.[5] A 2017 study in the journal Preventive Medicine suggested that the harm from 30 minutes of cycling outdoors in Zabol's polluted air would outweigh the benefits of the exercise.[6]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Zabol 498m (1962–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
32.8
(91)
38.4
(101.1)
43.0
(109.4)
48.0
(118.4)
49.6
(121.3)
49.0
(120.2)
51.0
(123.8)
46.8
(116.2)
42.0
(107.6)
36.0
(96.8)
29.0
(84.2)
51.0
(123.8)
Average high °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
18.5
(65.3)
24.6
(76.3)
31.7
(89.1)
36.6
(97.9)
40.5
(104.9)
41.7
(107.1)
40.0
(104)
36.1
(97)
30.5
(86.9)
23.4
(74.1)
17.2
(63)
29.7
(85.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
11.5
(52.7)
17.1
(62.8)
23.7
(74.7)
28.9
(84)
33.0
(91.4)
34.8
(94.6)
33.1
(91.6)
28.4
(83.1)
22.2
(72)
15.3
(59.5)
9.9
(49.8)
22.2
(72)
Average low °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
4.4
(39.9)
9.5
(49.1)
15.7
(60.3)
21.1
(70)
25.4
(77.7)
27.8
(82)
26.1
(79)
20.6
(69.1)
13.9
(57)
7.2
(45)
2.7
(36.9)
14.7
(58.5)
Record low °C (°F) −12.0
(10.4)
−9.0
(15.8)
−2.2
(28)
3.0
(37.4)
7.2
(45)
14.0
(57.2)
19.0
(66.2)
12.0
(53.6)
6.0
(42.8)
0.0
(32)
−4.0
(24.8)
−7.0
(19.4)
−10.0
(14)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.8
(0.543)
12.8
(0.504)
14.3
(0.563)
4.8
(0.189)
0.8
(0.031)
0.1
(0.004)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
1.6
(0.063)
2.2
(0.087)
7.3
(0.287)
57.7
(2.272)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.6 2.4 2.8 1.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.6 1.4 11.6
Average relative humidity (%) 57 52 46 39 30 25 23 22 24 32 43 53 37
Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.8 203.1 225.0 264.2 310.0 321.0 324.4 317.0 288.3 288.2 235.9 198.5 3,174.4
Source: Iran Meteorological Organization (records),[7] (temperatures),[8] (precipitation),[9] (humidity),[10] (days with precipitation),[11]

(sunshine)[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zabol can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3781433" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  2. ^ Skrine, Clarmont (1962). World War In Iran. Constable & Company, Ltd, Pg 68
  3. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11. 
  4. ^ Vidal, John; Kamali, Saeed (May 12, 2016). "Which are the world's two most polluted cities – and why?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
  5. ^ Miles, Tom (May 12, 2016). "Iranian, Indian cities ranked worst for air pollution". Reuters. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
  6. ^ Van Mead, Nick (February 13, 2017). "Tipping point: revealing the cities where exercise does more harm than good". The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Monthly Total Precipitation in Zabol by Month 1962–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. 
  10. ^ "Average relative humidity in Zabol by Month 1962–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. 
  11. ^ "No. Of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 1 mm in Zabol by Month 1962–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. 
  12. ^ "Monthly total sunshine hours in Zabol by Month 1962–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Zabol at Wikimedia Commons