Западнодвинский район (Russian)
Location of Zapadnodvinsky District in Tver Oblast
|Federal subject||Tver Oblast|
|Administrative structure (as of 2012)|
|Administrative center||town of Zapadnaya Dvina|
|Administrative divisions:|
|Urban settlements (towns)||1|
|Urban settlements (urban-type settlements)||1|
|Inhabited localities:|
|Municipal structure (as of December 2010)|
|Municipally incorporated as||Zapadnodvinsky Municipal District|
|Area||2,816 km2 (1,087 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||16,018 inhabitants|
|Density||5.69/km2 (14.7/sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Zapadnodvinsky District on WikiCommons|
Zapadnodvinsky District (Russian: Западнодви́нский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia. It is located in the west of the oblast and borders with Toropetsky District in the north, Andreapolsky District in the northeast, Nelidovsky District in the east, Zharkovsky District in the southeast, Velizhsky District of Smolensk Oblast in the south, and with Kunyinsky District of Pskov Oblast in the west. The area of the district is 2,816 square kilometers (1,087 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Zapadnaya Dvina. Population: 16,018 (2010 Census); 19,707 (2002 Census); 24,585 (1989 Census). The population of Zapadnaya Dvina accounts for 58.6% of the district's total population.
The whole area in the district belongs to the drainage basin of the Daugava, known in Russia as the Western Dvina. The Westerd Dvina itself crosses the district from the northwest to the southeast, and a stretch of it makes the border to Pskov Oblast. The major tributaries of the Western Dvina within the district are the Velesa (left), the Toropa (right), and the Mezha (left). The Mezha makes the border to Zharkovsky District. 64% of the area of the district is forested.
The Western Dvina was one of the most important Eastern European waterways, and the area of the district was populated since prehistory, as indicated by archaeological evidence. In the beginning of the 14th century, it was included into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and remained there for around 150 years. In the 16th century, it went to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1581, in the course of the Livonian War, it was transferred to Poland, and stayed here until 1678, when the northern part of the area was transferred to Russia. The southern part remained in Poland until the First Partition of Poland in 1772.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the north of the area (the right bank of the Western Dvina) was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off, and in 1772, Pskov Governorate (which between 1777 and 1796 existed as Pskov Viceroyalty) was established. The northern part of the contemporary Zapadnodvinsky District was included into Toropetsky Uyezd of Pskov Governorate. Zapadnaya Dvina was founded in 1900 as a station on the railway connecting Moscow and Riga.
The left bank of the Western Dvina in 1708 was included into Belsky Uyezd of Smolensk Governorate and remained there until 1929, with the exception of the brief periods between 1713 and 1726, when it belonged to Riga Governorate, and between 1775 and 1796, when Smolensk Governorate was transformed into Smolensk Viceroyalty.
The southern part of the area in 1772 was included into newly established Pskov Governorate. In 1777, it was transferred to Polotsk Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished and the area was transferred to Belarus Governorate; since 1802 to Vitebsk Governorate. It belonged to Velizhsky Uyezd. After 1919, Vitebsk Governorate was a part of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. In 1924, Vitebsk Governorate was abolished, and Velizhsky Uyezd was transferred to Pskov Governorate.
On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished, and Oktyabrsky District was established, with the administrative center in the selo of Staraya Toropa. Pskov Governorate was abolished as well, and the district became a part of Velikiye Luki Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. The district center was subsequently moved to the settlement of Zapadnaya Dvina. On June 17, 1929, the district was transferred to Western Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were also abolished and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Oktyabrsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast. In 1937, Zapadnaya Dvina was granted town status. Between September 1941 and January 1942, Oktyabrsky District was occupied by German troops. On August 22, 1944, the district was transferred to newly established Velikiye Luki Oblast. On October 2, 1957, Velikiye Luki Oblast was abolished, and Oktyabrsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast. On February 13, 1963 it was merged with a part of Nelidovsky District to form Zapadnodvinsky District, with the administrative center in Zapadnaya Dvina. In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.
On August 1, 1927 Ilyinsky District with the administrative center located in the selo of Ilyino was established as well. The district was a part of Velikiye Luki Okrug of Leningrad Oblast, and on June 17, 1929 with the rest of the okrug it was transferred to Western Oblast. On January 29, 1935 the district was transferred to Kalinin Oblast, on August 22, 1944 to Velikiye Luki Oblast, and on October 2, 1957 back to Kalinin Oblast. On January 12, 1960 Ilyinsky District was abolished and merged into Oktyabrsky District.
90% of the economy of the district is related to timber production.
The main agricultural specialization of the district is cattle breeding with meat and milk production.
The M9 highway connecting Moscow with Riga also crosses the district, passing just north of Zapadnaya Dvina. Paved roads to Zharkovsky, Ostashkov via Andreapol, and Toropets branch off. There are also local roads with bus traffic originating from Zapadnaya Dvina.
Culture and recreation
The district contains nine cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally fifty-four objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federal monuments are the Saint Saviour Church in the selo of Kochevitsy, the Transfiguration Church in the village of Pesno, the Trinity Church in the selo of Pyatiusovo, the Church of Saint Sergius of Radonezh in the selo of Sopot, as well as two archaeological sites.
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 216», в ред. изменения №275/2015 от 1 сентября 2015 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 216, as amended by the Amendment #275/2015 of September 1, 2015. ).
- The count of urban-type settlements may include the work settlements, the resort settlements, the suburban (dacha) settlements, as well as urban-type settlements proper.
- Law #4-ZO
- Law #24-ZO
- "Западнодвинский район" (in Russian). Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value is only approximate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- "Земля Западнодвинская – манящий край лесов, озёр и рек…" (in Russian). Komsomolskaya Pravda. 31 May 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- "История Западнодвинского района" (in Russian). Zapadnodvinsky District Administration. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Область (местность) (in Russian). Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- Воробьёв, М. В. (1993). Г. В. Туфанова, ed. Административно-территориальное деление Смоленской области (in Russian). Государственный архив Смоленской области. pp. 118–133.
- Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области (in Russian). Архивы России. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- "Западнодвинский район" (in Russian). Литературная карта Тверского края. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
- Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №24-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Западнодвинский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №104-ЗО от 8 декабря 2010 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Западнодвинский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #24-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Zapadnodvinsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #104-ZO of December 8, 2010 On Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Zapadnodvinsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).