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|2nd Chairman of the House of Representatives|
|Succeeded by||Arudji Kartawinata|
|Deputy Prime Minister of Indonesia|
30 Julu 1953 – 12 August 1955
|Preceded by||Prawoto Mangkusasmito|
|Succeeded by||Djanu Ismadi
2 September 1909|
Baroes, Central Tapanuli, North Sumatera, Dutch East Indies
|Died||2 March 1963
Kiai Haji Zainul Arifin Pohan (born in Barus, Central Tapanuli, North Sumatera, 2 September 1909 - died in Jakarta, 2 March 1963 at the age of 53 years) was a politician Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) youth leading since the colonial period Netherlands been active in youth organizations NU, GP Ansor, is the last department head of DPRGR (1960 - 1963).
Childhood and Education
Zainul Arifin Pohan was born as the only child of a descendant of king of Barus, Sultan Raja Barus Tuangku Ramali bin Sultan Alam Sahi Pohan with a woman of Kotanopan noble origin, Mandailing, Siti Baiyah Boru Nasution. Pohan was a toddler when her parents divorced and she was brought by her mother to Kotanopan, then to Kerinci, Jambi. There he completed his education at Hollands Indische School, a type of middle school for non-Dutch children. In addition, Pohan also deepen religious knowledge in the mosque and Madrasah while undergoing martial arts training Pencak Silat. He is also an art lover who is active in the musical theatrics melayu, Duke Stambul as a singer and violinist. Duke is the beginning of the development of opera theater of modern Indonesian art. At the age of 16 years Pohan migrated to Batavia (Jakarta).
From Church to GP Ansor
Armed with Arifin received his diploma work in colonial township government (Gemeente) as a clerk in the Water Company (PAM) in Central Jakarta potty. There he had worked for five years, before finally laid off when the global recession that started in the U.S. and the impact to the Dutch East Indies. Out of gemeente Arifin then choose to work as an elementary school teacher and also set up centers for adult education, University of the People, in the region Meester Cornelis (Djatinegara now). Zainul also often provide legal assistance to people who need the energy Betawi shyster, a lawyer with no educational background yet mastered Dutch Law. In addition he was active again in the musical theater arts activities from traditional Betawi Malay tradition, Samrah. He had founded a group called Samrah Tonil Zainul. Of this artistic activity and subsequently he became acquainted with a very familiar friends nationally prominent film, Jamaluddin Malik who was then also operate in Samrah activities. Both of them later joined the Youth Movement (GP) ANSOR that when it is actively recruiting young workers.
During a GP member Arifin ANSOR is then further enhance the knowledge and skills berdakwahnya religion as a young preacher through a typical training ANSOR. Zainul expertise in speech, debate and preaching was to attract the attention of leaders of Nahdlatul Ulama, the parent organization ANSOR including: Wahid Hasyim, Mahfouz Siddiq, Muhammad Ilyas, and Abdullah Ubaid. In just a few short years, has become chairman Zainul Arifin Branch NU Djatinegara and next as Chief Consul NU Batavia. and working at the water company (PAM) municipal government (gemeente). In this city he also became a school teacher in the areas Djatinegara Rise and Bukit Duri. Additionally Arifin had also undergone shyster profession, which does not require a lawyer bumiputra formal legal education. Year 1930 he started joining ANSOR Youth Movement and a few years later was active in NU parent organization, initially as Head of Branch Djatinegara and finally as chairman of the Assembly Consul diamanahi NU London until the arrival of the army Japan in 1942.
Become Hezbollah commander Masyumi
During the era of Japanese military occupation, Zainul Arifin follow represent NU in the management of Indonesian Muslim Shura Assembly (Masyumi) and involved in the paramilitary group Hezbollah.
To attract sympathy of the rural people, the Japanese gave Islamic organizations (mainly NU) opportunity to more actively involved in government under Japanese military occupation. Zainul Arifin was tasked with the management of modeling Tonarigumi, (Jap. "Neighbourhood") embryo, which is then formed in Jatinegara, up to the furthest corners of the village on the island of Java. While the Asia-Pacific War more heat, allow dibentuknya Japanese puppet army of paramilitary people. Muslim young men recruited late 'Tonarigumi' band formed Hezbollah (Army of God). Arifin Panglima believed to be Hezbollah's main task coordinate semi-military training course in Cibarusa, near Bogor. In the peak war training use to anticipate the occurrence of the Asia-Pacific War, Independence Indonesia's Sukarno-Hatta proclaimed on 17 August 1945 in Jakarta.
Zainul then represent the party in charge of the Agency Workers Masjumi in Central Indonesian National Committee (BP-KNIP), the forerunner of the House of Assembly, while continuing to hold the leadership of Hezbollah, which has been transformed into the armed forces. During the Revolution, in addition to following the BP hearings KNIP move where as the gravity of the situation, Arifin also led the Warriors guerrilla movement Hezbollah in Central Java and East Java during Military Aggression I and II. In leading the Warriors Hezbollah Zainul use tonarigumi path or the first cultivated Neighborhood Association to include remote villages in Java. During a Military Aggression II in December 1948, the Netherlands had dropped Yogyakarta and charming Sukarno-Hatta. In an emergency, BP KNIP practically not functioning. Arifin then engaged as a member of the Central Government Commissioner in Java (KPPD), part of the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) located in Bukit Tinggi, West Sumatra.
Zainul main task to consolidate the agencies waging guerrilla tactics battle under the command of General Sudirman. When the government armed forces of all merge into one container of the Indonesian Armed Forces, Zainul Arifin was believed to be the Secretary Shoots military leadership. But finally, when many former members of the army, Hezbollah declared not to be accepted as members of the military as uneducated "modern" and just graduated from Madrasah, he chose to resign and concentrate on the continuing struggle for civil political channels.
Berkiprah di Legislatif dan Eksekutif
Having finally acknowledged the sovereignty of the Netherlands RI end of 1949, Zainul Arifin back to Parliament as a representative of the DPRS Masyumi Party and later representatives of NU Party traditionalists when Kiai's party finally broke away from Masyumi 1952. A year afterwards, Arifin been active in the executive board served as a vice prime minister (waperdam) in the Cabinet Ali Sastroamijoyo I who ruled two full years (1953-1955).
For the first time in NU history, three ministerial departments (previously NU always just get your allotment of only one ministerial position) dijabat figures with Zainul Arifin NU NU as first figure served as waperdam. Cabinet itself successfully maintain Konfrensi Asia Africa in Bandung. In 1955 it was Haj Zainul depart for the first and last time to the Holy Land with President Sukarno. There he prized gilded sword by the King of Saudi Arabia, King Saud. After returning from there Zainul is one of the key figures who successfully place the NU party into the "big three" winners 1955 election, where the number of seats in the House NU up from only 8 to 45 seats. In addition to return to parliament as a representative of the head I DPR RI, after elections in 1955, Arifin also represent NU in the Constituent Assembly to institute a decree late Sukarno dissolved 5 July 1959 for failing to formulate seen the new Constitution. Post-decree, Indonesia set to return to the 1945 Constitution and entered the era of Guided Democracy. At the time it happened centralization of authority in the president himself insisted on implementing understand NASAKOM (nationalist, religious, and Communist) party which advocates non-religious parties like the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) grown in Indonesia.
Since proclamation independence Zainul Arifin sat in the Working Committee of the Central Indonesian National Committee (BP KNIP), the forerunner of the legislature MPR / Parliament. Arifin active until his death in parliament representing the party and then the party Masjumi NU NU out of Masjumi after the 1952. Only during 1953-1955 while serving as deputy prime minister in the cabinet of Ali-Arifin (Cabinet Ali Sastroamijoyo I) Zainul involved in the executive body. Cabinet in this era of parliamentary democracy organized successful Asian-African Conference in Bandung in 1955.
Indonesia's First General Election in 1955 usher Zainul Arifin to become a member of the Constituent Assembly and vice chairman of the House until the two institutions dissolved Sukarno by presidential decree 5 July 1959. Entering the era of Guided Democracy, Arifin willing chaired the House Mutual Aid (DPRGR) in an effort to stem the strength of NU party Communist Party of Indonesia ("PKI") in parliament. Amid political tensions, on 14 May 1962, when prayer Eid al-Adha at the forefront with Sukarno, Zainul shot bullet who directed an insurgent DI / TII in the experiment kills president. Zainul Arifin eventually died 2 March 1963 after suffering a gunshot wound at his shoulder for ten month.