Zafarullah Khan Jamali

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Zafarullah Khan Jamali
میر ظفراللہ خان جمالی
Zafarullah Khan Jamali.jpg
15th Prime Minister of Pakistan
In office
21 November 2002 – 26 June 2004
President Pervez Musharraf
Preceded by Pervez Musharaf (as Chief Executive)
Nawaz Sharif (as Prime Minister)
Succeeded by Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain
Chief Minister of Balochistan
In office
9 November 1996 – 22 February 1997
Governor Imran Ullah Khan
Preceded by Zulfikar Ali Magsi
Succeeded by Akhtar Mengal
In office
24 June 1988 – 24 December 1988
Governor Muhammad Musa
Preceded by Ghulam Qadir Khan
Succeeded by Bux Marie (acting)
Personal details
Born (1944-01-01) 1 January 1944 (age 72)
Dera Murad Jamali, Baluchistan Agency, British India
(now in Balochistan, Pakistan)
Political party Pakistan Peoples Party (before 1977)
Pakistan Muslim League (1985-1988)
Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (1988–1993)
Pakistan Muslim League (N) (1993-2002)
Pakistan Muslim League-
(2002 -Present)
Residence Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan
Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
Alma mater Government College University
Punjab University

Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (Balochi, Urdu: میر ظفراللہ خان جمالی‎; born 1 January 1944) is a Pakistani nationalist conservative[1] politician and former sports administrator[2] who was the 15th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 2002 until his resignation in 2004.

Originally a supporter of the Pakistan Peoples Party,[3][4] Jamali emerged from the politics of Balochistan Province under military governor Rahimuddin Khan during the 1970s. He became a national figure as part of the government of former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, and was Chief Minister of Balochistan for two non-consecutive terms (from June–December 1988 and November 1996 –February 1997). Although he was a senior leader in the Pakistan Muslim League (PML) and Sharif's confidant, relations between Jamali and Sharif cooled and Jamali joined the dissidents' party after the 1999 coup led by General Pervez Musharraf. In the 2002 general election, Jamali won his bid for the office of Prime Minister after his supporters and colleagues crossed party lines to support him. On 21 November 2002 Jamali was appointed the 13th Prime Minister of Pakistan, the first ethnic Baloch to hold the office.[5][6]

Jamali vowed to transform Pakistan's economy along broad free-market principles, implementing intensive economic shock therapy, price liberalisation and privatisation programmes.[7] His political and economic philosophies emphasised macroeconomics, and he reformed financial services, revenue and taxation in an attempt to control foreign debt, hyperinflation and social problems.[7] Jamali's economic policies expanded the GDP per capita to a record 13.6 percent.[8] He oversaw the country's transformation from a two-party to a multiparty democracy system and constitutional restoration. On 26 June 2004 Jamali unexpectedly announced his resignation, handing the office to his economic minister Shaukat Aziz (although Shuja'at Hussain served as acting prime minister).[9]

Early life[edit]

Jamali was born in the[3] village of Dera Murad Jamali, in Nasirabad District of Commissariat Baluchistan of the British Indian Empire, on 1 January 1944.[10] He hails from an educated Baloch family, who was influenced by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. His uncle, Jafar Khan Jamali, was a leader of the Pakistan Movement and was a close associate of Muhammad Ali Jinnah (founder of Pakistan) and his family was active in politics since 1932.[11] After completing his high school education at St. Francis Grammar School in Quetta,[10] Jamali attended elite public colleges—doing his O-levels at Lawrence College at Murree and his A-levels at Aitchison College in Lahore.[5] He received a Bachelor of Business Administration degree with honours from Government College University in 1963,[10] followed by an MA in British history from Punjab University (where he was captain of its hockey team) in 1965.[5] That year, Jamali played on the Pakistan national hockey team at the international level.[5]

After returning to his native province, Jamali became involved in public and social work which motivated him to enter public life.[10] During this time he became interested in national politics, joining the centre-left, democratic socialist Pakistan Peoples Party after listening to a speech by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in Balochistan.[3]

Pakistan Peoples Party[edit]

Jamali joined the PPP in 1970.[3] On its platform, he participated in the 1970 parliamentary elections without opposition.[4] As part of the new government in 1972, Jamali was appointed provincial home minister and Minister of Food, Information and Parliamentary Affairs in the Balochistan provisional cabinet.[4] In the 1977 parliamentary elections he was again elected unopposed for the Balochistan Provincial Assembly, briefly holding portfolios for the departments of Food, Information, Law and Parliamentary Affairs.[4]

Jamali left the PPP in 1977 due to the party's stance on socialism and democratic-socialist principles. In 1980, he joined the military governorship of Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan and rose to national prominence.[4] Under the military governorship Jamali headed the departments of real estate, agriculture and urban planning, playing a significant role in Pakistan's development of weapons-testing laboratories for nuclear deterrence. In 1981 he was appointed to the cabinet, but left due to differences with General Zia-ul-Haq.[4]


Jamali rose to public prominence in 1980 and has been associated with the Foreign Service of Pakistan since then, heading Pakistan's delegation to the United Nations in 1980 and 1991. In 1981, he headed Pakistan's delegation to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in Rome. In 1982, Jamali chaired Pakistan's delegation to the Islamic Agricultural Ministers Conference in Ankara and led a 21-member delegation from Parliament to the United States.

