Zaitao

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Zaitao
Beile and acting Junwang
Prince Zaitao of Qing.jpg
Zaitao
Beile
(of the Prince Zhong peerage)
Tenure 1900–1945
Predecessor Zaiying
Successor none
Born (1887-06-23)23 June 1887
Beijing, China
Died 2 September 1970(1970-09-02) (aged 83)
Beijing, China
Burial Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery, Beijing, China
Spouse Jiang Wanzhen
Zhou Mengyun
Jin Xiaolan
Wang Naiwen
Issue Eldest daughter
Eldest son
Yunhui
Pujia
Pu'an
Pushen
Puxi
Pushi
Full name
Aisin-Gioro Zaitao
(愛新覺羅·載濤)
Father Yixuan
Mother Lady Lingiya
Zaitao
Traditional Chinese 載濤
Simplified Chinese 载涛
Shuyuan
Chinese 叔源
Yeyun
art name
Traditional Chinese 野雲
Simplified Chinese 野云

Zaitao (23 June 1887 - 2 September 1970), courtesy name Shuyuan, art name Yeyun, was a Manchu prince of the Qing dynasty. He was a half-brother of the Guangxu Emperor and an uncle of Puyi, the Last Emperor of China.

Life[edit]

Zaitao was born in the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan as the seventh son of Yixuan (Prince Chun). His family was under the Plain Red Banner of the Eight Banners. He was adopted by an older male relative, Yimo (奕謨; 1850–1905), who had no son to succeed him.

In 1890, during the reign of the Guangxu Emperor, Zaitao was granted the title of a second class zhenguo jiangjun. He was promoted to a buru bafen fuguo gong in 1894. In 1898, Zaitao was transferred from Yimo's lineage to the lineage of Yihe (奕詥; 1844–1868), Prince Zhong of the Second Rank, as Yihe's adopted son because Yihe had no son to succeed him. He was made an acting beizi in the same year. In 1902, he was promoted to beile.

In December 1908, Zaitao was made an acting junwang (second-rank prince), even though nominally he still remained as a beile. In the same year, he and Tieliang (鐵良) were appointed as zongsi jicha (總司稽察; a type of inspector-official). A year later, during the reign of the Xuantong Emperor, Zaitao was put in charge of the Military Consultancy (軍諮處). In 1910, he visited eight countries – Japan, the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Austria, and Russia – to observe and learn from their more advanced armed forces. In May 1910, he was sent to Britain as an ambassador to represent the Qing Empire at the funeral of King Edward VII.[1]

In 1911, Zaitao was appointed as the Minister of the Military Consultancy (軍諮大臣) and placed in charge of the Imperial Guard (禁衛軍), as well as being appointed as chief of general staff.[2] He was also designated as the commander of the Mongol Bordered Yellow Banner. In January 1912, after the fall of the Qing Empire, Zaitao, along with Zaixun and others from the imperial clan, founded the zongshe dang (宗社黨) to preserve their ancestral temple, but this organisation was disbanded in March. In 1917, when the warlord Zhang Xun briefly restored Puyi to the throne, Zaitao was appointed as the Commanding Officer of the Imperial Guards.

In 1931, Zaitao was recruited by the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China to join the National Crisis Conference (國難會議). After the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, Zaitao served as a member of the National People's Congress and Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

Zaitao fancied horses. In his early years, he studied cavalry warfare in the Saumur Cavalry School in France. After 1949, he served as a consultant on horses in the artillery formation of the People's Liberation Army.

Zaitao was also interested in Beijing opera. He was trained in both long and short range types of performing martial arts, and specialised in playing monkey roles in opera. He was tutored by Yang Xiaolou (楊小樓) and Zhang Qilin (張淇林). Opera actor Li Wanchun (李萬春) trained under Zaitao for three years.

Zaitao died in Beijing in 1970 at the age of 83.

Family[edit]

  • Father: Yixuan, Prince Chunxian of the First Rank.
  • Mother: Lady Lingiya (劉佳氏; 1866-1925), daughter of Deqing (德慶).
  • Spouses:
    • Jiang Wanzhen (姜婉貞; c. 1870 - 1949), from an affluent family in Guangdong
    • Zhou Mengyun (周夢雲), previously a maid in Zaitao's household, divorced him after 1949
    • Jin Xiaolan (金孝蘭; c. 1906 - 1967), previously a maid in Zaitao's household
    • Wang Naiwen (王乃文), a former performing artist
  • Children:
    • Born to Jiang Wanzhen:
      • Eldest daughter, unnamed, died prematurely.
      • Eldest son (1905), unnamed, died prematurely.
      • Yunhui (韞慧; 1906 - 1969), Zaitao's second daughter, changed her name to Jin Yuncheng (金允誠), married the Mongol prince Darijaya of the Alxa Banner, Alxa League, in 1925.[3]
      • Pujia (溥佳; 1908 - 1949), Zaitao's second son, read English together with Puyi in the palace, served in the government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
      • Pu'an (溥侒; 1911 - 1944), Zaitao's third son, was as a weapons specialist in Huabei Suijing Department (華北綏靖總署).
      • Pushen (溥伸; 1915 - 1928), Zaitao's fourth son.
    • Born to Zhou Mengyun:
      • Puxi (溥僖; b. 1924), Zaitao's fifth son, changed name to Jin Daibao (金岱賓), worked in an automobile company in Beijing.
    • Born to Jin Xiaolan:
      • Pushi (溥仕), Zaitao's sixth son, changed name to Jin Congzheng (金從政), was a languages teacher in Beijing's 80th Middle School (第八十中學).

Ancestry[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Zaitao in the United States
 
 

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Times, May 21, 1910
  2. ^ Esherick (2013), p. 190
  3. ^ 阿拉善亲王:达理札雅 — Prince of Alashan: Darijaya, Alashan League Government, 2008-07-03, retrieved 2011-08-04 

Further reading[edit]

  • Esherick, Joseph W.; Wei, C.X. George (2013). China: How the Empire Fell. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-0-415-83101-7.