Zavala County, Texas
|Named for||Lorenzo de Zavala|
|Largest city||Crystal City|
|• Total||1,302 sq mi (3,370 km2)|
|• Land||1,297 sq mi (3,360 km2)|
|• Water||4.3 sq mi (11 km2) 0.3%|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||9.0/sq mi (3.5/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (Central)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
Zavala County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,677. Its county seat is Crystal City. The county was created in 1858 and later organized in 1884. Zavala is named for Lorenzo de Zavala, Mexican politician, signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, and first vice president of the Republic of Texas.
Radiocarbon assays indicate the county's Tortuga Flat Site was used in the 15th and 16th centuries by Pacuache. Archeologist T. C. Hill of Crystal City conducted excavations in 1972–1973 at the site, uncovering artifacts. More than 100 archeological sites have been identified by researchers of the University of Texas at San Antonio at the Chaparrosa Ranch. Coahuiltecan, Tonkawa, Lipan Apache and Mescalero Apache and Comanche have inhabited the area after the Pacuache.
The Wild Horse Desert
The area between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River, which included Zavala County, became disputed territory known as the Wild Horse Desert, where neither the Republic of Texas nor the Mexican government had clear control. Ownership was in dispute until the Mexican–American War. The area became filled with lawless characters who deterred settlers in the area. An agreement signed between Mexico and the United States in the 1930s put the liability of payments to the descendants of the original land grants on Mexico. According to a list of Spanish and Mexican grants in Texas, Pedro Aguirre owned 51,296 acres in Zavala County, while Antonio Aguirre had 34,552. Seven other people (including two women — Juana Fuentes and Maria Escolastica Diaz) — each had 4,650 acres.
County established and growth
Zavala County was established in 1858 and named for Lorenzo de Zavala, a Mexican colonist and one of the signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence. The county was organized in 1858, with an error putting an additional “L” in the county. The mistake was not corrected until 1929. Batesville became the county seat. Crystal City won a 1928 election to become the new county seat. Grey (Doc) White and the Vivian family settled Cometa around 1867. They were joined by the Ramón Sánchez and Galván families in 1870 and by J. Fisher in 1871. Murlo community was settled about the same time. Ranching dominated the county originally, until overgrazing destroyed the grasslands. Zavala then became the first county in Texas to grow flax commercially. Ike T. La Pryor the largest ranch in the county and advertised the land for farming. The community that sprang up was named La Pryor. Developers E. J. Buckingham and Carl Groos purchased all 96,101 acres (388.91 km2) of the Cross S Ranch in 1905, platted the town of Crystal City, and sold the rest as sections divided into 10-acre (40,000 m2) farms.
Zavala, Dimmitt, Frio, and LaSalle Counties are considered the Winter Garden region of Texas. Irrigation and mild winter climate have made the area ideal for year-round vegetable farming. During the winter of 1917–18, spinach was introduced to Zavala. The first annual Spinach Festival was introduced in 1936, halted during World War II, but resumed in 1982. Cartoonist E. C. Segar, who created the spinach-eating Popeye, received a letter of appreciation from the Winter Garden Chamber of Commerce, thanking him for his support of spinach in the American diet. Segar's written response appeared in two newspapers exhorting children everywhere to enjoy Segar's favorite vegetable. He later approved a 1937 statue of Popeye to be erected in Crystal City, dedicated "To All The Children of the World". Bermuda onions became a major crop. Spinach, sorghum, and cotton were the three biggest crops. The principal crops grown in Zavala County in 1989 were spinach, cotton, pecans, corn, and onions.
The Crystal City, Texas Family Internment Camp began as a migrant labor camp in the 1930s. By the time it closed, it had held German and Japanese combatants and their families, Latin Americans, and at least one Italian Latin American family, as well as German- and Japanese-American families. The 100 acres (0.40 km2) were used for housing and security measures. An additional 190 acres (0.77 km2) were for farming and personnel residences. The first internees, of German ethnicity, arrived on December 12, 1942, and were expected to work on construction, being paid 10 cents an hour. A 70-bed hospital was built in 1943, as was a school for children of the internees. Internees ran nursery schools and kindergartens. From its inception through June 30, 1945, the Crystal City camp held 4,751 internees and had 153 births. The camp closed in 1948.
The Mexican Revolution that began in 1910 resulted in thousands of laborers flowing across the border to cultivate vegetable crops. By 1917 and 1918, Pancho Villa was sending banditos across the Rio Grande. Crystal City organized home guards for protection against Villa's associates. By 1930, Crystal City was overwhelmingly composed of Hispanic Americans. That year, Zavala County had the highest percentage of laborers (1,430 per 100 farms) and the lowest percentage of tenants (33 per 100 farms) of all counties in South Texas. Owner-operators were primarily Anglo, whereas sharecroppers and farm laborers were Hispanic. By the late 1950s, a majority of those graduating from high school in the county were Hispanic American. In 1990, 89.4% of the county population of 12,162 was Hispanic.
Juan Cornejo of the Teamsters Union and the Political Association of Spanish-Speaking Organizations organized the Hispanic population among cannery workers and farm laborers of Crystal City in 1962–63 and succeeded in electing an all-Latino city council. The feat became known as the Crystal City Revolts. The Raza Unida Party was established in 1970 in Crystal City and Zavala County to bring greater self-determination among Tejanos.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,302 square miles (3,370 km2), of which 1,297 square miles (3,360 km2) are land and 4.3 square miles (11 km2) (0.3%) are covered by water.
- Uvalde County (north)
- Frio County (east)
- Dimmit County (south)
- Maverick County (west)
- La Salle County (southeast)
|U.S. Decennial Census|
|Race||Pop 2010||Pop 2020||% 2010||% 2020|
|Black or African American (NH)||35||67||0.3%||0.69%|
|Native American or Alaska Native (NH)||9||21||0.08%||0.22%|
|Pacific Islander (NH)||3||1||0.03%||0.01%|
|Some Other Race (NH)||3||3||0.03%||0.03%|
|Hispanic or Latino||10,961||8,944||93.87%||92.49%|
As of the 2020 United States census, there were 9,670 people, 3,674 households, and 3,039 families residing in the county.
As of the census of 2000, 11,600 people, 3,428 households, and 2,807 families resided in the county. The population density was 9 people per square mile (3/km2). The 4,075 housing units averaged 3 per square mile (1/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 65.06% White, 0.49% African American, 0.59% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 31.08% from other races, and 2.66% from two or more races. About 91.22% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Of the 3,428 households, 43.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 21.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 18.10% were not families. About 16.60% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.28 and the average family size was 3.70.
In the county, the population was distributed as 34.10% under the age of 18, 10.20% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 18.70% from 45 to 64, and 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 97.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.80 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $16,844, and for a family was $19,418. Males had a median income of $22,045 versus $14,416 for females. The per capita income for the county was $10,034. About 37.40% of families and 41.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.90% of those under age 18 and 42.40% of those age 65 or over. The county's per-capita income makes it one of the poorest counties in the United States.
- Crystal City (county seat)
Zavala County, like most of southern Texas, is heavily Democratic. It has given the Democratic candidate over 60% of the vote in every election since 1976 - even in 2020, when Democratic support in southern Texas receded. As of 2020, it is the bluest county in South Texas.
School districts include:
- Crystal City Independent School District
- La Pryor Independent School District
- Uvalde Consolidated Independent School District
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Texas: Individual County Chronologies". Texas Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Tortuga Flat". Texas Beyond History. UT-Austin. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Campbell, Thomas N. "Pacuache Indians". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- "Chaparrosa Ranch". Texas Beyond History. UT-Austin. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Wranker, Ralph. "The South Texas Area". Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Bartlett, Richard C; Williamson, Leroy; Sansom, Andrew; Thornton III, Robert L (1995). "The South Texas Plains". The Wild Horse Desert. University of Texas Press. pp. 123–141. ISBN 978-0-292-70835-8.
- With All Arms, by Carl Laurence Duaine, New Santander Press, Edinberg, TX, 1987
- "Lorenzo de Zavala". Lone Star Junction. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- "Batesville, Texas". Texas Escapes. Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Ochoa, Ruben E. "Cometa, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Ochoa, Ruben E. "Murlo, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Ochoa, Ruben E. "Zavala County". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Ochoa, Ruben E. "La Pryor, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Odintz, Mark. "Crystal City, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Odintz, Mark. "Winter Garden Region". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Mortensen, E. "Spinach Culture". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Usler, Mark (2008). "Crystal City: Spinach Capital of the World". Hometown Declarations – America's Self-Proclaimed World Capitals. DM Enterprises In. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-9786987-1-3.
- Reavis, Dick J (June 1987). "The Importance of Popeye". Texas Monthly: 98, 100.
- Dickerson, James L (2010). "The Konzentrationslager Blues". Inside America's Concentration Camps: Two Centuries of Internment and Torture. Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 145–160. ISBN 978-1-55652-806-4.
- Arreola, Daniel David (2002). "Homeland Forged". Tejano South Texas: A Mexican American Cultural Province. University of Texas Press. pp. 43–63. ISBN 978-0-292-70511-1.
- Acosta, Teresa Paloma. "The Political Association of Spanish-Speaking Organizations". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Acosta, Teresa Paloma. "Crystal City Revolts". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Ruiz, Vicki (2006). Latinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia (Volume 1). Indiana University Press. pp. 367–368. ISBN 978-0-253-34681-0.
- "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
- "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
- https://www.census.gov/[not specific enough to verify]
- "About the Hispanic Population and its Origin". www.census.gov. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
- Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Zavala County, TX" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 30, 2022. - Text list.
- Texas Education Code: Sec. 130.200. SOUTHWEST TEXAS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT SERVICE AREA.
- Zavala County government's website
- Zavala County from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Historic Zavala County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
- "Zavala County Profile" from the Texas Association of Counties