In the 1985 general elections Jamali successfully competed for the prime minister's secretariat, standing for Prime Minister against Muhammad Khan Junejo and Ilahi Bux Soomro; Junejo won the position. Jamali took the oath of office from General Zia-ul-Haq, and was appointed Minister for Water and Power in Junejo's government.

Chief minister of Balochistan[edit]

In 1988, Jamali joined the conservative Islamic Democratic Alliance (IDA) and was appointed the fourth Chief Minister of Balochistan Province. However, he lost the support of the PPP and was immediately succeeded by nationalist Akbar Bugti.[5]

Jamali participated in the 1990 elections and chaired the senate committee on economics, financial and revenue services.[5] In 1993, he joined the Pakistan Muslim League (PML, led by Nawaz Sharif) as senior vice-president. In 1996, with JUI-F support, Jamali was again appointed caretaker chief minister of Balochistan and secured his parliamentary seat in the 1997 general election.[5] As an MP, he chaired the senate committee on sports and physical development. A vocal critic of Pakistan's first nuclear tests (authorised by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif), Jamali's relationship with Sharif cooled.[5] His problems with Sharif worsened in 1999 during the Kargil war, and he ended his support of the prime minister after the 1999 coup d'état led by chief of army staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee Pervez Musharraf.[5]

As prime minister[edit]

Two seated men, shaking hands in front of a fireplace
Prime Minister Jamali shaking hands with President George W. Bush, 2003

On 20 July 2002, Jamali joined the Pakistan Muslim League's breakaway Q Group as senior executive president.[12] He secured his parliamentary seat in the 2002 general elections, the first general election in Pakistan since the 1999 coup, with heavy support from Balochistan. Jamali initially contended for the prime minister secretariat, winning the support of his party when his PPP and Muslim League supporters joined Q Group.[12] In the first parliamentary session, he won the prime minister secretariat.

Since no party had an exclusive mandate, his election as Prime Minister followed weeks of negotiation.[12] On 21 November 2002, Jamali became the 13th Prime Minister of Pakistan and its first Baloch PM. During the first session Jamali received 188 votes from the 342-seat lower house, the National Assembly, and formed a coalition government with MQM, MMA, PPPP and the splinter group of the Pakistan Muslim League.[12] He oversaw Pakistan's transition from two-party to multi-party democracy.[12]

Soon after his appointment as prime minister, Jamali announced a new cabinet consisting Shaukat Aziz (as Finance), Rao Iskandar (Defence), Faisal Hyatt (Interior), Khurschid Kasurie (Foreign Affairs) and Zubaida Jalal (Education). He appointed Sheikh Riaz Ahmad Chief Justice of Pakistan, re-establishing the Supreme Court after deposing Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui.

Economic policies[edit]

Jamali's economic policies were based on capitalism and free-economy principles devised by his economic minister, Shaukat Aziz, in 1999.[7] Jamali approved the privatisation of state corporations, intensifying the programme through his finance minister.[8] His policies emphasised macroeconomics; he approved a poverty-alleviation programme and pioneered pro-poor policies by establishing industry and encouraging the private sector to bring investment to the country.[7] With Aziz's help, Jamali ended Pakistan's 15-year alliance with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and announced that "the country had achieved complete economic sovereignty".[8]

Major industries and state-owned corporations were opened to the private sector and investors.[7] Jamali's economic policies were controlled by Aziz, who supervised the privatisation programme he had approved.[7]

Foreign policy[edit]

Two men walking between lines of armed soldiers in dress uniforms
Prime minister Jamali with Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld at the Pentagon

As prime minister, Jamali formulated pro-American policies while enhancing relations with Iran, China and the European Union. As his first task, he tried to improve relations with Pakistan's neighbours by issuing an invitation to Iranian President Mohammad Khatami, who paid Pakistan a three-day state visit in 2002[13] with a high-level delegation consisting of the Iranian cabinet, members of Parliament, the Iranian vice-president and President Khatami.[13] Jamali visited Iran the following year, holding talks about economic co-operation, regional security and improved relations between Pakistan and Iran.[14] During the visit, he advise the Iranian leadership on their nuclear programme "against the backdrop of the country's" negotiations with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and measures to strengthen economic relations between the two countries.[15]

That year, Jamali supported Hamid Karzai as President of Afghanistan and approved an aid programme to Afghanistan.[16] It was the first major Pakistani visit to Afghanistan in 34 years, during which Jamali announced aid for a railway project.[16]

In October 2003 Jamali visited the United States, meeting with President George W. Bush and vowing to support the U.S. in the war on terror. In return, Jamali secured an aid package from the U.S. to support the Pakistani economy and social reforms to reduce poverty and the suicide rate.

