Zaječar

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Zaječar

Град Зајечар

Saitchar
City of Zaječar
Зграда Музеја у Зајечару 01.jpg
Felix Romuliana 5.jpg
Црква у Зајечару, храм Пресвете Богородице 01.jpg
Zaječar spomenik.jpg
Istorijski arhiv Timočka krajina Zaječar 3.jpg
Zgrada Skupštine Opštine Zaječar.jpg
From top: National Museum, Archaeological site Gamzigrad, Temple of the Most Holy Theotokos, Central park, Historical archive, Сity Hall
Coat of arms of Zaječar
Coat of arms
Location of the city of Zaječar within Serbia
Location of the city of Zaječar within Serbia
Coordinates: 43°55′N 22°18′E / 43.917°N 22.300°E / 43.917; 22.300Coordinates: 43°55′N 22°18′E / 43.917°N 22.300°E / 43.917; 22.300
Country Serbia
RegionSouthern and Eastern Serbia
DistrictZaječar
Settlements41
Government
 • MayorBoško Ničić (SNS)
Area
 • Urban97 km2 (37 sq mi)
 • Administrative1,069 km2 (413 sq mi)
Elevation
134 m (440 ft)
Population
(2011 census)[2]
 • Urban
38,165
 • Urban density390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
 • Administrative
59,461
 • Administrative density56/km2 (140/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
19000
Area code+381(0)19
Car platesZA
Websitewww.zajecar.info

Zaječar (Serbian Cyrillic: Зајечар pronounced [zâjɛtʃar], Romanian: Zaicear) is a city and the administrative center of the Zaječar District in eastern Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the city administrative area has a population of 59,461 inhabitants. City is also the largest place in eastern Serbia.

Zaječar is widely known for its rock music festival Gitarijada and for the festival dedicated to contemporary art ZALET.

Name[edit]

In Serbian, the city is known as Zaječar (Зајечар); in Romanian as Zăiicer (archaic name), Zăiceri, Zăicear or Zăiceari; in Macedonian as Заечар and in Bulgarian as Зайчар (Zajčar).

The origin of the name is from the Torlak dialect name for "hare" = zajec / зајец (in all other Serbian dialects it is zec / зец, while in Bulgarian it is "заек / zaek"). It means "the man who breeds and keeps hares".

Folk etymology in Romanian/Vlach, gives "Zāiicer" as meaning "the Gods are asking (for sacrifice)".

Early renderings of the city in English favored Saitchar.

History[edit]

Ancient[edit]

Three Roman Emperors were born in the city of Zaječar: Galerius (r. 293–311), Maximinus (r. 305–312) and Licinius (r. 308–324).

Felix Romuliana.

The Late Roman fortified palace compound and memorial complex of Gamzigrad-Romuliana at the outskirts of Zaječar was commissioned by Emperor Caius Valerius Galerius Maximianus, in the late 3rd and early 4th century. It was known as Felix Romuliana, named after the Emperor's mother Romula. The site consists of fortifications, the palace in the north-western part of the complex, basilicas, temples, hot baths, memorial complex, and a tetrapylon. The site offers a unique testimony of the Roman building tradition marked by the ideology of the period of the Second Tetrachy. The group of buildings is also unique in its intertwining of ceremonial and memorial functions. The relation between two spatial ensembles in this site is stressed by the tetrapylon which is placed on the crossroads between the worldly fortification and palace on the one side and the other-worldly mausoleums and consecration monuments on the other.

Middle Ages[edit]

Slavs entered the region during the 7th century, and the tribe living in the area was called Timočani. During the Middle Ages, the area of Zaječar was contested between Bulgaria, Hungary and Serbia. It finally fell under Ottoman rule during the first half of the 15th century. The oldest preserved rendering of Zaječar listed in an Ottoman defter dates from 1466. At the time, there were only eight extended families (zadrugas) living there.

Modern[edit]

In the First Serb Uprising, Hajduk Veljko Petrović liberated the area from Ottoman rule in 1806. The Ottomans retook the area in 1813 but finally ceded it to Serbia in 1833.

The population of the city and of the area to the south of it was partly Bulgarian, as the Serbian ethnographer Milan Đ. Milićević recognized. The city actively participated in the Serbo-Turkish War of 1876-1878. In 1883, it was partially engulfed in the famous Timok Uprising, a reaction against a governmental order to confiscate peasants' firearms and against a law replacing the militia with a standing army.

Bulgaria occupied Zaječar from 1915 to 1918, during the First World War. From 1929 to 1941, the city was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The German army occupied Zaječar on 14 April 1941, during the Second World War; it was administered as part of the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia from 22 April 1941. Zaječar was liberated on 7–8 October 1944 in a joint operation by Yugoslav Partisans and the Red Army.[3]

Climate[edit]

Zaječar has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfa), that's very close to a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa).

Climate data for Zaječar (1981–2010, extremes 1961–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.0
(73.4)
25.1
(77.2)
28.4
(83.1)
34.2
(93.6)
35.7
(96.3)
40.4
(104.7)
44.7
(112.5)
41.7
(107.1)
38.4
(101.1)
32.3
(90.1)
28.4
(83.1)
24.6
(76.3)
44.7
(112.5)
Average high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
7.0
(44.6)
12.1
(53.8)
18.1
(64.6)
23.6
(74.5)
27.3
(81.1)
29.7
(85.5)
29.6
(85.3)
24.4
(75.9)
17.8
(64)
10.0
(50)
5.1
(41.2)
17.4
(63.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
1.2
(34.2)
5.9
(42.6)
11.4
(52.5)
16.8
(62.2)
20.4
(68.7)
22.4
(72.3)
21.7
(71.1)
16.6
(61.9)
10.8
(51.4)
4.8
(40.6)
0.7
(33.3)
11.0
(51.8)
Average low °C (°F) −4.2
(24.4)
−3.4
(25.9)
0.3
(32.5)
4.7
(40.5)
9.5
(49.1)
12.7
(54.9)
14.2
(57.6)
13.9
(57)
9.9
(49.8)
5.4
(41.7)
0.7
(33.3)
−2.9
(26.8)
5.1
(41.2)
Record low °C (°F) −29.0
(−20.2)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−17.5
(0.5)
−6.5
(20.3)
−1.5
(29.3)
1.8
(35.2)
5.0
(41)
4.3
(39.7)
−5.0
(23)
−8.8
(16.2)
−17.4
(0.7)
−22.2
(−8)
−29.0
(−20.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 38.4
(1.51)
39.8
(1.57)
40.6
(1.6)
53.2
(2.09)
52.4
(2.06)
58.1
(2.29)
56.3
(2.22)
43.9
(1.73)
44.3
(1.74)
48.0
(1.89)
52.3
(2.06)
54.0
(2.13)
581.4
(22.89)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11 10 11 12 12 10 8 7 8 9 11 12 122
Average snowy days 8 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 28
Average relative humidity (%) 79 75 71 69 69 68 64 66 71 78 81 82 73
Mean monthly sunshine hours 71.7 92.2 129.3 165.7 223.4 254.1 286.5 266.4 188.0 125.8 72.9 55.9 1,932
Source: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia[4]

Settlements[edit]

Aside from the urban area of Zaječar, the city administrative area includes the following settlements:

Demographics[edit]

Park and monument
Historical population
YearPop.±%
194862,887—    
195364,907+3.2%
196168,616+5.7%
197173,147+6.6%
198176,681+4.8%
199172,763−5.1%
200265,969−9.3%
201159,461−9.9%
Source: [5]

According to the 2011 census, the city of Zaječar has a population of 59,461 inhabitants, while the urban area has 43,165 inhabitants. The city has an urban area of over 97 km².

Ethnic groups[edit]

The ethnic composition of the city:[6]

Ethnic group Population
Serbs 51,291
Vlachs 2,856
Romani 753
Romanians 204
Bulgarians 181
Macedonians 148
Montenegrins 98
Yugoslavs 89
Croats 71
Albanians 40
Muslims 28
Gorani 28
Slovenians 23
Others 3,651
Total 59,461

Economy[edit]

The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[7]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 176
Mining 510
Processing industry 1,872
Distribution of power, gas and water 188
Distribution of water and water waste management 248
Construction 433
Wholesale and retail, repair 2,054
Traffic, storage and communication 647
Hotels and restaurants 374
Media and telecommunications 146
Finance and insurance 224
Property stock and charter 16
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 348
Administrative and other services 182
Administration and social assurance 1,181
Education 1,072
Healthcare and social work 1,323
Art, leisure and recreation 235
Other services 225
Total 11,454

Society and culture[edit]

Sport[edit]

Zaječar hosted 2006 Serbian triathlon championship. The city has two sport-recreation centers, "Popova plaža" and "SRC Kraljevica" home of ŽRK Zaječar, while a third, "Kotlujevac", is under reconstruction.

Theater[edit]

Zaječar is a home of theater "Zoran Radmilović" built 2 February 1947 by the name "Oblasno narodno pozorište". The first play ever performed in the new theater was "Žita cvetaju". Theater is being renamed during its 45th (1992) bithday into "Zoran Radmilović" to celebrate a famous and beloved actor who was born there. Every year, this theater is a home of art festival "Dani Zorana Radmilovića".[8]

ZA*73T[edit]

The Festival of Contemporary Art ZALET (stylised as ZA*73T) organizes manifestations, such as exhibitions, concerts, literary evenings and experimental theater, with innovative and progressive aspects of artistic expressions: performance, art comics, low-fi video, video-art, conceptual art, the synthesis of fine and conceptual arts.

Gitarijada[edit]

Gitarijada (Serbian Cyrillic: Гитаријада, trans. Guitar fest) is a musical festival held during summer in order to promote demo bands. Held since 1969, Gitarijada is one of the longest-lasting festivals in Serbia and in South Eastern Europe. Festival started its life in Zaječar during 1970. Some of notable bands from Serbia such as Bjesovi & Galija were winners on Gitarijada during '80s and '90s. The program of Gitarijada fest has a few parts. Demo battles as a main, performances of famous artists and art exhibitions surrounding themes like rock, blues, metal and similar. So far, Gitarijada has reached its 50th birthday and it is considered to be the biggest rock festival in South Eastern Europe.

Education[edit]

Elementary schools

  • OŠ "Desanka Maksimović"
  • OŠ "Ljuba Nešić"
  • OŠ "Djura Jakšić"
  • OŠ "Ljubica Radosavljević Nada"
  • OŠ "Hajduk Veljko"
  • OŠ "Vladislav Petković Dis"
  • OŠ "Vuk Karadžić"
  • OŠ "Jeremija Ilić Jegor"
  • OŠ "Dositej Obradović"
  • OŠ "15.maj"
  • OŠ "Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj"

High schools

  • Gymnasium (since 1836)
  • Medical Assistant/Nurse high school
  • Technical high school
  • Business Assistant and Accountancy high school
  • Machine technician high school
  • Secondary Music School

University education

The city is the seat of the Megatrend University Faculty of Management; Business School of Management.

Twin cities[edit]

Zaječar is twinned with:

Notable citizens[edit]

The people listed below were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with the city of Zaječar area.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

References
  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  2. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2014-03-30.
  4. ^ "Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1981-2010" (in Serbian). Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
  5. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  6. ^ "ETHNICITY Data by municipalities and cities" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  7. ^ "ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2017" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  8. ^ "Zajecar - Arhiva". "Zoran Radmilovic". Retrieved 2012-11-07.
Sources
  • Слободан Зечевић, ed. (1978). "Зајечар и околина". Гласник Етнографског музеја у Београду књ. 42. GGKEY:G8BU6Z7H2FU.
  • Krstić Dejan (2015). "Zaječar: A view of a provincial and border town in Serbia". Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU. 63 (1): 101–119. doi:10.2298/GEI1501101K (inactive 2018-09-10).

External links[edit]