Zaire ebolavirus

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Zaire ebolavirus
False color scanning electron microscope image of a single filamentous Ebola virus particle
False color scanning electron microscope image of a single filamentous Ebola virus particle
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Phylum: Negarnaviricota
Class: Monjiviricetes
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Filoviridae
Genus: Ebolavirus
Zaire ebolavirus
Member virus (Abbreviation)

Ebola virus (EBOV)

The species Zaire ebolavirus is a virological taxon included in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The species has a single virus member, Ebola virus (EBOV), and it is the type species for the genus Ebolavirus.[1] The members of the species are called Zaire ebolaviruses.[1]


The name Zaire ebolavirus is derived from Zaire and the taxonomic suffix ebolavirus (which denotes an ebolavirus species and refers to the Ebola River).[1]

According to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the name Zaire ebolavirus is always to be capitalized, italicized, and to be preceded by the word "species". The names of its members (Zaire ebolaviruses) are to be capitalized, are not italicized, and used without articles.[1]

The species was introduced in 1998 as Zaire Ebola virus.[2][3] In 2002, the name was changed to Zaire ebolavirus.[4][5]

Species inclusion criteria[edit]

A virus of the genus Ebolavirus is a member of the species Zaire ebolavirus if:[1]

Evolutionary history[edit]

Zaire ebolavirus diverged from its ancestors between 1960-1976.[6] The genetic diversity of Ebolavirus remained constant before 1900.[6][7] Then, around the 1960s, most likely due to climate change or human activities, the genetic diversity of the virus dropped rapidly and most lineages became extinct.[7] As the number of susceptible hosts declines, so does the effective population size and its genetic diversity. This genetic bottleneck effect has implications for the species' ability to cause Ebola virus disease in human hosts.

Zaire ebolavirus -Makona variant caused the 2014 West Africa outbreak.[8] The outbreak was characterized by the longest instance of human-to-human transmission of the viral species.[8] Pressures to adapt to the human host were seen at this time, however, there were no phenotypic changes in the virus (such as increased transmission, increased immune evasion by the virus) were seen.[9]


  1. ^ a b c d e Kuhn, Jens H.; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Johnson, Karl M.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Lipkin, W. Ian; Negredo, Ana I; et al. (2010). "Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: Classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations". Archives of Virology. 155 (12): 2083–103. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0814-x. PMC 3074192. PMID 21046175.
  2. ^ Netesov, S. V.; Feldmann, H.; Jahrling, P. B.; Klenk, H. D.; Sanchez, A. (2000). "Family Filoviridae". In van Regenmortel, M. H. V.; Fauquet, C. M.; Bishop, D. H. L.; Carstens, E. B.; Estes, M. K.; Lemon, S. M.; Maniloff, J.; Mayo, M. A.; McGeoch, D. J.; Wickner, R. B. Virus Taxonomy—Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press. pp. 539–48. ISBN 978-0-12-370200-5.
  3. ^ Pringle, C. R. (1998). "Virus taxonomy-San Diego 1998". Archives of Virology. 143 (7): 1449–59. doi:10.1007/s007050050389. PMID 9742051.
  4. ^ Feldmann, H.; Geisbert, T. W.; Jahrling, P. B.; Klenk, H.-D.; Netesov, S. V.; Peters, C. J.; Sanchez, A.; Swanepoel, R.; et al. (2005). "Family Filoviridae". In Fauquet, C. M.; Mayo, M. A.; Maniloff, J.; Desselberger, U.; Ball, L. A. Virus Taxonomy—Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 645–653. ISBN 978-0-12-249951-7.
  5. ^ Mayo, M. A. (2002). "ICTV at the Paris ICV: results of the plenary session and the binomial ballot". Archives of Virology. 147 (11): 2254–60. doi:10.1007/s007050200052.
  6. ^ a b Carroll, S.A. (2012). "Molecular Evolution of Viruses of the Family Filoviridae Based on 97 Whole-Genome Sequences". Journal of Virology. 87: 2608–2616.
  7. ^ a b Li, Y.H. (2013). "Evolutionary history of Ebola virus". Epidemiology and Infection. 142: 1138–1145.
  8. ^ a b "Outbreaks Chronology: Ebola Virus Disease | Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever | CDC". 2017-08-02. Retrieved 2017-11-11.
  9. ^ Olabode, S.A. (2015). "Ebola virus is evolving but not changing: no evidence for functional change in EBOV from 1976 to the 2014". bioRxiv 014480.

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