Jamali vowed to improve relations with India, sending greetings immediately after assuming office[12] and procuring a peace agreement and cease-fire in the disputed Kashmir region.[17] He appointed a special envoy to improve relations and lessen tensions between the two countries which had arisen during the 1990s and early 2000s.[17]


Despite Jamali's ideological closeness to Musharraf and his pro-U.S. political and economic policies, on 26 June 2004 he abruptly announced his resignation on television after a three-hour meeting with Musharraf.[18] There had been rumours of Jamali's strained relationship with Musharraf on the execution of government policies.[19] According to media reports, resignation became inevitable when Musharraf became unhappy with Jamali's strategy to tackle opposition and his failure to strongly endorse Musharraf's policies.[9] In previous parliamentary sessions, confrontations between the opposition parties and Jamali's coalition over the military's role in Pakistani politics did not prompt Musharraf to request Jamali's resignation.[9]

The ultra-right alliance was initially a surprise;[20] the mainstream parties saw Jamali's resignation as "forced and [a] humiliation for democracy"[21] and "bad for the future".[22] With his surprise announcement, Jamali dissolved the cabinet and nominated his party's president Shujaat Hussain as interim prime minister.[21] Weeks after his resignation, it was learned that it came as the result of deteriorating relations with Hussain.[21]

Love of hockey[edit]

After resigning, Jamali pursued his passion for field hockey. In 2004, he became president of the Pakistan Hockey Federation (PHF) and the national hockey team finished third for the Champions Trophy in Lahore.[23] Jamali took the initiative to host the international event, and was seen at every match.[23] He previously played for Punjab province, acted as Chief-de-Mission for the 1984 Summer Olympics and has been chief selector for the national team.[24]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Associate Press (11 November 2010). "Jamali courts PML-N". The Tribune Express. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  2. ^ AP, Associate Press. "Pakistan hockey chief quits". Arabnews. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d Press Release (26 June 2004). "Profile: Zafarullah Jamali". BBC Pakistan. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2012. Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali, who has resigned, is a veteran politician from an influential political family. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Release. "Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali". Pakistan Herald. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Administrator (21 February 2004). "Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali". Story of Pakistan Foundation. p. 1. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  6. ^ Raman, B. "Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali of Pakistan". South Asia Analysis Group. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f APP (10 March 2004). "Jamali urges legislators to alleviate poverty". Daily Times. Retrieved 25 May 2012. structural reform agenda must continue, quoted by Jamali [dead link]
  8. ^ a b c APP (27 December 2003). "Economic sovereignty achieved: Jamali". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c "Jamali resigns as Pakistan's Prime minister". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c d Senate Secretariat. "Senator Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamal". Senate Secretariat of Government of Pakistan. Senate Secretariat. Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  11. ^ Samina Vakar (21 April 2010). Interview of Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (Television production). Islamabad, Pakistan: Pakistan Television Corporation. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Pakistan Prime Minister Wins Parliamentary Vote of Confidence". The New York Times. APP. 31 December 2002. p. 1. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012. Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali won a vote of confidence in Parliament today and promised to try to improve relations with India. It was the first major test of Pakistan's partial return to democracy 
  13. ^ a b APP (11 March 2003). "Weapons found during Khatami visit". December 24, 2002. CNN. Archived from the original on 27 February 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  14. ^ APP. "Jamali talks trade with Khatami". Wednesday, October 22, 2003. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  15. ^ Shaukat Paracha (16 October 2003). "amali to discuss growing Indo-Iran ties with Khatami". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 18 May 2005. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  16. ^ a b Carlotta, Gall (13 January 2004). "Pakistan's Premier Visits Afghanistan and Pledges Cooperation". The New York Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  17. ^ a b APP (24 November 2003). "Pakistan to Begin Cease-Fire in Kashmir". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  18. ^ Associate Press (26 June 2004). "Resignation of PM Jamali". Pakistan Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  19. ^ PR (26 Jun 2004). "Jamali resigns as Pak premier". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  20. ^ Our Correspondent (27 June 2004). "Jamali's resignation shocks MMA". Dawn. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  21. ^ a b c Our Political Bureau (28 June 2004). "Pak parties flay Jamali`s 'forced' resignation". Business Standard. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  22. ^ a b Bhatti, M. Jamal. "Men's Field Hockey Loses Appeal in S. Asia". Ohmy news international. Archived from the original (webcache) on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  23. ^ "Former PM Jamali named PHF president". The Nation, 23 August 2006. Retrieved 4 October 2006 Archived 25 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Ghulam Qadir Khan
Chief Minister of Balochistan
Succeeded by
Khuda Bux Marri
Preceded by
Zulfikar Ali Magsi
Chief Minister of Balochistan

Succeeded by
Akhtar Mengal
Preceded by
Pervez Musharraf
as chief executive of Pakistan
Prime Minister of Pakistan
Succeeded by
Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain