Zawiya, West Bank
|• Also spelled||az-Zawia (official)
|• Type||Municipality (from 1996)|
|• Head of Municipality||Taleb Raddad|
|• Jurisdiction||2,700 dunams (2.7 km2 or 1.0 sq mi)|
|Name meaning||"Corner, hermitage"|
Az-Zawiya (Arabic: الزاويه) is a Palestinian town in the Salfit Governorate in the northern West Bank, located 15 kilometers west of Salfit and 24 kilometers south of Qalqilya. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, az-Zawiya had a population of 4,754 in 2007. The town's population is made up of primarily three families: Shuqeir (45%), Muqadi (30%) and Raddad (20%), while the remaining 5% consists of Palestinian refugee families such as, Shamlawi, Rabi and Yusif.
Zawiya appeared in the 1596 Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Jabal Qubal of the Liwa of Nablus. It had a population of 4 households, all Muslim, and paid taxes on wheat, barley, fruit trees, occasional revenues, goats and beehives. French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village in 1870, and described it as having about 200 inhabitants and a small mosque. In the 1882 Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine, the village was described a being of moderate size, "probably an ancient place, having rock-cut tombs to the south."
British Mandate era
In a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate authorities, Zawiya (called: Zawiyeh) had a population of 396, 2 Christians and the rest Muslims, while in the 1931 census it had 122 occupied houses and a population of 513, all Muslim.
In 1945 the population was 720 while the total land area was 11,516 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 964 were allocated for plantations and irrigable land, 2,055 for cereals, while 41 dunams were classified as built-up areas.
Agriculture is the town's main economic sector with olives, figs, almonds, lentils and wheat being the primary crops. There is over 2,700 dunams of land making up az-Zawiya's jurisdiction, of which 900 is built-up area. Sheep is main livestock grazed in az-Zawiya. There is also small industry such as sewing, carpentry and metal-working and there are over 120 shops in the town. The Second Intifada has drastically decreased revenue from agricultural exports to Israel and Jordan, slashing prices in half.
Az-Zawiya is governed by a municipal council whose members are elected every four years. The town has been a municipality since 1996. Mayor Taleb Raddad (Abu al-Adeeb) has been elected mayor in each local election, serving for three terms. Az-Zawiya has two medical clinics, two boys' schools and two girls' schools. The town will be enclosed on four sides with the completion of the separation barrier forming the az-Zawiya enclave.
Az-Zawiya contains an ancient monastery called Deir Qassis where Byzantine pottery has been found. Deir Qassis was examined in 1870:
First I examined a great birket 28 paces long and 25 broad; it is partly cut in the rock, and partly constructed of great blocks with a boss and covered with thick cement. Before this basin lies a platform covered with little cubes of white mosaic, which shows that it was formerly paved. The group of houses which once stood in this place form a mass of rubbish of all kinds heaped upon the ground. A little mosque is alone standing: its lintel is apparently ancient, but the decorations are Arabic. Above the lintel is a pointed arch, whose principal feature is a broad voussoir furrowed by little canals perpendicular to the curve, like pipes, arranged to resemble a series of very narrow key-stones separated by deep joints. This disposition is met with in a large number of ancient mosques round and above the doors. It is also found in several churches of Palestine, especially that of the Holy Sepulchre and that of Saint Anne, the Christians having borrowed this method of decoration from the Arabs [..] 'At some distance from the mosque there are ancient quarries and several tombs, rock-cut.
In the late 19th century, the following archeological remains were noted: "On a hill west of the village there are some rude tombs; one is an arcosolium, with a loculus sunk beneath. The height of the arch is 4 feet 6 inches, the diameter 8 feet, the tomb within 5 feet 6 inches long, and the arch 5 feet to the back."
- Municipalities Nablus Municipality
- Palmer, 1881, p. 250
- 2007 PCBS Census Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. p. 112.
- Location and population Land Research Center.
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 132.
- Guérin, 1875, p. 145
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 287
- Barron, 1923, Table IX, p. 26
- Mills, 1932, p. 66
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 61
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 108
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 158
- Az Zawiya Village Profile International Women's Peace Service. 2 May 2004.
- Barrier Route
- Az Zawiya: A model for non-violent resistance against the construction of the Segregation Wall, ARIJ, Jerusalem 5 August, 2004.
- Dauphin, 1998, p. 813
- Guérin, 1875, p. 145, as translated in Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 331 ff
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 378
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zawiya, West Bank.|
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922 (PDF). Government of Palestine.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress.
- Finkelstein, Israel; Lederman, Zvi, eds. (1997). Highlands of many cultures. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University Publications Section. ISBN 965-440-007-3. (I pp. 249, 255)
- Guérin, Victor (1875). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 2: Samarie, pt. 2. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas (PDF). Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Welcome To al-Zawiya
- Survey of Western Palestine, Map 14: IAA, Wikimedia commons
- Az Zawiya Town (Fact Sheet), ARIJ
- Az Zawiya Town Profile, ARIJ
- Az Zawiya Areal photo, ARIJ
- Construction works in The Segregation Wall resumed The case of As Sawiya village Salfit governorate, ARIJ, 21, May,2005
- More of Az Zawiya village lands confiscated for the construction of a security road 09, October, 2006